1996 Mount Everest disaster
The 1996 Mount Everest disaster occurred on 10–11 May 1996, when eight people caught in a blizzard died on Mount Everest during attempts to descend from the summit. Over the entire season, 12 people died trying to reach the summit, making it the deadliest season on Mount Everest before the 16 fatalities of the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche and the 22 deaths resulting from avalanches caused by the April 2015 Nepal earthquake; the 1996 disaster raised questions about the commercialization of Everest. Numerous climbers, including several large teams as well as some small partnerships and soloists, were high in altitude on Everest during the storm. While climbers died on both the North Face and South Col approaches, the events on the South Face were more reported. Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in a party led by guide Rob Hall that lost four climbers on the south side. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide in Scott Fischer's party, felt impugned by Krakauer's book and co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest.
Beck Weathers, of Hall's expedition, Lene Gammelgaard, of Fischer's expedition, wrote about their experiences of the disaster in their respective books, Left For Dead: My Journey Home from Everest and Climbing High: A Woman's Account of Surviving the Everest Tragedy. In 2014, Lou Kasischke of Hall's expedition, published his own account of the tragedy in After the Wind: 1996 Everest Tragedy, One Survivor's Story. Mike Trueman, who coordinated the rescue from Base Camp, has added to the story with The Storms: Adventure and Tragedy on Everest. Graham Ratcliffe, who climbed to the South Col of Everest on 10 May, has documented in A Day To Die For that weather reports delivered to expedition leaders including Rob Hall and Scott Fischer before their planned summit attempts on 10 May forecast a major storm developing after 8 May and peaking in intensity on 11 May; as Hall and Fischer planned their summits for 10 May, portions of their teams summitted Everest during an apparent break in this developing storm only to descend into the full force of it late on 10 May.
The following is a list of climbers en route to the summit on 10 May 1996 via the South Col and Southeast Ridge, organized by expedition and role. All ages are as of 1996; the Adventure Consultants' 1996 Everest expedition, led by Rob Hall, consisted of these individuals. Rob Hall – expedition leader Mike Groom Andy Harris Frank Fischbeck – attempted Everest three times, reached the South Summit in'94 Doug Hansen – attempted Everest with Hall's team in'95 Stuart Hutchison – youngest client on Hall's team. There were many other Sherpas working at lower elevations, who performed duties vital to the Adventure Consultants and Mountain Madness expeditions. Most climbing Sherpas' duties require them to ascend at least as high as Camp III or IV, but not all of them summit; the expedition leaders intend for only a select few of their climbing Sherpas to summit. Legendary sardar Apa Sherpa was scheduled to accompany the Adventure Consultants group but withdrew due to family commitments. None of the clients on Hall's team had reached the summit of an 8,000 m peak, only Fischbeck and Hutchison had previous high-altitude Himalayan experience.
Hall had brokered a deal with Outside magazine for advertising space in exchange for a story about the growing popularity of commercial expeditions to Everest. Krakauer was slated to climb with Scott Fischer's Mountain Madness team, but Hall landed him, at least in part, by agreeing to reduce Outside's fee for Krakauer's spot on the expedition to less than cost; as a result, Hall was paying out-of-pocket to have Krakauer on his team. Scott Fischer was the lead climbing guide for the Mountain Madness expedition; the team included eight clients. Scott Fischer – lead climbing guide Neal Beidleman - professional outdoorsman Anatoli Boukreev – professional mountaineer, in 1997 was awarded the David A. Sowles Memorial Award by the American Alpine Club. Martin Adams – had climbed Aconcagua and Kilimanjaro Charlotte Fox – had climbed all 53 of the 14,000 ft peaks in Colorado and two 8,000 m peaks, Gasherbrum II, Cho Oyu Lene Gammelgaard – accomplished mountaineer Dale Kruse – long-term personal friend of Fischer's.
America This Morning
America This Morning is an American early morning television news program, broadcast on ABC. As of January 2019, the newscast is anchored by a guest anchor and Janai Norman, who serve as anchors of ABC's overnight news program World News Now, it is one of the two early morning news programs that use a two-anchor format, alongside NBC's Early Today. Airing following World News Now, it features national and international news headlines, live reports from Washington, D. C. national weather and airport impact forecasts, a short SportsCenter update from the late night Los Angeles-based anchors of the ESPN show to account for West Coast scores, a regular business news segment called "America's Money". The program is broadcast live at 3:30 a.m. Eastern Time following World News Now. ABC-owned WPVI-TV was one of the first stations to air local news starting at 4:00 a.m. beginning in September 2018. It is transmitted in a continuous half-hour tape delayed loop until 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time, when Good Morning America begins in the Pacific Time Zone.
The program airs as a lead-in to local morning newscasts on most ABC stations, although in the few markets where a morning newscast is not produced by the ABC station, it may air in a two- to three-hour loop before the start of GMA. The program debuted under the title ABC News This Morning on July 5, 1982. In early 1983, the program was retitled ABC World News This Morning; the program was 60 minutes in length and anchored by Steve Bell and Kathleen Sullivan at the network's Washington, D. C. newsroom-studio. Production of the program was moved to ABC's headquarters in the Lincoln Square district of New York City on July 11, 1988, when Forrest Sawyer and Paula Zahn debuted as co-anchors. In mid-1992, production of World News This Morning was combined with that of the network's recently launched overnight news program World News Now, with the same anchor team appearing on both programs; some elements from World News Now were brought over to World News This Morning including the "Morning Papers" segment and that program's Yanni-composed theme music as well as the laid-back attitude.
At some point in 1993, the original Score Productions-composed theme was brought back and most elements from World News Now brought over to World News This Morning were dropped as the program was reformatted to again became more serious in tone. As local stations expanded their morning newscasts, World News This Morning was first shortened into two separate 30-minute newscasts and to the current, single, 30-minute newscast. From the cable network's launch in 1996 until all original programming was discontinued due to cost-cutting measures made by ESPN on June 13, 2013, the program's sports update was provided by the overnight anchors of ESPNews, on, the Highlight Express; the news program celebrated its 20th anniversary during the summer of 2002. On November 13, 2006, the program's title was changed again to America This Morning. Since the program adopted its current title, although it has remained under the same production as World News Now, America This Morning has been integrated with Good Morning America branding-wise.
On September 22, 2009, America This Morning and World News Now began broadcasting in high definition. On August 30, 2010, ABC moved its live broadcast of the program to 4:00 a.m. Eastern Time to accommodate affiliates that choose to start their morning local newscasts at 4:30 a.m. ET; some ABC stations were forced to pre-empt the program when they implemented it less than two months earlier. As of September 10, 2018, many of ABC's owned and operated stations have begun their morning newscasts at 4:00 a.m. Eastern Time, pre-empting America This Morning in these regions. Kenneth Moton Janai Norman World News/America This Morning has had three announcers in its history. From its 1982 debut until 1990, Bill Owen served as the program's announcer. Following Owen's departure from the network in 1990, he was replaced by Barbara Daniels Korsen, who remained the newscast's announcer until 2012. Programming from ABC News, including Am
An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to
Cumberland Island, Georgia, is the largest of the Sea Islands of the southeastern United States. The long-staple Sea Island cotton was first grown here by a local family, the Millers, who helped Eli Whitney develop the cotton gin. With its unusual range of wildlife, the island has been declared a National Park and a National Seashore. Little Cumberland Island is connected to the main island by a marsh. John F. Kennedy Jr. and Carolyn Bessette were married in the First African Baptist Church on Cumberland Island in 1996. Cumberland Island forms part of Georgia. Cumberland Island constitutes the westernmost point of shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean in the United States; the island is 17.5 miles long, with an area of 36,415 acres, including 16,850 acres of marsh and tidal creeks. There is no bridge to the island; the island has three major ecosystem regions. Along the western edge of the island there are large areas of salt marshes. One will see gnarled live oak trees covered with Spanish moss and the palmetto plants at the edge of Cumberland's dense maritime forest.
Cumberland Island's most famous ecosystem is its beach. The island is home to many native interesting animals, as well as non-native species. There are white-tailed deer, raccoons, nine-banded armadillos, wild boars, feral hogs, American alligators, as well as many marshland inhabitants, it is famous for its feral horses roaming free on the island. The first inhabitants were indigenous peoples. Inhabitants participated in the Savannah archaeological culture and spoke the Timucua language, its inhabitants were part of a Timucua group who spoke the Mocama dialect. In the 17th century the island and the adjacent coast were controlled by the Tacatacuru chiefdom; the main village, known as Tacatacuru, was located towards the southern end of the island. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Cumberland Island was part of the Mocama missionary province of Spanish Florida; when the Spanish arrived in the 1550s, they named the island San Pedro. They built a garrison and mission, San Pedro de Mocama, in 1603.
It was one of the main mission centers, situated at a major Mocama site. Another Spanish mission on Cumberland was Puturiba, which operated from 1595–1597. An additional mission, San Phelipe, was relocated from the North Newport River to the northern end of Cumberland from 1670–1684. Historical records indicate that until 1681, there were 300 natives and several Spanish missionary priests living on Cumberland Island. In 1683, |French] pirates attacked Cumberland Island and burning many of the buildings. Many of the natives and the Spanish missionaries fled the island. An attack in 1684 by the Spanish pirate Thomas Jingle led to the final abandonment of the island. Survivors retreated to St. Augustine to the south. During the colonial years, many had died of exposure to European infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity; the Tacatacuru relocated closer to St. Augustine, Cumberland Island was thereafter occupied by the Yamasee. By most of the Mocama had converted to Roman Catholicism as taught to them by the Spanish priests before the island was abandoned.
English General James Oglethorpe arrived at the Georgia coast in 1733. The name of Cumberland Island was given the following year by a young Yamacraw named Toonahowi He suggested the island be named for William Augustus, the 13-year-old Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II. Oglethorpe established a hunting lodge called Dungeness, named after a headland in England. A fort was erected at the southern point of the island called Fort William. At the northern end of the island, Oglethorpe built Fort St. Andrews. For a decade the small village of Berrimacke existed near the fort; the forts were built to defend English settlements to the north from the Spanish in Florida. After the English defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Bloody Marsh in 1742, the need for the forts ended, they abandoned the forts and the village disappeared. No trace remains today of Fort William, most signs of Fort St. Andrews have been washed away. In the 1760s, the island saw little activity; when naturalist William Bartram visited the island in 1774, the island was uninhabited.
The Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene founded most of southern Cumberland Island as a result of a business deal used to finance the army. Greene died in 1786, his wife, Catharine Littlefield Greene, remarried Phineas Miller ten years later. She named; the mansion featured 6-foot thick walls at the base, four chimneys and 16 fireplaces, was surrounded by 12 acres of gardens. Dungeness was the site of many special social galas, where statesmen and military leaders enjoyed the Millers' hospitality; when the island was occupied during the War of 1812, the British used Dungeness as their headquarters. They freed the American slaves on the island; the Millers' Dungeness burned down in 1866. The Millers were the first major planters of Sea Island cotton on Cumberland, they held a total of 210 slaves to work the plantation. Catharine and Phineas Miller helped Eli Whitney develop the cotton gin, debuted in 1793. While Sea Island cotton wa
Brian Douglas Williams is an American journalist at NBC News serving as the chief anchor for the network's cable news channel MSNBC and as host of the network's nightly wrap-up program, The 11th Hour with Brian Williams. Williams is known for his ten years as anchor and managing editor of NBC Nightly News, the evening news program of the NBC television network. After Williams joined the program in December 2004, NBC News was awarded the Peabody Award for its coverage of Hurricane Katrina, Williams accepted the award on behalf of the organization. In February 2015, Williams was suspended for six months, demoted from the Nightly News for "misrepresent events which occurred while he was covering the Iraq War in 2003." Born in Ridgewood, New Jersey, Williams was raised in a "boisterous" Roman Catholic home, of Irish descent. He is the son of Dorothy May and Gordon Lewis Williams, an executive vice president of the National Retail Merchants Association, in New York, his mother was an amateur stage actress.
Williams is the youngest of four siblings. He lived in Elmira, New York, for nine years before moving to Middletown Township, New Jersey, when he was in junior high school. Williams graduated from Mater Dei High School, a Roman Catholic high school in the New Monmouth section of Middletown. While in high school, he was a volunteer firefighter for three years at the Middletown Township Fire Department. While in high school, he was the editorial editor for the school newspaper, he suffered an accident during a football game. His first job was as a busboy at Perkins Pancake House. After high school, Williams attended Brookdale Community College, after which he transferred to The Catholic University of America and George Washington University, he did not graduate, instead interned with the administration of President Jimmy Carter. He called leaving college one of his "great regrets." Williams first worked in broadcasting in 1981 at KOAM-TV in Kansas. The following year he covered news in the Washington, D.
C. area at then-independent station WTTG worked in Philadelphia for WCAU, which at that time was owned and operated by CBS. Beginning in 1987 he broadcast in New York City at WCBS. Williams joined NBC News in 1993, where he anchored the national Weekend Nightly News and was chief White House correspondent. In the summer of 1996 he began serving as anchor and managing editor of The News with Brian Williams, broadcast on MSNBC and CNBC. Williams served as primary substitute anchor for Tom Brokaw on The NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw, the Weekend anchor of that news broadcast. Williams became anchor of NBC Nightly News on December 2, 2004, replacing the retiring Tom Brokaw, his first year in that post was marked by coverage of two disasters: the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina, his and NBC's Katrina coverage was praised, Williams in particular was applauded "for venting his anger and frustration over the government's failure to act to help the victims." NBC News was awarded a Peabody Award for its coverage, the Peabody committee concluding that "Williams, the entire staff of NBC Nightly News exemplified the highest levels of journalistic excellence in reporting on Hurricane Katrina."
NBC Nightly News earned the George Polk Award and the duPont-Columbia University Award for its Katrina coverage. Vanity Fair called Williams' work on Katrina "Murrow-worthy" and reported that during the hurricane, he became "a nation's anchor." The New York Times characterized Williams' reporting of the hurricane as "a defining moment."In 2007, Time magazine named Williams one of the 100 most influential people in the world. In 2009, Williams was awarded the Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism by Arizona State University. At the announcement of the award, Cronkite said he was one of Williams' "ardent admirers" and described him as a "fastidious newsman" who brought credit to the television news reporting profession. While anchoring the Nightly News, Williams received 12 Documentary Emmy Awards. For "outstanding" work as anchor and managing editor of the Nightly News, he received one Emmy in 2006, two in 2007, one in 2009, two in 2010, one in 2011, one in 2013, one in 2014; the 2014 Emmy was awarded Nightly News for its coverage of a deadly series of tornadoes in Oklahoma, for which it received the duPont-Columbia University Award.
Williams received a 2012 Emmy for his interview program Rock Center and a 2013 Emmy for being one of the executive producers and editors of a documentary on the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, he shared a 2014 Emmy awarded for an NBC News Special on the Boston Marathon bombing. Based on the Nielsen ratings, from late 2008 Williams' news broadcast had more viewers than its two main rivals, ABC's World News Tonight and CBS Evening News. In fact, from late 2008 to late 2014, NBC Nightly News beat the other two network programs in the Nielsen ratings all but one week. In February 2015, Williams was suspended for six months from the broadcast for misrepresenting his experience in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. At the time, his salary was $10 million a year, with a five-year contract signed in December 2014. On October 4, 2011, it was announced that Williams would be the host of Rock Center with Brian Williams, a news magazine program premiering on October 31, 2011, at 10:00 pm Eastern, replacing the canceled drama series The Playboy Club.
Named after the nickname of Rockefeller Center, the New York City landmark where NBC Radio City Studios are located, the program would become the first new NBC News program to launch in primetime in nearly two decades. NBC cancelled Rock Center o