In association football, the formation describes how the players in a team position themselves on the pitch. Association football is a fluid and fast-moving game, a player's position in a formation does not define their role as rigidly as for, for instance, a rugby player, nor are there episodes in play where players must expressly line up in formation. A player's position in a formation defines whether a player has a defensive or attacking role, whether they tend to play towards one side of the pitch or centrally. Formations are described by three or four numbers, which denote how many players are in each row of the formation from the most defensive to the most forward. For example, the popular "4–5–1" formation has four defenders, five midfielders, a single forward. Different formations can be used depending on whether a team wishes to play more attacking or defensive football, a team may switch formations between or during games for tactical reasons; the choice of formation is made by a team's manager or head coach.
Skill and discipline on the part of the players is needed to implement a given formation in professional football. Formations need to be chosen bearing in mind; some formations were created to address strengths in different types of players. In the early days of football, most team members would play in attacking roles, whereas modern formations always have more defenders than forwards. Formations are described by categorising the players according to their positioning along the pitch, with the more defensive players given first. For example, 4–4–2 means four defenders, four midfielders, two forwards. Traditionally, those within the same category would play as a flat line across the pitch, with those out wide playing in a more advanced position. In many modern formations, this is not the case, which has led to some analysts splitting the categories in two separate bands, leading to four- or five-numbered formations. A common example is 4–2–1–3, where the midfielders are split into two defensive and one offensive player.
An example of a five-numbered formation would be 4–1–2–1–2, where the midfield consists of a defensive midfielder, two central midfielders and an offensive midfielder. The numbering system was not present; the choice of formation is related to the type of players available to the coach. Narrow formations. Teams with a surfeit of central midfielders, or teams who attack best through the centre, may choose to adopt narrow formations such as the 4–1–2–1–2 or the 4–3–2–1 which allow teams to field up to four or five central midfielders in the team. Narrow formations, depend on the full-backs to provide width and to advance upfield as as possible to supplement the attack in wide areas. Wide formations. Teams with a surfeit of forwards and wingers may choose to adopt formations such as 4–2–3–1, 3–5–2 and 4–3–3, which commit forwards and wingers high up the pitch. Wide formations allow the attacking team to stretch play and cause the defending team to cover more ground. Teams may change formations during a game to aid their cause: Change to attacking formations.
When chasing a game for a desirable result, teams tend to sacrifice a defensive player or a midfield player for a forward in order to chase a result. An example of such a change is a change from 4–5–1 to 4–4–2, 3–5–2 to 3–4–3, or 5–3–2 to 4–3–3. Change to defensive formations; when a team is in the lead, or wishes to protect the scoreline of a game, the coach may choose to revert to a more defensive structure by removing a forward for a more defensive player. The extra player in defence or midfield adds solidity by giving the team more legs to chase opponents and recover possession. An example of such a change is a change from 4–4–2 to 5–3–2, 3–5–2 to 4–5–1, or 4–4–2 to 5–4–1. Formations can be deceptive in analysing a particular team's style of play. For instance, a team that plays a nominally attacking 4–3–3 formation can revert to a 4–5–1 if a coach instructs two of the three forwards to track back in midfield. In the football matches of the 19th century, defensive football was not played, the line-ups reflected the all-attacking nature of these games.
In the first international game, Scotland against England on 30 November 1872, England played with seven or eight forwards in a 1–1–8 or 1–2–7 formation, Scotland with six, in a 2–2–6 formation. For England, one player would remain in defence, picking up loose balls, one or two players would hang around midfield and kick the ball upfield for the other players to chase; the English style of play at the time was all about individual excellence and English players were renowned for their dribbling skills. Players would attempt to take the ball forward as far as possible and only when they could proceed no further, would they kick it ahead for someone else to chase. Scotland surprised England by passing the ball among players; the Scottish outfield players were organised into pairs and each player would always attempt to pass the ball to his assigned partner. With so much attention given to attacking play, the game ended in a 0–0 draw; the first long-term successful formation was first recorded in 1880.
In Association Football, published by Caxton in 1960, the following
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The Koshi or Kosi River drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. From a major confluence of tributaries north of the Chatra Gorge onwards, the Koshi River is known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries; these include the Tamor River originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east and Arun River and Sun Koshi from Tibet. The Sun Koshi's tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamakoshi River, Likhu Khola and Indravati; the Saptakoshi crosses into northern Bihar where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district. The Koshi is 720 km long and drains an area of about 74,500 km2 in Tibet and Bihar. In the past, several authors proposed that the river has shifted its course for more than 133 km from east to west during the last 200 years, but a review of 28 historical maps dating 1760 to 1960 revealed a slight eastward shift for a long duration, that the shifting was random and oscillating in nature.
The river basin is surrounded by ridges which separate it from the Yarlung Tsangpo River in the north, the Gandaki in the west and the Mahananda in the east. The river is joined by major tributaries in the Mahabharat Range 48 km north of the Indo-Nepal border. Below the Siwaliks, the river has built up a megafan some 15,000 km2 in extent, breaking into more than 12 distinct channels, all with shifting courses due to flooding. Kamalā, Bāgmati and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries such as Bhutahi Balān, its unstable nature has been attributed to the heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season and flooding in India has extreme effects. Fishing is an important enterprise on the river but fishing resources are being depleted and youth are leaving for other areas of work; the Koshi River catchment covers six geological and climatic belts varying in altitude from above 8,000 m to 95 m comprising the Tibetan plateau, the Himalayas, the Himalayan mid-hill belt, the Mahabharat Range, the Siwalik Hills and the Terai.
The Dudh-Koshi sub-basin alone consists of 296 glacier lakes. The Koshi River basin borders the Tsangpo River basin in the north, the Mahananda River basin in the east, the Ganges Basin in the south and the Gandaki River basin in the west; the eight tributaries of the basin upstream the Chatra Gorge include from east to west: Tamur River with an area of 6,053 km2 in eastern Nepal. The three major tributaries meet at Triveni, from where they are called Sapta Koshi meaning Seven Rivers. After flowing through the Chatra Gorge the Sapta Koshi is controlled by the Koshi Barrage before it drains into the Gangetic plain. Peaks located in the basin include Mount Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu and Shishapangma; the Bagmati river sub-basin forms the south-western portion of the overall Koshi basin. The Dudh Koshi joins the Sun Koshi near the Nepalese village of Harkapur. At Barāhkṣetra in Nepal it becomes the Koshi. After flowing another 58 km it crosses into Bihar, near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km joins the Ganges near Kursela.
The Koshi alluvial fan is one of the largest in the world. It shows evidence of lateral channel shifting exceeding 120 km during the past 250 years, via at least twelve major channels; the river, which flowed near Purnea in the 18th century, now flows west of Saharsa. A satellite image shows old channels with a confluence before 1731 with the Mahananda River north of Lava; the Koshi River is known as the "Sorrow of Bihar" as the annual floods affect about 21,000 km2 of fertile agricultural lands thereby disturbing the rural economy. The Koshi has an average water flow of 2,166 cubic metres per second. During floods, it increases to as much as 18 times the average; the greatest recorded flood was 24,200 m3/s on 24 August 1954. The Koshi Barrage has been designed for a peak flood of 27,014 m3/s. Extensive soil erosion and landslides in its upper catchment have produced a silt yield of about 19 m3/ha/year, one of the highest in the world. Of major tributaries, the Arun brings the greatest amount of coarse silt in proportion to its total sediment load.
The river transports sediment down the steep gradients and narrow gorges in the mountains and foothills where the gradient is at least ten metres per km. On the plains beyond Chatra, the gradient falls below one metre per km to as little as 6 cm per km as the river approaches the Ganges. Current slows and the sediment load settles out of the water and is deposited on an immense alluvial fan that has grown to an area of about 15 000 km2; this fan extends some 180 km from its apex where it leaves the foothills, across the international border into Bihar state and on to the Ganges. The river has numerous interlacing channels. Without channelisation, floods spread out widely; the record flow of 24 200 m3/s is equivalent to water a metre deep and more than 24 km wide, flowing at one metre per second. The Koshi's alluvial fan has fertile soil and abundant groundwater in a part of the world where agricultural land is in great demand. Subsistence farmers balance the threat of starvation with that of floods.
As a result, the flood-prone area is densely populated and subject to heavy l