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Form (HTML)

A webform, web form or HTML form on a web page allows a user to enter data, sent to a server for processing. Forms can resemble paper or database forms because web users fill out the forms using checkboxes, radio buttons, or text fields. For example, forms can be used to enter shipping or credit card data to order a product, or can be used to retrieve search results from a search engine. Forms are enclosed in the HTML <form> element. This element specifies the communication endpoint the data entered into the form should be submitted to, the method of submitting the data, GET or POST. Forms can be made up of standard graphical user interface elements: <text> — a simple text box that allows input of a single line of text. <email> - a type of <text> that requires a validated email address <number> - a type of <text> that requires a number <password> — similar to <text>, it is used for security purposes, in which the characters typed in are invisible or replaced by symbols such as *) <radio> — a radio button <file> — a file select control for uploading a file <reset> — a reset button that, when activated, tells the browser to restore the values to their initial values.

<submit> — a button that tells the browser to take action on the form <textarea> — much like the <text> input field except a <textarea> allows for multiple rows of data to be shown and entered <select> — a drop-down list that displays a list of items a user can select fromThe sample image on the right shows most of these elements: a text box asking for your name a pair of radio buttons asking you to pick your sex a select box giving you a list of eye colors to choose from a pair of check boxes to click on if they apply to you a text area to describe your athletic ability a submit button to send it to the serverThese basic elements provide most common graphical user interface elements, but not all. For example, there are no equivalents to a tree grid view. A grid view, can be mimicked by using a standard HTML table with each cell containing a text input element. A tree view could be mimicked through nested tables or, more semantically appropriately, nested lists. In both cases, a server-side process is responsible for processing the information, while JavaScript handles the user-interaction.

Implementations of these interface elements are available through JavaScript libraries such as jQuery. HTML 4 introduced the <label> tag, intended to represent a caption in a user interface, can be associated with a specific form control by specifying the id attribute of the control in the label tag's for attribute. This allows labels to stay with their elements when a window is resized and to allow more desktop-like functionality e.g. clicking a radio button or checkbox's label will activate the associated input element. HTML 5 introduces a number of input tags; some are intended to input and validate specific common data. These include <email> to enter email addresses, <tel> for telephone numbers, <number> for numeric values. There are additional attributes to specify required fields, fields that should have keyboard focus when the web page containing the form is loaded, placeholder text, displayed within the field but is not user input These tasks used to be handled with JavaScript, but had become so common that support for them was added to the standard.

The <date> input type displays a calendar from which the user can select a date range. And the color input type can be represented as an input text checking the value entered is a correct hexadecimal representation of a color, according to the specification, or a color picker widget; when data, entered into HTML forms is submitted, the names and values in the form elements are encoded and sent to the server in an HTTP request message using GET or POST. An email transport was used; the default mime type, Internet media type application/x-www-form-urlencoded, is based on a early version of the general URI percent-encoding rules, with a number of modifications such as newline normalization and replacing spaces with "+" instead of "%20". Another possible encoding, Internet media type multipart/form-data, is available and is common for POST-based file submissions. Forms are combined with programs written in various programming language to allow developers to create dynamic web sites; the most popular languages include both client-side and/or server-side languages.

Although any programming language can be used on the server to process a form's data, the most used languages are scripting languages, which tend to have stronger string handling functionality than programming languages such as C, have automatic memory management which helps to prevent buffer overrun attacks. The de facto client-side scripting language for web sites is JavaScript. Using JavaScript on the Document Object Model leads to the method of Dynamic HTML that allows dynamic creation and modification of a web page within the browser. While client-side languages used in conjunction with forms are limited, they can serve to do pre-validation of the form data and/or to prepare the form data to send to a server-side program; this usage is being replaced, however, by required attribute. Server-side code can do a vast assortment of tasks to create dynamic web sites that, for technical or security reasons, client-side code cannot — from authenticating a login, to retrieving and storing data in a database, to spell checking, to s

Bournemouth Aviation Museum

The Bournemouth Aviation Museum is an aviation museum located next to Bournemouth International Airport, near the village of Hurn in Christchurch. It houses a number of aero engines, cockpits and a double-decker bus. Unusually for such a museum, its policy is to have open cockpits and visitors are encouraged to climb into the cockpits and press knobs, turn dials, pull levers, flick switches, etc. Cockpits open in this manner include the Vulcan and Canberra, it has a flight simulator, free to use, operated from a mock up cockpit. The museum has restored a Boeing 737-200 named'The Spirit of Peter Bath' and has created an exhibition about Sir Peter Bath and his company'Bath Travel' inside the fuselage, it is believed that Bournemouth Aviation Museum is the only museum in Europe to include a 737-200 in its collection. More the museum has taken ownership of the forward fuselage of an ex Empire Test Pilots School BAC 1-11, quite apt considering the aircraft was built only a few hundred metres from where it rests now.

The museum does not possess a hangar, the following aircraft and aero engines are displayed externally: Avro Vulcan - Nose section only BAC 1-11 - Forward Fuselage Only Boeing 737-200 CMC Leopard de Havilland Vampire English Electric Canberra- Nose section only English Electric Lightning - Nose section only Gloster Meteor Grumman AA-5 Tiger Handley Page Victor - Nose section only Hawker Hunter North American Harvard Percival Provost Piper PA-28 Cherokee Radioplane Shelduck SEPECAT Jaguar Vickers Vanguard - Nose section only Vickers Viscount - Nose section only Westland Wasp Westland Wessex Bristol Siddeley Orpheus Daimler-Benz DB 601 Junkers Jumo 211 Rolls-Royce Avon Rolls-Royce Griffon Rolls-Royce Nene Rolls-Royce Viper List of aerospace museums Official website

Punta el Sombrerito

Punta el Sombrerito known as Punta Sombrero, is a small hill overlooks the entrance to the Estero de Mulege and anchorage of the town of Mulege. It was described in 1851, as shaped like a pyramid on a round base like a fort; the hill now has a lighthouse at its apex marking the entrance to the anchorage. During the Mexican American War a battery was mounted on the hill to protect the anchorage from the U. S. Navy; the battery engaged the Schooner Libertad in the Bombardment of Punta Sombrero exchanging fire with it for an hour and a half until it was silenced. However the batteries fire stopped the attack of Libertad on a ship in the anchorage, the USS Libertad withdrew following the end of the engagement

Song of the Swallows

Song of the Swallows is a book by Leo Politi. Published by Scribner, it was the recipient of the Caldecott Medal for illustration in 1950; the book tells the story of Juan who lives in an adobe house, located near Mission San Juan Capistrano. It isn't too far from the school. In fact, Juan is good friends with Julian who's an old bell ringer and a gardener that isn't sure about the swallows' migration to a peaceful island in the summer. Julian explains to Juan how this beautiful mission was founded by Saint Francis and his brothers Father Junipero Serra, he explains to the Spanish lad how unsure he is about the swallow family's migration. Juan and Julian love the swallows AKA las golondrinas much and doesn't want them to leave Mission San Juan Capistrano, he and his friend feed tiny pieces of bread. Plenty of birds appear in the garden including hummingbirds, white doves and swallows. In the spring, he plants a garden on his vacation time. There's nothing more exciting to see the family of swallows nesting in the protagnoist's own garden.

One of the children tells the other the amazing journey the swallows make all the way from South America to spend the summer in California during St. Joseph's Day to watch a family of swallows migrate far away from San Juan Capistrano to a peaceful island. On Saint Joseph's Day, Juan's dream comes true which gets to the point where Juan and Julian alert everyone in the village by ringing the bells of Mission San Juan Capistrano together; the swallow family gets to nest in the arches of the mission. One day, a baby swallow falls out of the nest and Juan witnesses the shock of the situation with his feathered friends. His/her parents don't reject the chick at all. Everyone gets ready for Saint Joseph's Day by dressing up and celebrating before summer arrives in the village. Juan sings "Las Golondrinas" before he plants his own garden for the swallows to nest at during his vacation time. On Saint Joseph's Day, the children sing "The Swallow Song" together while they join Juan in the garden. Juan returns to his adobe house and observes the migration of the swallows who nested in his garden on a rose bush that appears near Mission San Juan Capistrano.

They'll always come back to Mission San Juan Capistrano in the spring though he gets to hear Julian sing the swallow song that the children sang on Saint Joseph's Day

Chemical equation

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side. The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers; the first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin in 1615. A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants and the chemical formula of the products; the two are separated by an arrow symbol and each individual substance's chemical formula is separated from others by a plus sign. As an example, the equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium can be denoted: 2 HCl + 2 Na → 2 NaCl + H2This equation would be read as "two HCl plus two Na yields two NaCl and H two." But, for equations involving complex chemicals, rather than reading the letter and its subscript, the chemical formulas are read using IUPAC nomenclature. Using IUPAC nomenclature, this equation would be read as "hydrochloric acid plus sodium yields sodium chloride and hydrogen gas."

This equation indicates that sodium and HCl react to form NaCl and H2. It indicates that two sodium molecules are required for every two hydrochloric acid molecules and the reaction will form two sodium chloride molecules and one diatomic molecule of hydrogen gas molecule for every two hydrochloric acid and two sodium molecules that react; the stoichiometric coefficients result from the law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of charge. Symbols are used to differentiate between different types of reactions. To denote the type of reaction: " = " symbol is used to denote a stoichiometric relation. " → " symbol is used to denote a net forward reaction. " ⇄ " symbol is used to denote a reaction in both directions. " ↽ − − ⇀ " symbol is used to denote an equilibrium. The physical state of chemicals is very stated in parentheses after the chemical symbol for ionic reactions; when stating physical state, denotes a solid, denotes a liquid, denotes a gas and denotes an aqueous solution. If the reaction requires energy, it is indicated above the arrow.

A capital Greek letter delta is put on the reaction arrow to show that energy in the form of heat is added to the reaction. The expression h ν is used as a symbol for the addition of energy in the form of light. Other symbols are used for other specific types of radiation; the law of conservation of mass dictates that the quantity of each element does not change in a chemical reaction. Thus, each side of the chemical equation must represent the same quantity of any particular element; the charge is conserved in a chemical reaction. Therefore, the same charge must be present on both sides of the balanced equation. One balances a chemical equation by changing the scalar number for each chemical formula. Simple chemical equations can be balanced by inspection, that is, by error. Another technique involves solving a system of linear equations. Balanced equations are written with smallest whole-number coefficients. If there is no coefficient before a chemical formula, the coefficient is 1; the method of inspection can be outlined as putting a coefficient of 1 in front of the most complex chemical formula and putting the other coefficients before everything else such that both sides of the arrows have the same number of each atom.

If any fractional coefficient exists, multiply every coefficient with the smallest number required to make them whole the denominator of the fractional coefficient for a reaction with a single fractional coefficient. As an example, seen in the above image, the burning of methane would be balanced by putting a coefficient of 1 before the CH4: 1 CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2OSince there is one carbon on each side of the arrow, the first atom is balanced. Looking at the next atom, the right-hand side has two atoms. To balance the hydrogens, 2 goes in front of the H2O, which yields: 1 CH4 + O2 → CO2 + 2 H2OInspection of the last atom to be balanced shows that the right-hand side has four atoms, while the left-hand side has two, it can be balanced by putting a 2 before O2, giving the balanced equation: CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2OThis equation does not have any coefficients in front of CH4 and CO2, since a coefficient of 1 is dropped. Any chemical equation involving J different molecules can be written as: ∑ j = 1 J ν j R j = 0 where Rj is the symbol for the j-th molecule, νj is the stoichiometric coefficient for the j-th molecule, positive for products, negative for reactants.

A properly balanced chemical equation will obey: ∑ j = 1 J a i j ν j = 0 where the composition matrix aij is the number of atoms of element i in molecule j. Any vector which, when operated upon by the composition matrix y

Karol Ferdynand Vasa

Prince Charles Ferdinand Vasa, was a Polish nobleman, priest, Bishop of Wrocław from 1625, bishop of Płock from 1640 and Duke of Opole from 1648 to 1655. Charles Ferdinand was the fourth son of King Sigismund III Vasa and his wife Constance of Austria and the brother of John Casimir, John Albert, Alexander Charles and Anna Catherine Constance. Charles Ferdinand spent his childhood and youth in the care of his mother at the royal court in Warsaw. On March 23, 1624, he received from Pope Urban VIII dispensation, allowing him to take the dignity of being a canon in Wrocław. In this case, cardinal-protector Cosmo de Torres intervened with the pope. On May 3, 1625, through the political efforts of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, he was appointed the Bishop of Wrocław. On October 22, 1625 he received papal approval for the post. On January 18, 1626, despite being a minor and not having a proper ordination ceremony he was installed as bishop. After the death of his mother in 1631, together with his brother John Casimir he inherited the wealthy city of Żywiec in Lesser Poland.

During the reign of Władysław IV, Charles Ferdinand resided in Warsaw. Being a close relative of the royal court, however, he was not interested in politics and had no ambition to acquire the secular authorities. Between 1632 and 1648 he devoted his time to administrative work, financial affairs and accumulation of ecclesiastical benefice. In 1640 he was appointed the Bishop of Płock. After his coming of age, Charles Ferdinand decided never to accept the ordination of priesthood and gave the control of the Archdiocese of Wrocław to other influential bishops and priests that would be in charge like Bishop John von Balthasar Liesch Hornau and Archdeacon Peter Gebauer. With the Archdiocese of Płock, he gave control over the sect to Stanisław Starczewski and Wojciech Tolibowski After the death of King Władysław IV Vasa in 1648, he was a candidate to the Polish throne, together with his brother John Casimir whom he supported, he has launched a tough policy and decisive steps to quell the civil war in Polish occupied Ruthenia and Ukraine.

He received the support of two-thirds majority of bishops in the Polish Sejm. Most notably he was supported by the Ruthenian nobles led by Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, his policies were opposed by the Protestants, Lutherans and by the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which feared the tightening of the Counter-Reformation. At the forefront of opposition to Charles Ferdinand Vasa stood Janusz Radziwiłł and his brother Bogusław Radziwiłł, who threatened to break the Polish-Lithuanian union. After losing the election, Charles Ferdinand received, from his brother and newly elected king, the Duchy of Opole and Racibórz, he retired from public life. He settled on the estates of the bishops in Mazovia, his main residence was a large renaissance castle in Brok. In 1651, he took care of the orphaned and deprived of estates in Ruthenia, Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki. Vasa financed his travels abroad and provided thorough education and studies in the best schools of Europe. Charles Ferdinand Vasa died on May 1655 in Wyszków.

He was buried in the Jesuit Church in Warsaw. Charles Ferdinand Vasa left a huge fortune and the majority of it was spent on various foundations of churches in the country; the rest was inherited by his brother John II Casimir. Money and estates inherited from the king's brother helped to finance the troops and the military during the Polish-Swedish War, the Duchy of Silesia provided the king with shelter when he had to flee Poland in 1655. Charles Ferdinand was a great patron of supporter of the Society of Jesus. In the 1640s, royal architect, Giovanni Battista Gisleni built for him a palace situated on the northern bastion of the Warsaw Royal Castle fortifications, it was ransacked and destroyed by Swedes and Germans of Brandenburg in 1650s, during the Deluge. He had a large wooden palace in Wyszków. Płock Cathedral Nysa Portrait of Charles Ferdinand Vasa