The Tōhoku region, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. This traditional region consists of six prefectures: Akita, Fukushima, Iwate and Yamagata. Tōhoku retains a reputation as a scenic region with a harsh climate. In the 20th century, tourism became a major industry in the Tōhoku region. In mythological times, the area was known as Azuma and corresponded to the area of Honshu occupied by the native Ainu; the area was the Dewa and the Michinoku regions, a term first recorded in Hitachi-no-kuni Fudoki. There is some variation in modern usage of the term "Michinoku". Tōhoku's initial historical settlement occurred between the seventh and ninth centuries, well after Japanese civilization and culture had become established in central and southwestern Japan; the last stronghold of the indigenous Emishi on Honshu and the site of many battles, the region has maintained a degree of autonomy from Kyoto at various times throughout history.
The haiku poet Matsuo Bashō wrote Oku no Hosomichi during his travels through Tōhoku. The region is traditionally known as a less developed area of Japan; the catastrophic 9.0-Magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, inflicted massive damage along the east coast of this region, killed 15,894 people and was the costliest natural disaster which left 500,000 people homeless along with radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Masamune, feudal lord of Date clan, expanded trade in the Tōhoku region. Although faced with attacks by hostile clans, he managed to overcome them after a few defeats and ruled one of the largest fiefdoms of the Tokugawa shogunate, he worked on many projects to beautify the region. He is known to have encouraged foreigners to come to his land. Though he funded and promoted an envoy to establish relations with the Pope in Rome, he was motivated at least in part by a desire for foreign technology, similar to that of other lords, such as Oda Nobunaga.
Further, once Tokugawa Ieyasu outlawed Christianity, Masamune reversed his position, though disliking it, let Ieyasu persecute Christians in his domain. For 270 years, Tōhoku remained a place of tourism and prosperity. Matsushima, for instance, a series of tiny islands, was praised for its beauty and serenity by the wandering haiku poet Matsuo Bashō, he showed sympathy for Christian traders in Japan. In addition to allowing them to come and preach in his province, he released the prisoner and missionary Padre Sotelo from the hands of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Date Masamune allowed Sotelo as well as other missionaries to practice their religion and win converts in Tōhoku; the most used subdivision of the region is dividing it to "North Tōhoku" consisting of Aomori and Iwate Prefectures and "South Tōhoku" consisting of Yamagata and Fukushima Prefectures. The population collapse of Tōhoku, which began before the year 2000, has accelerated, now including dynamic Miyagi. Despite this, Sendai City has grown due to the disaster.
The population collapse of Aomori and Akita Prefectures, Honshu's 3 northernmost, began in the early 1980s after an initial loss of population in the late 1950s. Fukushima Prefecture, prior to 1980, had traditionally been the most populated, but today Miyagi is the most populated and urban by far. Tōhoku, like most of Japan, is mountainous, with the Ōu Mountains running north-south; the inland location of many of the region's lowlands has led to a concentration of much of the population there. Coupled with coastlines that do not favor seaport development, this settlement pattern resulted in a much greater than usual dependence on land and rail transportation. Low points in the central mountain range make communications between lowlands on either side of the range moderately easy. Tōhoku was traditionally considered the granary of Japan because it supplied Sendai and the Tokyo-Yokohama market with rice and other farming commodities. Tōhoku provided 20 percent of the nation's rice crop; the climate, however, is harsher than in other parts of Honshū due to the stronger effect of the Siberian High, permits only one crop a year on paddy fields.
In the 1960s, steel, chemical and petroleum refining industries began developing. Designated citiesSendai Core citiesIwaki Koriyama Akita Morioka Aomori Hachinohe Other citiesAizuwakamatsu Daisen Date Fukushima Goshogawara Hachimantai Hanamaki Higashimatsushima Higashine Hirakawa Hirosaki Ichinoseki Ishinomaki Iwanuma Kakuda Kamaishi Kaminoyama Katagami Kazuno Kesennuma Kitaakita Kitakami Kitakata Kuji Kurihara Kuroishi Minamisōma Misawa Miyako Motomiya Murayama Mutsu Nagai Nan'yō Natori Nihonmatsu Nikaho Ninohe Noshiro Obanazawa Oga Ōdate Ōfunato Ōsaki Ōshū Rikuzentakata Sagae Sakata Semboku Shinjō Shiogama Shirakawa Shiroishi Sōma Sukagawa Tagajō Takizawa Tamura Tendō Tome Tomiya Tōno Towada Tsugaru Tsuruoka Yamagata Yokote Yonezawa Yurihonjō Yuzawa Mount Bandai Three Mountains of Dewa Hakkōda Mountains Mount Hayachine Mount Iwaki Lake Tazawa Lake Towada Kitakami River Oirase River Valley the islands of Matsushima Bay Mount Osore Sanriku Coastline Bandai-Asahi National Park Miss Veedol Beach Rikuchu Kaigan National Park Towada-Hachimantai National Park 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake Geography of Japan Tōhoku dialect List of regions in Japan Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambr
The Emishi or Ebisu constituted an ethnic group of people who lived in northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region, referred to as michi no oku in contemporary sources. The first mention of them in literature dates to AD 400, in which they are mentioned as "the hairy people" from the Chinese records; some Emishi tribes resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors during the late Nara and early Heian periods. The origin of the Emishi is disputed, they are thought to have descended from some tribes of the Jōmon people. Some historians believe that they were related to the Ainu people, but others disagree with this theory; the Emishi were represented by different tribes, some of whom became allies of the Japanese and others of whom remained hostile. The Emishi in northeastern Honshū relied on their horses in warfare, they developed a unique style of warfare in which horse archery and hit-and-run tactics proved effective against the slower contemporary Japanese imperial army that relied on heavy infantry.
Their livelihood was based on hunting and gathering as well as on the cultivation of grains such as millet and barley. It has been thought that they practiced rice cultivation in areas where rice could be grown; the first major attempts to subjugate the Emishi in the 8th century were unsuccessful. The imperial armies, which were modeled after the mainland Chinese armies, were no match for the guerrilla tactics of the Emishi, it was the development of horse archery and the adoption of Emishi tactics by the early Japanese warriors that led to the Emishi defeat. The success of the gradual change in battle tactics came at the end of the 8th century in the 790s under the command of the general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, they either submitted themselves to imperial authority as fushu and ifu or migrated further north, some to Hokkaidō. By the mid-9th century, most of their land in Honshū was conquered, they ceased to be independent. However, they continued to be influential in local politics as subjugated, though powerful, Emishi families created semi-autonomous feudal domains in the north.
In the two centuries following the conquest, a few of these domains became regional states that came into conflict with the central government. The record of Emperor Jimmu in the Nihon Shoki mentions the "Emishi" with ateji—whom his armed forces defeated before he was enthroned as the Emperor of Japan. According to Nihon Shoki, Takenouchi no Sukune in the era of Emperor Keikō proposed that they should subjugate Emishi of Hitakami no Kuni in eastern Japan; the first mention of Emishi from a source outside Japan was in the Chinese Book of Song in 478 which referred to them as "hairy people". The book refers to "the 55 kingdoms of the hairy people of the East" as a report by King Bu—one of the Five kings of Wa. Most by the 7th century AD, the Japanese used this kanji to describe these people, but changed the reading from kebito or mōjin to Emishi. Furthermore, during the same century, the kanji character was changed to 蝦夷, composed of the kanji for "shrimp" and for "barbarian"; this is thought to refer to the long whiskers of a shrimp.
The barbarian aspect described an outsider, living beyond the border of the emerging empire of Japan, which saw itself as a civilizing influence. This kanji was first seen in the T'ang sources that describe the meeting with the two Emishi that the Japanese envoy brought with him to China; the kanji character may have been adopted from China, but the reading "Ebisu" and "Emishi" were Japanese in origin and most came from either the Japanese "yumishi" which means bowman or "emushi", sword in the Ainu tongue. Other origins—such as the word enchiu for "man" in the Ainu tongue—have been proposed. However, the way it sounds is phonetically identical to emushi so it may most have had an Ainoid origin. "Ainoid" distinguishes the people who are related to, or who are ancestors of, the Ainu, who first emerge as "Ezo" in Hokkaido in the Kamakura period and become known as Ainu in the modern period. The Nihon Shoki's entry for Emperor Yūryaku known as Ohatsuse no Wakatakeru, records an uprising, after the Emperor's death, of Emishi troops, levied to support an expedition to Korea.
Emperor Yūryaku is suspected to be King Bu, but the date and the existence of Yūryaku are uncertain, the Korean reference may be anachronistic. However, the compilers felt that the reference to Emishi troops was credible in this context. In 658, Abe no Hirafu's naval expedition of 180 ships reaches Watarishima. An alliance with Aguta Emishi, Tsugaru Emishi and Watarishima Emishi was formed by Abe who stormed and defeated a settlement of Mishihase a people of unknown origin; this is one of the earliest reliable records of the Emishi people extant. The Mishihase may have been another ethnic group who competed with the ancestors of the Ainu for Hokkaidō; the expedition happens to be the furthest northern penetration of the Japanese Imperial army until the 16th century, that settlement was from a local Japanese warlord, independent of any central control. In 709, the fort of Ideha was created close to present day Akita; this was a bold move since the intervening territory between Akita and the northwestern countries of Japan was not under government control.
The Emishi of Akita in alliance with Michinoku attacked Japanese settlements in response. Saeki no Iwayu was appointed Sei Echigo Emishi shōgun, he used 100 ships from the Japan sea side countries along with soldi
Dewa Province was a province of Japan comprising modern-day Yamagata Prefecture and Akita Prefecture, except for the city of Kazuno and the town of Kosaka. Dewa bordered on Echigō Provinces, its abbreviated form name was Ushū. Prior to the Asuka period, Dewa was inhabited by Ainu or Emishi tribes, was outside of the control of the Yamato dynasty. Abe no Hirafu conquered the native Emishi tribes at what are now the cities of Akita and Noshiro in 658 and established a fort on the Mogami River. In 708 AD Dewa District was created within Echigō Province; the area of Dewa District was that of the modern Shōnai area of Yamagata Prefecture, was extended to the north as the Japanese pushed back the indigenous people of northern Honshū. Dewa District was promoted to the status of a province in 712 AD, gained Okitama and Mogami Districts part of Mutsu Province. A number of military expeditions were sent to the area, with armed colonists forming settlements with wooden palisades across central Dewa in what is now the Shōnai area of Yamagata Prefecture.
The capital of the new province was established at Dewanosaku, a fortified settlement in what is now part of Sakata, which served as a vital military stronghold in the expansion of Yamato control and settlement in the region. In 733, the capital was moved north, a new military settlement named “Akita Castle”, was built what is now in the Takashimizu area of the city of Akita. Abe no Yakamaro was sent as Chinjufu-shōgun. In 737, a major military operation began to connect Akita Castle with Taga Castle on the Pacific Coast. Over the next 50 years, additional fortifications were erected at Okachi in Dewa Province and Monofu in Mutsu Province involving a force of over 5000 men; the road was resented by the Emishi tribes, after an uprising in 767, pacification expeditions were carried out in 776, 778, 794, 801 and 811. During the Nara period, under the Engishiki classification system, Dewa was ranked as a "greater country". Under the ritsuryō system, Dewa was classed as a “far country”; the name of the province was pronounced “Idewa”.
The Ichinomiya of Dewa Province was the Chōkaisan Omonoimi Jinja in what is now Yamagata. During the Heian period, in 878, a major rebellion known as the Ganki Disturbance erupted in the region against Yamato rule. Another major uprising occurred as part of East Japan war Tengyō no Ran. Towards the end of the Heian period, the province was organized into eleven districts, it was the Former Nine Years War. Following the destruction of the Northern Fujiwara clan by the forces of the Kamakura shogunate in 1189, many Fujiwara partisans fled to the mountains of Dewa and continued to resist central authority; the area was divided into numerous shōen during the Kamakura period, which developed into the centers of numerous rival samurai clans. In 1335, Shiba Kaneyori received the Dewa Province as a fief from Ashikaga Takauji, but ruled it only in name. By the end of the Sengoku period, the Mogami clan had emerged as the strongest local force in the southern portion of the province, whereas the Akita clan dominated the northern portion of the province.
Both clans sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara, were thus secured in their holdings at the start of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the early Edo period, both the Mogami and the Akita were dispossessed, their territories broken up into smaller domains, the largest of which were held by the Sakai clan and Uesugi clans. During the Bakumatsu period, all of the domains in the area joined the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei supporting the Tokugawa shogunate. Following the defeat of the pro-Tokugawa forces, the new Meiji government reorganized Dewa province into Ugo Province in the north, Uzen Province in the south in 1868; these provinces became Akita Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture on August 2, 1876. Ugo Province Akumi District Akita District Hiraka District Kawabe District Ogachi District Semboku District Yamamoto District Yuri District Uzen Province Tagawa District Kubiki District Mogami District Murayama District Okitama District Ushū Kaidō – a subroute of the Ōshū Kaidō and Sendaidō with 57 post stations connecting what is now Koori, Fukushima with Aomori Yonezawa Kaidō – connecting what is now Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima with Yamagata.
Sendai Kaidō – connecting what is now Sakata, Yamagata with Sendai. Ushū Hamakaidō – connecting Sakata with Niigata. Kōdansha.. Japan: an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Tokyo: Kōdansha. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Terry's Japanese Empire: including Korea and Formosa, with Chapters on Manchuria, the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Chief Ocean Routes to Japan: a Guidebook for Travelers. New York: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 123254449 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Media related to Dewa Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Minamoto no Yoshiie
Minamoto No Yoshiie known as Hachimantarō, was a Minamoto clan samurai of the late Heian period, Chinjufu-shōgun. The first son of Minamoto no Yoriyoshi, he proved himself in battle with the Abe clan in the Zenkunen War and the Kiyohara clan in the Gosannen War. Subsequently, he became something of a paragon of samurai bravery. In 1050, Abe no Yoritokiie wave the post of Chinjufu-shōgun, as the Abe clan had for many generations. However, Yoritoki commanded the entire region, denying the official Governor any true power; as a result, Yoshiie's father was appointed both chinjufu shōgun and governor, Yoshiie traveled north with him to resolve the situation. The campaign against the Abe clan lasted twelve years. Yoshiie fought alongside his father in most if not every battle, including the Battle of Kawasaki and the Siege of Kuriyagawa. Abe no Yoritoki died in 1057. Yoriyoshi's first son, Hachimantarō, gave hot pursuit along the Koromo River and called out,'Sir, you show your back to your enemy! Aren't you ashamed?
Turn around a minute, I have something to tell you.' When Sadato turned around, Yoshiie said: Koromo no tate wa hokorobinikeri Sadato relaxed his reins somewhat and, turning his helmeted head, followed that with: toshi o heishi ito no midare no kurushisa ni Hearing this, Yoshiie put away the arrow he had readied to shoot, returned to his camp. In the midst of such a savage battle, a gentlemanly thing to do. Yoshiie returned to Kyoto in early 1063 with the heads of a number of others; as a result of his dramatic prowess in battle, he earned the name Hachimantarō, referring to him as the son of Hachiman, the god of war. The following year, Yoshiie took several followers of the Abe, who he had taken as captives, as attendants. Over twenty years Yoshiie was the chief commander in another important conflict of the Heian period. Beginning in 1083, he battled the Kiyohara family, who had fought alongside him and his father against the Abe, but who had since proven themselves poor rulers of the northern provinces.
Named Governor of Mutsu province in 1083, Yoshiie took it upon himself, without orders from the Imperial Court, to bring some peace and order to the region. A series of disputes between Kiyohara no Masahira and Iehira over leadership of the clan had turned to violence. There emerged a series of battles and skirmishes between Yoshiie's forces and those of the various Kiyohara sub-factions. Everything came at the Kanazawa stockade. Yoshiie, along with his younger brother Minamoto no Yoshimitsu and Fujiwara Kiyohira, assaulted the position held by Kiyohara no Iehira and his uncle Kiyohara no Takahira. After many months of failed starts and skirmishes, the stockade was set aflame, the Kiyohara defeated; the Minamoto forces suffered great losses as well, it is said that Yoshiie was an skilled leader, keeping morale up and preserving a degree of discipline among the warriors. "Yoshiiye returned to Kyoto, where he and his comrades resumed their military posts in command of Palace Guards and the Sovereign's Escorts."
The only drama occurred when Yoshichika was banished to Sanuki. Escaping to Izumo, Yoshichika started a revolt, put down in 1108 by Taira general Masamori, father of Taira no Tadamori. Father: Minamoto no Yoriyoshi Mother: daughter of Taira no Naokata Wife: daughter of Fujiwara no Aritsuna 3rd son: Minamoto no Yoshitada Son: Minamoto no Yoshikuni Wife: daughter of Minamoto no Takanaga 2nd son: Minamoto no Yoshichika Unknown mother: 1st son: Minamoto no Yoshimune 6th son: Minamoto no Yoshitoki 7th son: Minamoto no Yoshitaka Daughter: wife of Imperial Prince Sukehito, son of Emperor Go-Sanjo. Daughter: wife of Minamoto no Shigeto Seiwa Genji Minamoto no Yoritomo Minamoto no Yorinobu Minamoto no Yoshiie at the Samurai-Archives.com