Maurice was Eastern Roman Emperor from 582 to 602. A prominent general in his youth, Maurice fought with success against the Sassanid Persians, Maurice campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars – pushing them back across the Danube by 599. He conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Roman Emperor to do so in two centuries. In the West, he established two large provinces called exarchates, ruled by exarchs, or viceroys, of the emperor. In Italy, Maurice established the Exarchate of Ravenna in 584, with the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590, he further solidified the power of Constantinople in the western Mediterranean. His reign was troubled by financial difficulties and almost constant warfare, in 602, a dissatisfied general named Phocas usurped the throne, having Maurice and his six sons executed. This event would prove cataclysmic for the Empire, sparking a twenty-six year war with Sassanid Persia which would leave both empires devastated prior to the Muslim conquests and his reign is a relatively accurately documented era of Late Antiquity, in particular by the historian Theophylact Simocatta.
The Strategikon, a manual of war which influenced European and Middle Eastern military traditions for well over a millennium, is attributed to Maurice. Maurice was born in Arabissus in Cappadocia in 539, the son of a certain Paul and he had one brother and two sisters and Gordia, the wife of the general Philippicus. He is recorded to have been a native Greek speaker, unlike previous emperors since Anastasius I Dicorus and he may have been a Cappadocian Greek, or a Hellenized Armenian. This issue cannot be determined in any way, the historian Evagrius Scholasticus records a descent from old Rome. Maurice first came to Constantinople as a notarius, and came to serve as a secretary to the comes excubitorum Tiberius, when Tiberius was named Caesar in 574, Maurice was appointed to succeed him as comes excubitorum. At about the time, he was raised to the rank of patricius. He scored a victory against the Persians in 581. A year later, he married Constantina, the Emperors daughter, on 13 August, he succeeded his father-in-law as Emperor.
Upon his ascension he ruled a bankrupt Empire, at war with Persia, paying extremely high tribute to the Avars, and the Balkan provinces thoroughly devastated by the Slavs, the situation was tumultuous at best. Maurice had to continue the war against the Persians, in 586, his troops defeated them at the Battle of Solachon south of Dara. Despite a serious mutiny in 588, the managed to continue the war
A tessera is an individual tile, usually formed in the shape of a cube, used in creating a mosaic. It is known as an abaciscus or abaculus, in early antiquity, mosaics were formed from naturally formed colored pebbles, but by 200 BCE cut stone tesserae were being used in Ancient Roman decorative mosaic panels and floor mosaics. Marble or limestone were cut into cubes and arranged into representational designs. Later, tesserae were made from colored glass, or clear glass backed with metal foils, the Byzantines used tesserae with gold leaf, in which case the glass pieces were flatter, with two glass pieces sandwiching the gold. This produced a golden reflection emanating from in between the tesserae as well as their front, causing a far richer and more effect than even plain gold leaf would create. Vitreous glass These are manufactured glass tiles made to a uniform shape and they are made by molten glass being poured into trays and fired. An imprint of grooves is made on their underside for help with adhesion to cement when fixing, ceramic tesserae These are the cheapest range of bought materials and can be glazed or unglazed.
The glazed ceramic tiles have the color painted onto the top of the clay, the unglazed or body glazed version has the color mixed into the wet clay so the color runs through them. Smalti This is the classic mosaic material and it is opaque glass fired in large slabs in a kiln and hand cut with a hammer and hardy chisel into small cubes. Their irregular finish makes them a wonderful reflector of light and this material is best used working straight into cement and it is produced in Venice and sold by colour and weight. Gold smalti This tile is made with gold and silver leaf sandwiched between two layers of glass and fired twice in the kiln to embed in the metal. Mirror Mirror adds great depth and sparkle to a mosaic and it is cheap as offcuts from a glass cutting shop are often free. Use mirror glue as this protects the silver on the back of the mirror, stained glass Known for its translucent qualities stained glass is available in opaque form. It comes as large sheets that can be cut into sections with a glasscutter.
It can provide areas of larger pieces for variety and contrast. Household ceramic tiles & china Colours and surfaces are limitless and can add wonderful texture, tessellation — describes tessellation patterns Mosaic — describes techniques for assembling tesserae into a design Mosaic Glass Tile – Terms and Definitions
Valens, fully Flavius Julius Valens Augustus, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latters accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople and his brother Valentinian were both born in Cibalae into an Illyrian family in 328 and 321 respectively. They had grown up on estates purchased by their father Gratian the Elder in Africa, while Valentinian had enjoyed a successful military career prior to his appointment as emperor, Valens apparently had not. He had spent much of his youth on the estate and only joined the army in the 360s. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, was asphyxiated during a stop at Dadastana,100 miles east of Ankara, among Jovians lieutenants was Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February,364, Valentinian felt that he needed help to govern the large and troublesome empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, appointed his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon.
The two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Sirmium, where they divided their personnel, Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt and Anatolia as far east as Persia. Valens was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364, in 365, an undersea earthquake between magnitudes 8 and 9 near Crete caused a tsunami that hit the coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean. Valenss first priority after the winter of 365 was to move east in hopes of shoring up the situation, by the autumn of 365 he had reached Cappadocian Caesarea when he learned that a usurper, named Procopius, had proclaimed himself in Constantinople. When he died, Julian the emperor had left one surviving relative. Procopius had been charged with overseeing a northern division of his relatives army during the Persian expedition and had not been present when Jovian was named his successor, though Jovian made accommodations to appease this potential claimant, Procopius fell increasingly under suspicion in the first year of Valens reign.
This program met with success, particularly among soldiers loyal to the Constantinians. When news arrived that Procopius had revolted, Valens considered abdication, even so, Valens sent two legions to march on Procopius, who easily persuaded them to desert to him. Later that year, Valens himself was captured in a scramble near Chalcedon. Troubles were exacerbated by the refusal of Valentinian to do any more than protect his own territory from encroachment, the failure of imperial resistance in 365 allowed Procopius to gain control of the dioceses of Thrace and Asiana by years end. Only in the spring of 366 had Valens assembled enough troops to deal with Procopius effectively, marching out from Ancyra through Pessinus, Valens proceeded into Phrygia where he defeated Procopiuss general Gomoarius at the Battle of Thyatira. He met Procopius himself at Nacoleia and convinced his troops to desert him, Procopius was executed on 27 May and his head sent to Valentinian in Trier for inspection
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as an element in nature, it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels, by the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used for rust and corrosion prevention on steel, ionized manganese is used industrially as pigments of various colors, which depend on the oxidation state of the ions. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers, Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In biology, manganese ions function as cofactors for a variety of enzymes with many functions.
Manganese enzymes are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen. Manganese functions in the complex of photosynthetic plants. The element is a trace mineral for all known living organisms but is a neurotoxin. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater effectiveness through inhalation, Manganese is a silvery-gray metal that resembles iron. It is hard and very brittle, difficult to fuse, Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic. Manganese tarnishes slowly in air and oxidizes like iron in water containing dissolved oxygen, naturally occurring manganese is composed of one stable isotope, 55Mn. Eighteen radioisotopes have been isolated and described, the most stable being 53Mn with a half-life of 3.7 million years, 54Mn with a half-life of 312.3 days, and 52Mn with a half-life of 5.591 days. All of the radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than three hours, and the majority of less than one minute. Manganese has three meta states, Manganese is part of the iron group of elements, which are thought to be synthesized in large stars shortly before the supernova explosion.
53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half-life of 3.7 million years, because of its relatively short half-life, 53Mn is relatively rare, produced by cosmic rays impact on iron. Manganese isotopic contents are combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology
Bacton is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England. It is on the Norfolk coast, some 20 km south-east of Cromer,40 km north-west of Great Yarmouth and 30 km north of Norwich, besides the village of Bacton, the parish includes the nearby settlements of Bacton Green, Broomholm and Pollard Street. It includes Edingthorpe, which was added to Bacton civil parish under the County of Norfolk Review Order,1935, the seaside village is located on the North Norfolk coast between Mundesley a blue flag beach and Walcott, Norfolk. Bacton is known for its very quiet sandy beaches offering miles of walking along the beach, the England Coast Path passes through the village and the Paston Way long distance footpath linking Cromer and North Walsham. In the east of the parish can be found the ruined Cluniac Bromholm Priory. The civil parish has an area of 9.45 km², for the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk. Amenities in the include a public house, n hotel.
In addition there are several parks and estates consisting of privately owned holiday chalets. During the First World War there was an airfield located nearby, the village and adjoining coastline has extensive sea defences, erected to prevent coastal erosion. Part of this sea wall in nearby Walcott, Norfolk was damaged in the surge in December 2013. North of Bacton lies the village of Paston where the Bacton Gas Terminal is located
The word zoomorphism derives from the Greek ζωον, meaning animal, and μορφη, meaning shape or form. But this does not portray anything exactly like zoomorphism, Holy Spirit is seen like a dove and He is not a dove. The Holy Spirit was seen like a dove, bible does not teach zoomorphic appearance of God. Mark the Evangelist as a lion in Christian iconography, the Egyptian gods were often depicted as zoomorphic or as hybrid A literary phrase such as The roar of the ocean. Sin lurking like a beast waiting to devour Cain in Genesis, fenrisulfr, a wolf in Norse mythology Airavata, the king god of elephants in Indian mythology. For instance, in Bedknobs and Broomsticks, the army that fights the Nazis is composed of anthropomorphized knightly body armor, in The Flintstones and Night at the Museum, the dinosaurs Dino and Rexy behave and vocalize like dogs. The city of Wau was to be transformed in the shape of a giraffe
Congleton is a town and civil parish in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Dane 21 miles south of Manchester and to the west of the Macclesfield Canal. The town had a population of 26,482 according to the Census 2011, of unknown origin, the first recorded reference to the towns name was in 1282, when it was spelt Congelton. The element Congle could relate to the old Norse kang meaning a bend followed by the element the Old English tun meaning settlement, the first settlements in the Congleton area were Neolithic. Stone Age and Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the town, Congleton was once thought to have been a Roman settlement, although there is no archaeological or documentary evidence to support this. Congleton became a town after Vikings destroyed nearby Davenport. Godwin, Earl of Wessex held the town in the Saxon period, the town is mentioned in the Domesday Book, where it is listed as Cogeltone, Bigot de Loges. William the Conqueror granted the whole of Cheshire to his nephew the Earl of Chester, in the 13th century, Congleton belonged to the de Lacy family.
Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln granted the town its first charter in 1272, enabling it to hold fairs and markets, elect a mayor and ale taster, have a merchant guild and behead known criminals. In 1451, the River Dane flooded, destroying a number of buildings, the river was diverted and the town rebuilt on higher ground. Congleton became notorious in the 1620s when bear-baiting, as well as cockfighting, were popular sports, the town was unable to attract large crowds to its bear-baiting contests and lacked the money to pay for a new, more aggressive bear. The town used money it had saved to buy a Bible and it became legend that Congleton sold its Bible to pay for a new bear. The chorus of 20th-century folk song Congleton Bear, by folk artist John Tams, Congleton Rare, the legend earned Congleton the nickname Beartown. During the Civil War, former mayor and lawyer, John Bradshaw and his signature as Attorney General was the first on the kings death warrant. A plaque on Bradshaw House in Lawton Street commemorates him, almost opposite the town hall, the White Lion public house bears a blue plaque, placed by the Congleton Civic Society, which reads, The White Lion, built 16–17th century.
Said to have housed the office where John Bradshaw, regicide. King Edward I granted permission to build a mill, Congleton became an important centre of textile production, especially leather gloves and lace. Congleton had a silk throwing mill, the Old Mill built by John Clayton. More mills followed, and cotton was spun, the towns prosperity depended on tariffs imposed on imported silk
The Anglo-Saxons are a people who have inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including government of shires. During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and law were established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England, in scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity and it developed from divergent groups in association with the peoples adoption of Christianity, and was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established, the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Behind the symbolic nature of these emblems, there are strong elements of tribal. The elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, and identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms, above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed and extended kin groups remained. the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as Anglo-Saxon is fraught with difficulties and this term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The Old English ethnonym Angul-Seaxan comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum, Anglo-Saxon is a term that was rarely used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is not an autonym. It is likely they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more probably, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age or the conquest of 1016, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders, Saxones who attacked the shores of Britain, procopius states that Britain was settled by three races, the Angiloi and Britons. The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean English Saxons, the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli, for example in the story of Pope Gregory I and his remark, Non Angli sed angeli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people, at other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which presumably meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex, the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, smaller towns include Stone and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Kinver, Penkridge and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Pirehill, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands.
The Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield.
The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent.
They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years