Adobe Inc. is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It has focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format, Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution; as of 2018, Adobe has about 19,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, it has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India The company was started in John Warnock's garage.
The name of the company, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, graphic designer and John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs asked to buy the company for five million dollars in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused, their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company, for which Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing, they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software, created the Adobe PostScript page description language. PostScript was the first international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages.
Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Warnock and Geschke were able to bolster the credibility of Postscript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer, they weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts. By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, licensed it to Microsoft. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh.
Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe entered NASDAQ in August 1986, its revenue has grown from $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably soon dominated the market. In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired Inc.. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line in the year. In the same year, Adobe acquired Compution Inc.. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp.
In 1996, Adobe Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio. On December 12, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Captivate, Adobe Connect, Dreamweaver, Flash, FlashPaper, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. On June 1, Adobe launched a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Production Premium, Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application; the Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.
On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees citing the weak economic environment. On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 emplo
Graphics Environment Manager
GEM was an operating environment created by Digital Research for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors. GEM is known as the graphical user interface for the Atari ST series of computers, was supplied with a series of IBM PC-compatible computers from Amstrad, it was available for the standard IBM PC, at a time when the 6 MHz IBM PC AT was brand new. It was the core for a small number of DOS programs, it was ported to a number of other computers that lacked graphical interfaces, but never gained popularity on those platforms. DRI produced X/GEM for their FlexOS real-time operating system with adaptations for OS/2 Presentation Manager and the X Window System under preparation as well. GEM started life at DRI as a more general-purpose graphics library known as GSX, written by a team led by Don Heiskell. Lee Lorenzen who had left Xerox PARC wrote much of the code. GSX was a DRI-specific implementation of the GKS graphics standard proposed in the late 1970s.
GSX was intended to allow DRI to write graphics programs for any of the platforms CP/M-80, CP/M-86 and MS-DOS would run on, a task that would otherwise require considerable effort to port due to the large differences in graphics hardware between the various systems of that era. GSX consisted of two parts: a selection of routines for common drawing operations, the device drivers that are responsible for handling the actual output; the former was known as GDOS and the latter as GIOS, a play on the division of CP/M into machine-independent BDOS and machine-specific BIOS. GDOS was a selection of routines that handled the GKS drawing, while GIOS used the underlying hardware to produce the output. DDFXLR7 Epson and Epson-compatible printers DDFXLR8 Epson lo-res, 8-bit DDFXHR8 Epson hi-res, 8-bit DD-DMP1 Amstrad DMP1 printer DDSHINWA Printers using Shinwa Industries mechanism DDHP7470 DD7470 Hewlett Packard HP 7470 and compatible pen plotters, HP-GL/2 DDMODE0 Amstrad CPC screen in mode 0 DDMODE1 Amstrad CPC screen in mode 1 DDMODE2 Amstrad CPC screen in mode 2 DDSCREEN Amstrad PCW screen DD7220 Hewlett Packard HP 7220, HP-GL DDGDC DDNCRDMV NEC µPD7220 DDGEN2 Retro-Graphics GEN.
II DDHI3M Houston Instrument HiPlot DMP DDHI7M Houston Instrument HiPlot DMP DDMX80 Epson MX-80 + Graftrax Plus DDVRET VT100 + Retro-Graphics GEN. II DDQX10 QX-10 screen DDCITOH C. Itoh 8510A DDESP Electric Studio Light Pen DDOKI84 Oki Data Microline DDBBC0 BBC Micro screen in mode 0 DDBBC1 BBC Micro screen in mode 1 DDCITOLR C. Itoh 8510A lo-res DDTS803 TeleVideo screen DDANADXM Anadex DP-9501 and DP-9001A DDCITOLR C. Itoh 8510A lo-res DDCNTXM Centronics 351, 352 and 353 DDDS180 Datasouth DDIDSM IDS Monochrome DDLA100 DEC DDLA50 DEC DDOKI84 Oki Data Microline DDPMVP Printronix MVP DD3EPSNL IBM/Epson FX-80 lo-res Printer, see DDFXLR7 and DDFXLR8 DD3EPSNH IBM/Epson FX-80 hi-res Printer, see DDFXHR8 DD75XHM1 Regnecentralen RC759 Piccoline DDNECAPC NEC APC DDGSXM Metafile NCRPC4 NCR DecisionMate V IBMBLMP2 IBMBLMP3 IBM CGA monochrome mode IBMBLCP2 IBMBLCP3 IBM CGA color mode IBMHP743 Hewlett-Packard 7470A/7475A Plotter, see DDHP7470 and DD7470 HERMONP2 IBMHERP3 Hercules monochrome graphics PALETTE Polaroid cameraThe same driver binary may operate under both CP/M-86 and DOS.
GSX evolved into one part of what would be known as GEM, an effort to build a GUI system using the earlier GSX work as its basis. Known as Crystal as a play on an IBM project called Glass, the name was changed to GEM. Under GEM, GSX became GEM VDI, responsible for basic graphics and drawing. VDI added the ability to work with multiple fonts and added a selection of raster drawing commands to the vector-only GKS-based drawing commands. VDI added multiple viewports, a key addition for use with windows. A new module, GEM AES, provided the window management and UI elements, GEM Desktop used both libraries in combination to provide a GUI; the 8086 version of the entire system was first demoed at the 1984 COMDEX, shipped as GEM/1 on 28 February 1985. GEM Desktop 1.0 was released on 28 February 1985. GEM Desktop 1.1 was released in 1985, with support for CGA and EGA displays. A version for the Apricot Computers F-Series, supporting 640×200 in up to 8 colors was available as GEM Desktop 1.2. DRI designed GEM for DOS so that it would check for and only run on IBM computers, not PC compatibles like those from Compaq, as the company hoped to receive license fees from compatible makers.
Developers reacted with what BYTE described as "a small explosion". That month the company removed the restriction. Applications that supported GEM included Lifetree Software's GEM Write. At this point, Apple Computer sued DRI in what would turn into a long dispute over the "look and feel" of the GEM/1 system, an direct copy of Macintosh; this led to DRI being forced to change several basic features of the system. Apple would go on to sue other companies for similar issues, including their copyright lawsuit against Micro
Symantec Corporation is an American software company headquartered in Mountain View, United States. The company provides services. Symantec is a member of the S&P 500 stock-market index; the company has development centers in Pune and Bengaluru. On October 9, 2014, Symantec declared it would split into two independent publicly traded companies by the end of 2015. One company would focus on the other on information management. On January 29, 2016, Symantec sold its information-management subsidiary, named Veritas Technologies to The Carlyle Group; the name "Symantec" is a portmanteau of the words "syntax" and "semantics" with "technology". Founded in 1982 by Gary Hendrix with a National Science Foundation grant, Symantec was focused on artificial intelligence-related projects, including a database program. Hendrix hired several Stanford University natural language processing researchers as the company's first employees, among them Barry Greenstein. Hendrix hired Jerry Kaplan as a consultant to build the in-RAM database for Q&A.
In 1984, it became clear that the advanced natural language and database system that Symantec had developed could not be ported from DEC minicomputers to the PC. This left Symantec without a product, but with expertise in natural language database query systems and technology; as a result in 1984 Symantec was acquired by another, smaller software startup company, C&E Software, founded by Denis Coleman and Gordon Eubanks and headed by Eubanks. C&E Software developed a combined file management and word processing program called Q&A for "question and answer."The merged company retained the name Symantec. Eubanks became its chairman, Vern Raburn, the former President of the original Symantec, remained as President of the combined company; the new Symantec combined the file management and word processing functionality that C&E had planned, added an advanced Natural Language query system that set new standards for ease of database query and report generation. The natural language system was named "The Intelligent Assistant".
Turner chose the name of Q&A for Symantec's flagship product, in large part because the name lent itself to use in a short merchandised logo. Brett Walter designed the user interface of Q&A. Q&A was released in November 1985. During 1986, Vern Raburn and Gordon Eubanks swapped roles, Eubanks became CEO and president of Symantec, while Raburn became its chairman. Subsequent to this change, Raburn had little involvement with Symantec, in a few years time, Eubanks added the Chairmanship to his other roles. After a slow start for sales of Q&A in the fall of 1985 and spring of 1986, Turner signed up a new advertising agency called Elliott/Dickens, embarked on an aggressive new advertising campaign, came up with the "Six Pack Program" in which all Symantec employees, regardless of role, went on the road and selling dealer sales staff nationwide in the United States. Turner named it Six Pack because employees were to work six days a week, see six dealerships per day, train six sales representatives per store and stay with friends free or at Motel 6.
A promotion was run jointly with SofSell. This promotion was successful in encouraging dealers to try Q&A. During this time, Symantec was advised by Jim Lally and John Doerr — both were board members of Symantec at that stage — that if Symantec would cut its expenses and grow revenues enough to achieve cash flow break-even KPCB would back the company in raising more venture capital. To accomplish this, the management team worked out a salary reduction schedule where the chairman and the CEO would take zero pay, all vice presidents would take a 50% pay cut, all other employees' pay was cut by 15%. Two employees were laid off. Eubanks negotiated a sizable rent reduction on the office space the company had leased in the days of the original Symantec; these expense reductions, combined with strong international sales of Q&A, enabled the company to attain break-even. The increased traction for Q&A from this re-launch grew Symantec's revenues along with early success for Q&A in international markets following Turner's having placed emphasis on establishing international sales distribution and multiple language versions of Q&A from initial shipment.
In 1985, Rod Turner negotiated the publishing agreement with David Whitney for Symantec's second product, which Turner named NoteIt. It was evident to Turner that NoteIt would confuse the dealer channel if it was launched under the Symantec name, because Symantec had built up interest by that stage in Q&A, because the low price for the utility would not be attractive to the dealer channel until demand had been built up. Turner felt. Turner and Gordon E. Eubanks, Jr. chairman of Symantec Corporation, agreed to form a new division of Symantec, Eubanks delegated the choice of name to Turner. Turner chose the name Turner Hall Publishing, to be a new division of Symantec devoted to publishing third-party software and ha
DOS is a family of disk operating systems, hence the name. DOS consists of MS-DOS and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS, ROM-DOS, PTS-DOS, FreeDOS. MS-DOS dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, TRSDOS, AmigaDOS. Fictional operating systems have used this acronym as well, such as GLaDOS from the video game Portal. IBM PC DOS and its predecessor, 86-DOS, resembled Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors; when IBM introduced the IBM PC, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, they needed an operating system. Seeking an 8088-compatible build of CP/M, IBM approached Microsoft CEO Bill Gates.
IBM was sent to Digital Research, a meeting was set up. However, the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M broke down. Digital Research founder Gary Kildall refused, IBM withdrew. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. There, programmer Tim Paterson had developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing SCP's new 16-bit Intel 8086 CPU card for the S-100 bus; the system was named QDOS, before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS for $50,000; this became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. Microsoft required the use of the MS-DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant. IBM continued to develop their version, PC DOS, for the IBM PC. Digital Research became aware that an operating system similar to CP/M was being sold by IBM, threatened legal action.
IBM responded by offering an agreement: they would give PC consumers a choice of PC DOS or CP/M-86, Kildall's 8086 version. Side-by-side, CP/M cost $200 more than PC DOS, sales were low. CP/M faded, with MS-DOS and PC DOS becoming the marketed operating system for PCs and PC compatibles. Microsoft sold MS-DOS only to original equipment manufacturers. One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel. Microsoft provided an OEM Adaptation Kit which allowed OEMs to customize the device driver code to their particular system. By the early 1990s, most PCs adhered to IBM PC standards so Microsoft began selling MS-DOS in retail with MS-DOS 5.0. In the mid-1980s Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS; this version of DOS is referred to as "European MS-DOS 4" because it was developed for ICL and licensed to several European companies. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables.
None of these features were used in versions of DOS, but they were used to form the basis of the OS/2 1.0 kernel. This version of DOS is distinct from the released PC DOS 4.0, developed by IBM and based upon DOS 3.3. Digital Research attempted to regain the market lost from CP/M-86 with Concurrent DOS, FlexOS and DOS Plus with Multiuser DOS and DR DOS. Digital Research was bought by Novell, DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. Gordon Letwin wrote in 1995 that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". Microsoft expected; the company planned to over time improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z-8000, LSI-11. IBM, did not want to replace DOS. After AT&T began selling Unix, Microsoft and IBM began developing OS/2 as an alternative; the two companies had a series of disagreements over two successor operating systems to DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
They split development of their DOS systems as a result. The last retail version of MS-DOS was MS-DOS 6.22. The last retail version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, though IBM did develop PC DOS 7.10 for OEMs and internal use. The FreeDOS project began on 26 June 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the COMMAND. COM command line interpreter, core utilities were created by pooling code they had wri
Delrina was a Canadian software company, founded in 1988 and was subsequently acquired by the American software firm Symantec in 1995. The company sold electronic form products, including PerForm and FormFlow, but was best known for its WinFax software package, which enabled computers equipped with fax modems to transmit copies of documents to standalone fax machines or other equipped computers. Delrina produced a set of screensavers, including one that resulted in a well-publicized lawsuit for copyright and trademark infringement; the case set a precedent in American law whereby satiric commercial software products are not subject to the same First Amendment exemptions as parodic cartoons or literature. It sold online communications software with its WinComm product and produced a Web browser called Cyberjack; the firm was sold to Symantec in 1995. After the company was acquired by Symantec, various divisions were sold off and several of Delrina's former executives went on to found venture capital firms.
Delrina was founded in Toronto in 1988 by Zimbabwean expatriate Bert Amato, South African expatriates Mark Skapinker and Dennis Bennie and American Lou Ryan. Delrina was Bennie's third major entrepreneurial start up after co-founding Mission Electronics, a high-end home entertainment equipment producer, Aviva Software, which became Ingram Micro Canada. Delrina's business strategy was to "establish technical and market leadership in niche markets", which it accomplished with its electronic form and PC-based fax software. A year before the firm was incorporated and Skapinker had quit their jobs to start work on an electronic forms product which would become PerForm. Both would meet with Bennie, the co-founder and CEO of Ingram Micro Canada before becoming CEO of Carolian Systems International, a firm that made business software for Hewlett-Packard. Bennie facilitated an initial seed investment of $1.5 million CAD to finance a new start-up company, "Delrina", to develop this idea. In return, Carolian received 51% of Delrina's shares, Dennis Bennie would become Chairman and CEO, Mark Skapinker President, Bert Amato CTO of newly formed Delrina Technology Inc.
Delrina's initial corporate headquarters was located in a small office on Mount Pleasant St in Toronto. A sales office was set up in San Jose, California which became its worldwide sales center run by co-founder Lou Ryan. From its Toronto headquarters, the company expanded by establishing branch offices in Kirkland, Washington. Other offices were established in the United Kingdom and Germany. Delrina's initial product offering was an electronic forms application called PerForm. Amato and Skapinker came up with the idea for the product while working as consultants that what their clients wanted was a way to fill in forms electronically, rather than an easier way to create paper-based forms from a computer. There was significant and long-term uptake of electronic forms products within governmental agencies both in Canada and the United States, the latter spurred on in particular by the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act to reduce the total amount of paperwork handled by the United States government.
One of the firm's early major software deals included a multi-year agreement to sell PerForm to the U. S. Navy in 1990. Soon after the software was installed on Compaq laptops that accompanied U. S. troops during the First Gulf War, where it was used to requisition "everything from Coca-Cola to privies". Other significant volume sales went to Rockwell International. What helped set apart Delrina's electronic forms from its competitors in product reviews included its easy-to-use interface, its extensive development tools, its comparatively low price, it scored when it came to workflow and routing functions as well as security features. In early 1991 InfoWorld selected PerForm Pro as its "Product of the Year" in the electronic forms category, PC World Magazine gave the product it's "Best Buy" designation. PerForm proved to be successful in its niche capturing the retail market by 1993. In the early 1990s Delrina made deals with value-added resellers like NCR and GE Information Services who had the staff to customize the product to the needs of corporate customers looking to move away from paper-based forms.
The forms products sold well and the annual revenues for the firm grew steadily. Despite the growing revenues, the company struggled to make a profit. Heavy expenditures—primarily marketing along with research and development costs—drove the firm's losses from $500,000 from 1989 to $1.5 million by the end of the following fiscal year. For fiscal 1991 it posted a net loss of $1.7 million. Needing an infusion of funds, in April 1991 Bennie managed to raise $7.7 million in a private placement. The firm subsequently sought to find ways to more distribute its electronic form software, with Bennie saying in May 1992 that "we've scratched the surface of our market". In early 1992 word leaked to the press on a possible merger between WordStar International Inc. and soon after both firms made public the fact that they had signed a letter of intent on a merger deal. However, just over a month word came out that the merger talks had fallen through, at the time cited to differences over "complex legal and management issues".
WordStar, whose share of the word processing market had by that time fallen to 5% was seeking Delrina's advanced technologies while Delrina was hoping to utilize the other firm's established global sales network. Despite the failure of the merge