In visual arts and other mediums, minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements. Minimalism began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s, prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It derives from the reductive aspects of modernism and is interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism. Minimalism in music often features repetition and iteration such as those of the compositions of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, the term minimalist often colloquially refers to anything that is spare or stripped to its essentials. It has accordingly been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe a 1913 composition by the Russian painter Kasimir Malevich of a square on a white ground.
Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, in the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called minimal art emerged. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi. Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article. They very explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, in general, minimalisms features included geometric, often cubic forms purged of much metaphor, equality of parts, neutral surfaces, and industrial materials. Robert Morris, a theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, Notes on Sculpture 1-3, originally published across three issues of Artforum in 1966.
In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and these essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt - parts. Bound together in such a way that create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation. Morris described an art represented by a marked lateral spread, the general shift in theory of which this essay is an expression suggests the transition into what would be referred to as postminimalism. Stellas decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, in the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes, there is nothing else in his painting. Because of a tendency in art to exclude the pictorial and fictive in favor of the literal, there was a movement away from painterly
It is a descriptive term characterizing a type of abstract painting related to Abstract Expressionism, in use since the 1940s. Many well known abstract expressionist painters like Arshile Gorky seen in context have been characterized as doing a type of painting described as lyrical abstraction, whose works related to characteristics of contemporary American abstract expressionism. The art movement Abstraction lyrique was born in Paris after the war, at that time, the artistic life in Paris, which had been devastated by the Occupation and Collaboration, resumed with numerous artists exhibited again as soon as the Liberation of Paris in mid-1944. According to the new forms that characterised some artists, the movement was named by the art critic, Jean José Marchand. Some art critics looked at this movement as an attempt to restore the image of artistic Paris, Lyrical abstraction was opposed not only to the Cubist and Surrealist movements that preceded it, but to geometric abstraction. Lyrical abstraction was, in ways, the first to apply the lessons of Kandinsky.
For the artists, lyrical abstraction represented an opening to personal expression. S. A, Lyrical Abstraction was opposed not only to l’Ecole de Paris remains of pre-war style but to Cubist and Surrealist movements that had preceded it, and to geometric abstraction. Lyrical Abstraction was in ways the first to apply the lessons of Kandinsky. For the artists in France, Lyrical Abstraction represented an opening to personal expression, in Belgium, Louis Van Lint figured a remarkable example of an artist who, after a short period of geometric abstraction, has moved to a lyrical abstraction in which he excelled. At the Drouin gallery one could see Jean Le Moal, Gustave Singier, Alfred Manessier, Roger Bissière, Wols and others. In March 1951 was held the larger exhibition Véhémences confrontées in the gallery Nina Dausset where for the first time were presented side to side French and it was organised by the critic Michel Tapié, whose role in the defense of this movement was of the highest importance.
With these events, he déclared that « the lyrical abstraction is born » and it was, however, a fairly short reign, which was quickly supplanted by the New realism of Pierre Restany and Yves Klein. Starting around 1970, this movement has been revived by a new generation of artists born during or immediately after the Second World War, some of its key promoters include Paul Kallos, Georges Romathier, Michelle Desterac, and Thibaut de Reimpré. American Lyrical Abstraction is an art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, characterized by intuitive and loose paint handling, spontaneous expression, illusionist space, acrylic staining, occasional imagery, and other painterly and newer technological techniques. Lyrical Abstraction led the way away from minimalism in painting and toward a new freer expressionism, many of them had been Minimalists, working with various monochromatic, geometric styles, and whose paintings publicly evolved into new abstract painterly motifs.
American Lyrical Abstraction is related in spirit to Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Tachisme refers to the French style of abstract painting current in the 1945–1960 period. Very close to Art Informel, it presents the European equivalent to Abstract Expressionism, the Sheldon Museum of Art held an exhibition from 1 June until 29 August 1993 entitled Lyrical Abstraction and Mood. Many artists began moving away from geometric, hard-edge, and minimal styles, toward more lyrical and these lyrical abstractionists sought to expand the boundaries of abstract painting, and to revive and reinvigorate a painterly tradition in American art
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is considered a central figure in modern philosophy. Kant took himself to have effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy and his beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics, ethics, political theory, and aesthetics. Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that peace could be secured through universal democracy. He believed that this will be the outcome of universal history. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause, Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia.
His mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. His father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, Immanuel Kant believed that his paternal grandfather Hans Kant was of Scottish origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children, baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew. Young Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student and he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, and a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, and focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics, despite his religious upbringing and maintaining a belief in God, Kant was skeptical of religion in life, various commentators have labelled him agnostic. Common myths about Kants personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwaits introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. It is often held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life.
He never married, but seemed to have a social life — he was a popular teacher. He had a circle of friends whom he met, among them Joseph Green. A common myth is that Kant never traveled more than 16 kilometres from Königsberg his whole life, in fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Judtschen and in Groß-Arnsdorf
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Op art, short for optical art, is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions. Op art works are abstract, with better known pieces created in black. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images and vibrating patterns, the antecedents of Op art, in terms of graphic and color effects, can be traced back to Neo-impressionism, Futurism and Dada. Time Magazine coined the term op art in 1964, in response to Julian Stanczaks show Optical Paintings at the Martha Jackson Gallery, works now described as op art had been produced for several years before Times 1964 article. For instance, Victor Vasarelys painting Zebras is made up entirely of curvilinear black, the stripes appear to both meld into and burst forth from the surrounding background. Martin Gardner featured Op Art and its relation to mathematics in his July 1965 Mathematical Games column in Scientific American, in Italy, Franco Grignani, who originally trained as an architect, became a leading force of graphic design where Op Art or Kenetic Art was central.
His Woolmark Logo is probably the most famous of all his designs, Op art perhaps more closely derives from the constructivist practices of the Bauhaus. This German school, founded by Walter Gropius, stressed the relationship of form and function within a framework of analysis, students learned to focus on the overall design or entire composition to present unified works. Op art stems from Trompe-lœil and Anamorphosis, links with psychological research have been made, particularly with Gestalt theory and Psychophysiology. When the Bauhaus was forced to close in 1933, many of its instructors fled to the United States, the movement took root in Chicago and eventually at the Black Mountain College in Asheville, North Carolina, where Anni and Josef Albers eventually taught. The expression Kinetic art in modern form first appeared at the Museum für Gestaltung of Zürich in 1960. Some members of the group Nouvelle tendance in Europe were engaged in Op art as Almir Mavignier and Gerhard von Graevenitz, the term Op irritated many of the artists labeled under it, specifically including Albers and Stanczak.
They had discussed upon the birth of the term a better label, from 1964, Arnold Schmidt had several solo exhibitions of his large and white shaped optical paintings exhibited at the Terrain Gallery in New York. The exhibition focused on the aspects of art, which result both from the illusion of movement and the interaction of color relationships. The exhibition was enormously popular with the public, though less so with the critics. Critics dismissed op art as portraying nothing more than trompe-lœil, or tricks that fool the eye, regardless, op arts popularity with the public increased, and op art images were used in a number of commercial contexts. One of Brian de Palmas early works was a film on the exhibition. Riley tried to sue an American company, without success, for using one of her paintings as the basis of a fabric design, Op art is a perceptual experience related to how vision functions
Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of geometric forms sometimes, though not always, placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. Although the genre was popularized by artists in the early twentieth century. Geometric abstraction is present among many cultures throughout history both as decorative motifs and as art pieces themselves, wassily Kandinsky, one of the forerunners of pure non-objective painting, was among the first modern artists to explore this geometric approach in his abstract work. Other examples of pioneer abstractionists such as Kasimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian have embraced this approach towards abstract painting,10, 1939–1942, characterized by primary colors, white ground and black grid lines clearly defined his radical but classical approach to the rectangle. Just as there are both two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries, the sculpture of the 20th century was of course no less affected than painting by geometricizing tendencies
Composition (visual arts)
In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art, as distinct from the subject. It can be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art, the composition of a picture is different from its subject, which what is shown, whether a moment from a story, a person or a place. Many subjects, for example Saint George and the Dragon, are shown in art. The term composition means putting together and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, that is arranged using conscious thought. In the visual arts, composition is used interchangeably with various terms such as design, visual ordering, or formal structure. In graphic design for press and desktop publishing, composition is referred to as page layout. The various visual elements, known as elements of design, formal elements and these elements in the overall design usually relate to each other and to the whole art work. The optical illusion of lines do exist in nature and visual elements can be arranged to create this illusion.
The viewer unconsciously reads near continuous arrangement of different elements and subjects at varying distances, such elements can be of dramatic use in the composition of the image. These could be literal lines such as telephone and power cables or rigging on boats, lines can derive from the borders of areas of differing color or contrast, or sequences of discrete elements. Movement is a source of line, and blur can create a reaction, subject lines contribute to both mood and linear perspective, giving the viewer the illusion of depth. Oblique lines convey a sense of movement and angular lines generally convey a sense of dynamism, lines can direct attention towards the main subject of picture, or contribute to organization by dividing it into compartments. The artist may exaggerate or create lines perhaps as part of their message to the viewer, many lines without a clear subject point suggest chaos in the image and may conflict with the mood the artist is trying to evoke. Straight left lines create different moods and add affection to visual arts, a lines angle and its relationship to the size of the frame influence the mood of the image.
Horizontal lines, commonly found in landscape photography, can give the impression of calm, tranquility, an image filled with strong vertical lines tends to have the impression of height and grandeur. Tightly angled convergent lines give a dynamic and active effect to the image, strongly angled, almost diagonal lines produce tension in the image. The viewpoint of visual art is important because every different perspective views different angled lines. This change of perspective elicits a different response to the image, by changing the perspective only by some degrees or some centimetres lines in images can change tremendously and a totally different feeling can be transported
Hard-edge painting is painting in which abrupt transitions are found between color areas. Color areas are often of one unvarying color, the Hard-edge painting style is related to Geometric abstraction, Op Art, Post-painterly Abstraction, and Color Field painting. This approach to painting became widespread in the 1960s, though California was its creative center. Other, movements, or styles have contained the quality of hard-edgedness, Hard-edge can be seen to be associated with one or more school of painting, but is a generally descriptive term, for these qualities found in any painting. Hard-edged painting can be figurative or nonrepresentational. The group of seven gathered at the Feitelsons home to discuss a group exhibition of this painting style. Curated by Langsner, Four Abstract Classicists opened at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1959, Helen Lundeberg was not included in the exhibit. These painters were featured in an exhibition during 2008 called The Birth of the Cool in California museums along with midcentury design, music.
Four Abstract Classicists was subtitled California Hard-edge by British art critic and this was called, California Hard-edge painting. In 2000, Tobey C. Moss curated Four Abstract Classicists Plus One at her gallery in Los Angeles, the exhibit again featured John McLaughlin, Feitelson and Benjamin, and added Lundeberg as the fifth of the original Hard-edge painters. In 2003, Louis Stern Fine Arts showed an exhibition for Lorser Feitelson entitled Lorser Feitelson. The same year, NOHO MODERN showed the works of June Harwood in an exhibition entitled June Harwood, Hard-edge painting Revisited, 1959-1969. Art critic Dave Hickey solidified the place of these 6 artists in, The Los Angeles School, Karl Benjamin, Lorser Feitelson, Frederick Hammersley, June Harwood, Helen Lundeberg, and John McLaughlin. The exhibition was held at the Ben Maltz Gallery of the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles in 2004-2005 and this style of hard-edge geometric abstraction recalls the earlier work of Kasimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Theo van Doesburg, and Piet Mondrian.
Kirchberger, Alexander Liberman, Agnes Martin, George L. K, Four Abstract Classicists Plus One exhibition catalogue, Nittve, et al. Sunshine & Noir, Art in LA 1960-1997, guggenheim collection online Hard-edge Painting - Art Movement and Style Overview on Art Story Foundation British artist Robyn Denny
Albers was born into a Roman Catholic family of craftsmen in Bottrop, Germany. He worked from 1908 to 1913 as a schoolteacher in his town, he trained as an art teacher at Königliche Kunstschule in Berlin, Germany. From 1916 to 1919 he began his work as a printmaker at the Kunstgewerbschule in Essen, in 1918 he received his first public commission, Rosa mystica ora pro nobis, a stained-glass window for a church in Essen. In 1919 he went to Munich, Germany, to study at the Königliche Bayerische Akademie der Bildenden Kunst, Albers enrolled as a student in the preliminary course of Johannes Itten at the Weimar Bauhaus in 1920. In 1925, Albers was promoted to professor, the year the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, at this time, he married Anni Albers who was a student there. His work in Dessau included designing furniture and working with glass, as a younger art teacher, he was teaching at the Bauhaus among artists who included Oskar Schlemmer, Wassily Kandinsky, and Paul Klee. The so-called form master, Klee taught the formal aspects in the workshops where Albers was the crafts master.
With the closure of the Bauhaus under Nazi pressure in 1933 the artists dispersed, Albers emigrated to the United States. The architect Philip Johnson, a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, arranged for Albers to be offered a job as head of a new art school, Black Mountain College, in North Carolina. In November 1933, he joined the faculty of the college where he was the head of the program until 1949. At Black Mountain, his students included Ruth Asawa, Ray Johnson, Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly and he invited important American artists such as Willem de Kooning, to teach in the summer seminar. Albers produced many woodcuts and leaf studies at this time, in 1950, Albers left Black Mountain to head the department of design at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. While at Yale, Albers worked to expand the nascent graphic design program, hiring designers Alvin Eisenman, Herbert Matter, Albers worked at Yale until he retired from teaching in 1958. At Yale, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Eva Hesse, Neil Welliver, in 1962, as a fellow at Yale, he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for an exhibit and lecture on his work.
Albers collaborated with Yale professor and architect King-lui Wu in creating designs for some of Wus projects. Among these were distinctive geometric fireplaces for the Rouse and DuPont houses, the façade of Manuscript Society, one of Yales secret senior groups, also, at this time he worked on his structural constellation pieces. In 1963, he published Interaction of Color which presented his theory that colors were governed by an internal, the very rare first edition has a limited printing of only 2,000 copies and contained 150 silk screen plates. This work has been republished since and is now available as a cell phone app