FIA Formula 4 called FIA F4, is an open-wheel racing car category intended for junior drivers. There is no global championship, but rather individual nations or regions can host their own championships in compliance with a universal set of rules and specifications; the category was created by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile —the International sanctioning and administrative body for motorsport—as an entry-level category for young drivers, bridging the gap between karting and Formula 3. The series is a part of the FIA Global Pathway. Former Formula One driver Gerhard Berger was appointed as the FIA Single-Seater Commission president to oversee the creation of the category as a response to declining interest in national Formula 3 championships due to rising costs and alternate pathways to Formula One such as the Formula Renault and GP2 and GP3 Series, which had seen several national Formula 3 championships discontinued. In the place of the expensive categories, a number of separate categories running under the Formula 4 name had been created, for example the British based the former BRDC Formula 4.
There was no commonality between the cars from country to country. The FIA-endorsed category was formally created in March 2013, when it was approved by the World Motor Sport Council; these Formula 4 championships started in 2014 as a single-make category before the regulations were opened up to multiple chassis and engine manufacturers. Each championship uses a single make of engine, with the regulations mandating a 1,600 cc capacity and capping the maximum power output at 160 bhp, higher than Formula Ford and lower than Formula Renault; the engines are equalised so that no one Formula 4 championship is faster than the others, with the long-term intention being to bring the cost down to under €100,000 per year to compete. To become eligible for FIA Formula 4, the chassis must meet the FIA homologation requirements respecting technical and commercial regulations. Four chassis manufacturers have been approved by the FIA: Tatuus, Mygale and Crawford. To become an eligible FIA Formula 4 engine, the engine must meet the homologation requirements.
According to the homologation requirements a FIA Formula 4 engine must last at least 10,000 km and have a maximum purchasing price of €9,500. According to the FIA Formula 4 technical regulations only four cylinder engines are allowed. Both aspirated and turbocharged engines are permitted; the power output has been capped at 160 bhp. The engine displacement is unlimited. Four engines are homologated for use in the FIA Formula 4; these championships are held to Formula 4 regulations and approved by the FIA as the national Formula 4 series. Drivers participating in these series can receive FIA Super Licence points, which are required to drive in Formula One. For a series to be eligible for Super Licence points, a season must be held over at least 5 events at a minimum of 3 different circuits, according to FIA Appendix L. Formula Academy Finland is a racing series based in Finland, its first season was 2018. Formula Academy Finland uses same Tatuus-Abarth FIA Formula 4 car as ADAC Formula 4, Italian Formula 4 Championship and several other series.
The series, how is not approved by the FIA. There are plans to apply for Finnish Championship status for 2019 season; the series is organized by Koiranen GP. The FPU Western Championships take place at west coast tracks in the United States, it is a feeder series to the FIA recognized United States F4 Championship, utilizes the identical chassis and tire package. The Formula 4 Sudamericana is a Formula 4 racing class that debuted in 2014; the class uses the same Signatech chassis and Fiat engines used in the Brazilian-based Formula Future Fiat. Japan Formula 4 is a formula racing series in Japan; the series was founded in 1993 by the Japan Automobile Federation as a class between the FJ1600 series and the All-Japan Formula Three Championship. Japanese Formula 4 is an open formula, where competitors can choose the chassis and engine manufacturers; this is based on a non-FIA formulae. Chassis are locally produced such as Xpit and Gamma and cars are fueled by methanol. Popular in the CASC Ontario region at a club level only since 1974.
The BRDC Formula 4 Championship was an entry level motorsport series based in the United Kingdom which began in 2013. Run by the British Racing Drivers' Club and MotorSport Vision, the series used identical cars built by Ralph Firman Racing and engines from Ford, before switching to FIA Formula 4 regulations in 2015, using the Tatuus F4–T014 chassis. Although run to the FIA's regulations, it was not recognised by the FIA as an official Formula 4 championship. In 2016, the series was renamed the BRDC British Formula 3 Championship. Up to 2017, the French F4 Championship was a Formula Renault series, aimed at graduates young drivers graduating from karting; the championship used Formula Renault 1.6 Signatech cars, an entry level category, was open to drivers between 14 and 21 years. From 2018 on, the series is run to FIA F4's regulations. FIA Technical Regulations for Formula 4
Stock car racing
Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Brazil having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring 0.25 to 2.66 miles. The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR, its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races range between 200 to 600 miles in length; the cars were production models, but are now modified. Top level stock cars exceed 200 mph at speedway tracks and on superspeedway tracks such as Daytona International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway. Contemporary NASCAR-spec top level cars produce maximum power outputs of 860-900 hp from their aspirated V8 engines. In October 2007 American race car driver Russ Wicks set a speed record for stock cars in a 2007-season Dodge Charger built to NASCAR specifications by achieving a maximum speed of 244.9 mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats.
For the 2015 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season, power output of the competing cars ranged from 750 to 800 hp. In the 1920s, moonshine runners during the Prohibition era would have to outrun the authorities. To do so, they had to upgrade their vehicles—while leaving them looking ordinary, so as not to attract attention. Runners started getting together with fellow runners and making runs together, they would challenge one another and progressed to organized events in the early 1930s. The main problem racing faced was the lack of a unified set of rules among the different tracks; when Bill France, Sr. saw this problem, he set up a meeting at the Streamline Hotel in order to form an organization that would unify the rules. When NASCAR was first formed by France in 1948 to regulate stock car racing in the U. S. there was a requirement that any car entered be made of parts available to the general public through automobile dealers. Additionally, the cars had to be models; this is referred to as "homologation".
In NASCAR's early years, the cars were so "stock" that it was commonplace for the drivers to drive themselves to the competitions in the car that they were going to run in the race. While automobile engine technology had remained stagnant in World War II, advanced aircraft piston engine development had provided a great deal of available data, NASCAR was formed just as some of the improved technology was about to become available in production cars; until the advent of the Trans-Am Series in 1967, NASCAR homologation cars were the closest thing that the public could buy, very similar to the cars that were winning national races. The 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket V-8 with a displacement of 303 cu in is recognized as the first postwar modern overhead valve engine to become available to the public; the Oldsmobile was an immediate success in 1949 and 1950, all the automobile manufacturers could not help noticing the higher sales of the Oldsmobile 88 to the buying public. The motto of the day became "win on Sunday, sell on Monday".
However, in spite of the fact that several competing engines were more advanced, the aerodynamic and low-slung Hudson Hornet managed to win in 1951, 1952, 1953 with a 308 cu in inline six-cylinder that used an old-style flathead engine, proving there was more to winning than just a more powerful engine. At the time, it took three years for a new design of car body or engine to end up in production and be available for NASCAR racing. Most cars sold to the public did not have a wide variety of engine choices, the majority of the buying public at the time was not interested in the large displacement special edition engine options that would soon become popular. However, the end of the Korean War in 1953 started an economic boom, car buyers began demanding more powerful engines. In 1953, NASCAR recommended that the drivers add roll bars, but did not require them. In 1955, Chrysler produced the C-300 with its Chrysler FirePower engine 300 hp 303 cu in OHV engine, which won in 1955 and 1956. In 1957, several notable events happened.
The Automobile Manufacturers Association banned manufacturers from using race wins in their advertising and giving direct support to race teams, as they felt it led to reckless street racing. This forced manufacturers to become creative in producing race parts to help racers win. Race teams were caught trying to use factory produced racing parts that were not available to the public, though many parts passed muster by being labeled as heavy-duty "police" parts. Car manufacturers wanted to appear compliant with the ban, but they wanted to win; the NASCAR tracks at the time were dirt tracks with modest barriers, during the 1957 season a Mercury Monterey crashed into the crowd. This killed many spectators, resulted in a serious overhaul of the safety rules, which in turn prompted the building of larger, more modern tracks. In 1957, Chevrolet sold enough of their new fuel injected engines to the public in order to make them available for racing, but Bill France banned fuel injection and superchargers from NASCAR before they could race.
However without official factory support or the use of fuel injection, Buck Baker won in 1957 driving a small-block V-8 Chevrolet Bel Air. In 1961, Ford introduced the F1 390 in a low drag Galaxie "Starliner", but 1960 and'61 championships were won by drivers in 409-powered Chevrolet Impalas. Pont
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Midget car racing
Midget cars speedcars in Australia, is a class of racing cars. The cars are small with a high power-to-weight ratio and use four cylinder engines, they are raced on most continents. There is a worldwide tour and national midget tours in the United States and New Zealand; these four cylinder engine cars have 300 horsepower to 400 horsepower and weigh 900 pounds. The high power and small size of the cars combine to make midget racing quite dangerous; some early major midget car manufacturers include Kurtis Solar. Midgets are intended to be driven for races of short distances 2.5 to 25 miles. Some events are staged inside arenas, like the Chili Bowl held in early January at the Tulsa Expo Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Midget car racing was born on August 10, 1933 at the Loyola High School Stadium in Los Angeles as a regular weekly program under the control of the first official governing body, the Midget Auto Racing Association. After spreading across the country, the sport traveled around the world. Early midget races were held on board tracks used for bicycle racing.
When the purpose built speedway at Gilmore Stadium was completed, racing ended at the school stadium, hundreds of tracks began to spring up across the United States. Angell Park Speedway in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin is another major track in the United States operating since the first half of the twentieth century. Soon after in Australia, speedcar racing became popular with the first Australian Speedcar Championship being contested in Melbourne in 1935, its popularity running through the country's "golden era" of the 1950s and 1960s. Australian promoters such as Adelaide's Kym Bonython who ran the Rowley Park Speedway, Empire Speedways who ran the Brisbane Exhibition Ground and the famous Sydney Showground Speedway imported drivers from the US including the popular Bob Tattersall and Jimmy Davies. Promoters in Australia during this period staged races billed as either a "world speedcar championship" or "world speedcar derby". During this time speedcars were arguably the most popular category in Australian speedway with crowds of up to 30,000 attending meetings at the Sydney Showground and over 10,000 in Adelaide and Brisbane.
Speedcars continue to race in Australia, with the major events being the Australian Championship, the Australian Speedcar Grand Prix. Along with various state championships, there is the Speedcar Super Series which travels throughout Australia. Speedcar crowds of 10,000 people are common in Australia for these major events. In December 2013, POWRi Midget Racing began a 16-event Lucas Oil POWRi Midget World Championship that ran until June 2014. Drivers competed in New Zealand and Australia at the beginning of the 2013–14 season and ended in the United States. Many IndyCar and NASCAR drivers used midget car racing as an intermediate stepping stone on their way to more high-profile divisions, including Tony Stewart, Sarah Fisher, Jeff Gordon, A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Kasey Kahne, Ryan Newman, Kyle Larson and others; the events are sometimes held on weeknights so that popular and famous drivers from other, higher-profiled types of motor racing will be available to compete, so that it does not conflict with drivers' home tracks.
In 1959 Lime Rock Park held a famous Formula Libre race, where Rodger Ward shocked the expensive and exotic sports cars by beating them on the road course in an Offenhauser powered midget car used on oval tracks. Ward used an advantageous power-to-weight ratio and dirt-track cornering abilities to steal the win. Astro Grand Prix – the Astrodome Belleville Midget Nationals – Belleville, Kansas, US Chili Bowl C Tulsa Expo Center Fireman Nationals – Angell Park Speedway Four Crown Nationals – Eldora Speedway Hut Hundred – Terre Haute Action Track, Terre Haute, Indiana Night before the 500 – O'Reilly Raceway Park, Indiana The Rumble in Fort Wayne – Allen County War Memorial Coliseum Expo Center, Fort Wayne, Indiana Turkey Night Grand Prix – Ventura Raceway, Irwindale Speedway World 50-lap Classic – Western Springs Stadium, New Zealand New Zealand Midget Championship – Rotates on various tracks throughout New Zealand Barry Butterworth Classic – Western Springs Stadium, New Zealand Australian Speedcar Championship – Rotates on various tracks throughout Australia Australian Speedcar Grand Prix – Rotates between tracks throughout eastern Australia Magic Man 34 – Perth Motorplex Speedway, Kwinana Beach, Western Australia Tim Crouch Memorial – Murray Bridge Speedway, Murray Bridge, South Australia Gold Crown Midget Nationals – Tri City Speedway, Illinois Boston Louie Memorial – Seekonk Speedway, Massachusetts SpeedcarsAustralia.com – Official website of Australia's Speedcar governing body, Speedcars Australia Inc QSRA – Queensland Speedcar Racing Assos.
Official Website. SAspeedcars.com – South Australian Speedcar Association V. S. D. A – Victorian Speedcar Drivers Association Inc wasda.com.au – Western Australian Speedcar Drivers Association Speedcar Association of NSW SERIES: Speedcar Super SeriesAUS NEWS SITES: Speedcar World Speedway New Zealand New Zealand Speedway Directory Links to New Zealand Speedway Websites Macgors NZ Speedway Grand Prix Midget Club NationalUSAC – USAC National Midget Se
Formula E is a class of motorsport that uses only electric-powered cars. The series was conceived in 2011, the inaugural championship commenced in Beijing in September 2014; the series is in its fifth season. It is sanctioned by the FIA. Alejandro Agag is the current chairman of Formula E Holdings; the proposal for a city-based single-seater electric car motor racing championship was conceived by Jean Todt, the president of the world governing body of motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, presented to politicians Alejandro Agag and Antonio Tajani and the Italian actor Teo Teocoli at a dinner at a small Italian restaurant in the French capital Paris on 3 March 2011. Tajani was concentrated on the electrification of the automobile industry, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and introducing hybrid and electric systems. Agag supported Todt's proposal after the latter discussed the FIA opening up a tender to organise the series. Agag told Todt that he would take on the task because of his prior experience in negotiating contracts with television stations and marketing.
The Formula E championship is contested by eleven teams with two drivers each. The growing sport features electric-powered race cars of stylistic similarity to the non-electric cars of Formula One. Racing takes place on temporary city-centre street circuits. All events begin with two practice sessions in the morning, an opening 45-minute session followed by a further 30-minute session. Drivers had two cars at their disposal though this was revised to just one vehicle after the introduction of the Gen2 car for the 2018–19 season, with 250 kW of power available throughout; the qualifying session takes place in the day and lasts one hour. The drivers are divided into four groups of five or six, with each group having six minutes to set their best lap. Full power of 250 kW is available throughout. Since the second season, the six fastest drivers go out again, one-by-one, in the Super Pole shoot-out to determine the top six grid positions; the race itself is set to 45 minutes plus one lap. Until season four, drivers made.
The two pit crew helped the driver to change seat belts and, for safety reasons, there was a minimum required time for pit stops which differed from track to track. Tyre changes, unless caused by a puncture or damage, were not permitted during the pit stop, it is unnecessary due to the tyres being all-weather tyre sets. In race mode the maximum power is restricted to 200 kW. Points are awarded using the standard FIA system. Points are awarded to the top ten drivers using the standard FIA system. Three points are awarded to the driver securing the pole position, while the driver setting the fastest lap receives an additional point; the championship consists of teams' championship. A driver's end of season total is made up of a driver's best results. A team's total is made up by counting both drivers' scores throughout the season. For each race, fans can vote for their favourite driver via various social media channels to give them an extra power boost. Voting closes after the opening 15 minutes of the race.
The five winning Fanboost drivers each receive an extra power burst that can be used in a 5 second window during the second half of the race. With the fifth season, a feature called "Attack Mode" was introduced in which drivers receive an additional 25 kW of power by driving through a designated area of the circuit off the racing line; the duration of the boost mode and the number of boosts available are decided only shortly in advance of each race by the FIA to stop teams from anticipating its use and incorporating it into race strategy. All Attack Modes must be activated at the end of the race, but do not need to be used up For the first four seasons, an electric racing car built by Spark Racing Technology, called the Spark-Renault SRT 01E, was used; the chassis was designed by Dallara, a battery system created by Williams Advanced Engineering and a Hewland five-speed gearbox. Michelin was the official tyre supplier. For the first season, 42 electric cars were ordered by the series, with four cars made available to each of the ten teams and two cars kept for testing purposes.
This first Formula E car had a power of at least 250 horsepower. The car was able to accelerate with a maximum speed of 225 km/h; the generators used to re-charge the batteries are powered by glycerine, a by-product of bio-diesel production. In the first season, all teams used an electric motor developed by McLaren, but since the second season, powertrain manufacturers could build their own electric motor, inverter and cooling system. There were nine manufacturers creating powertrains for the 2016–17 season: ABT Schaeffler, Andretti Technologies, DS-Virgin, Mahindra, NextEV TCR, Penske and Venturi. Main article: Spark SRT05e The 2018-19 season features the all-new second generation Formula E car, which boasts significant technological advances over the previous Spark-Renault SRT_01E chassis – its 54 kWh battery and power output rising from 200 kW to 250 kW and top speed rising to around 280 km/h; the arrival of the Gen2 car sees an end to the series’ mid-race car-swaps
Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series
The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the top racing series of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing. Since 2017, it has been named for its sponsor, Monster Energy, but has been known by other names in the past; the series began in 1949 as the Strictly Stock Division, from 1950 to 1970 it was known as the Grand National Division. In 1971, when the series began leasing its naming rights to the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was referred to as the Winston Cup Series. A similar deal was made with Nextel in 2003, it became the Nextel Cup Series. Sprint acquired Nextel in 2005, in 2008 the series was renamed the Sprint Cup Series, which lasted until 2016. In December 2016, it was announced that Monster Energy would become the new title sponsor starting in 2017; the championship is determined by a points system, with points being awarded according to finish placement and number of laps led. The season is divided into two segments. After the first 26 races, 16 drivers, selected on the basis of wins during the first 26 races, are seeded based on their total number of wins.
They compete in the last ten races, where the difference in points is minimized. This is called the NASCAR playoffs; the series holds strong roots in the Southeastern United States, with half of the races in the 36-race season being held in that region. The current schedule includes tracks from around the United States. Regular season races were held in Canada, exhibition races were held in Japan and Australia; the Daytona 500, the most prestigious race, had a television audience of about 9.17 million U. S. viewers in 2019. Cup Series cars are unique in automobile racing; the engines are powerful enough to reach speeds of over 200 mph, but their weight coupled with a simple aerodynamic package make for poor handling. The bodies and chassis of the cars are regulated to ensure parity, electronics are traditionally spartan in nature. In 1949, NASCAR introduced the Strictly Stock division, after sanctioning Modified and Roadster division races in 1948. Eight races were run on the Daytona Beach beach/street course.
The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held at Charlotte Speedway on June 19, 1949. Jim Roper was declared the winner of that race after Glenn Dunaway was disqualified for having altered the rear springs on his car; the division was renamed "Grand National" for the 1950 season, reflecting NASCAR's intent to make the sport more professional and prestigious. It retained this name until 1971; the 1949 Strictly Stock season is regarded in NASCAR's record books as the first season of GN/Cup history. Martinsville Speedway is the only track on the 1949 schedule. Rather than having a fixed schedule of one race per weekend with most entrants appearing at every event, the Grand National schedule has included over sixty events in some years. There are two or three races on the same weekend and two races on the same day in different states. In the early years, most Grand National races were held on dirt-surfaced short oval tracks that ranged in lap length from under a quarter-mile to over a half-mile, or on dirt fairgrounds ovals ranging from a half-mile to a mile in lap length.
One hundred ninety-eight of the first 221 Grand National races were run on dirt tracks. Darlington Raceway, opened in 1950, was the first paved track on the circuit over one mile long. In 1959, when Daytona International Speedway was opened, the schedule still had more races on dirt racetracks than on paved ones. In the 1960s as superspeedways were built and old dirt tracks were paved, the number of races run on dirt tracks was reduced; the last NASCAR race on a dirt track was held on September 30, 1970 at the half-mile State Fairgrounds Speedway in Raleigh, North Carolina. Richard Petty won that race in a Plymouth, sold by Petty Enterprises to Don Robertson and rented back by Petty Enterprises for the race. Between 1971 and 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, it was sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston. In 1971, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act banned television advertising of cigarettes; as a result, tobacco companies began to sponsor sporting events as a way to spend their excess advertising dollars and to circumvent the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act's ban on television advertising.
RJR's sponsorship became more controversial in the wake of the 1998 Tobacco Industry Settlement that restricted avenues for tobacco advertising, including sports sponsorships. The changes that resulted from RJR's involvement in the series as well as from the reduction in schedule from 48 to 31 races per year established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era"; the season was made shorter, the points system was modified several times during the next four years. Races on dirt tracks and on oval tracks shorter than 250 miles were removed from the schedule, transferred to the short-lived NASCAR Grand National East Series. NASCAR's founder, Bill France Sr. turned over control of NASCAR to Bill France Jr.. In August 1974, France Jr. asked series publicist Bob Latford to design a points system with equal points being awarded for all races regardless of length or prize money. This system ensured that the top drivers would have to compete in all the races in order to become the series champion.
This system remained unchanged from 1975 until the Chase for the Championship was instituted in 2004. Since 1982, the Daytona 500 has been the first non-exhib
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a