Forsyth County, Georgia
Forsyth County is a county in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. At the 2010 census, the population was 175,511; the county seat is Cumming. Forsyth County is one of the fastest-growing areas in the United States, stimulated by its proximity to Atlanta and appeal as a commuter base for people working there; the influx of high-earning professionals has increased the average income dramatically. In the 1980s, the county attracted national media attention as the site of large civil rights demonstrations and counter-demonstrations. Organizers hoped to dispel the county's image as a hate-filled sundown town. Thousands of marchers on both sides came from outside the area. From 2007 to 2009, the county received national attention because of a severe drought. Water supplies for the Atlanta area and downstream areas of Alabama and Florida were threatened; this followed a more severe drought in 2007 and 2008, flooding in 2009. Flooding occurred in 2013, severe drought again in 2016. Georgia and Florida have been in a tri-state water dispute since 1990 over apportionment of water flow from Lake Lanier, which forms the eastern border of the county and is regulated by the Army Corps of Engineers as a federal project.
For thousands of years, varying indigenous cultures lived in this area along the Etowah River. Starting near the end of the first millennium, Mound Builders of the Mississippian culture settled in this area, they disappeared about 1500CE. Members of the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee Nation migrated into the area from the North from the Great Lakes area, they settled in the territory that would become Forsyth County and throughout upper Georgia and Alabama having settlements or towns in present-day Tennessee and western North Carolina. After the discovery of gold by European Americans in the surrounding area in 1829, numerous settlers moved into the area, they increased the pressure on the state and federal government to have the Cherokee and other Native Americans removed to west of the Mississippi River, in order to extinguish their land claims and make land available for purchase. The Cherokee were forced to relocate during. Forsyth County was named after John Forsyth, Governor of Georgia from 1827–1829 and Secretary of State under Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren.
For many years, much of this hill country was farmed by yeomen farmers. The county population of about 10,000 was 90 percent white in the early 20th century, residents still depended on agriculture, its more than 1,000 "blacks" included 440 persons classified as mixed race on the census, indicating a continuing history of racial mixing that dated to slavery times. After two different incidents in September 1912, in which black men were alleged to have raped white women, tensions rose in the county. In the first case, a black preacher was assaulted by whites for suggesting that the alleged victim may have been having a consensual relationship with a black man; the Sheriff gained support from the governor, who sent more than 20 National Guard troops to keep peace. The suspects in the first case were never tried, for lack of evidence. In the second case, five suspects were held in the Cumming jail. A lynch mob of 4,000 whites dragged out one of the men, they hanged his body on the town square. The woman rape victim died two weeks after being attacked.
Charges against two of the four suspects held in the second case were dropped after a plea bargain. But two black youths under the age of 18 were convicted by all-white juries and executed by hanging. Whites afterward intimidated blacks in Forsyth and neighboring counties. Within weeks, they forced most of the blacks to leave the region in fear of their lives, losing land and personal property, never recovered; every single one of Forsyth's 1,098 African Americans — prosperous and poor and unlettered — was driven out of the county. It took only a few weeks. Marauding residents wielded guns, sticks of dynamite, bottles of kerosene, they stole everything, from farmland to tombstones. Forsyth County remained white right through the 20th century. A black man or woman couldn't so much as drive through without being run out.... During the 1950s and'60s, there were no "colored" water fountains in the courthouse or "whites only" diners in the county seat, Cumming. By 1987, the county was "all white". In 1997, African Americans numbered just 39 in a population of 75,739.
During the 1950s, with the introduction of the poultry industry, the county had steady economic growth but remained rural and all white in population. Georgia State Route 400 opened in 1971 and was extended through the county and northward; the opening of Georgia State Route 400 spurred industrial growth in the South West portion of the county along the McFarland Parkway area starting in the early 1970s. By 1980, the county population was 27,500, growing to 40,000
Atlanta–Fulton Public Library System
The Atlanta–Fulton Public Library System is a network of public libraries serving the City of Atlanta and Fulton County, both in the U. S. state of Georgia. The system is administered by Fulton County; the system is composed of the Central Library in Downtown Atlanta, which serves as the library headquarters, as well as the Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, 33 branch libraries. The origins of the public library system lie in the Young Men's Library Association, a subscription library system established in 1867; the YMLA was open to the public. Membership was restricted to white men until 1873; the YMLA system remained the de facto library system of the city for the rest of the century. During the 1890s, the YMLA, Andrew Carnegie, the City of Atlanta, started to work out the details of a new public library in Atlanta. On March 4, 1902, the first public library, the Carnegie Library, opened on the site of the current Central Library; when the library opened, only the basement, the stacks, the children's room were completed.
The Carnegie Library remained the main library of the system for most of the century. The library was renovated in 1966 through city bond funding. Before 1950 the system was referred to as the Carnegie Library, but to commemorate the renovation of the central Carnegie Library the system was renamed the Atlanta Public Library in 1950. In 1977 the Carnegie Library was torn down to make way for the current Central Library. A few pieces of the building's architectural bays were preserved and used to create a monument to higher education in Atlanta; the majority of the facade was dumped by the Mayor on the old Atlanta Prison Farm property where it lies today half buried in the woods. The Carnegie Library was so successful that within a year after the opening of the library, Carnegie suggested he would give more money to open branch libraries. In 1906 Carnegie formally offered $30,000 for the construction of two branch libraries, as long as the city provided a site and arranged financial support for the library.
The Anne Wallace Library, named in honor of the first Carnegie Library librarian, opened in 1909 on the corner of Luckie Street and Merritts Avenue in Northwest Atlanta. Many new branch libraries followed in the years to come; the Ragsdale branch, located in Oakland City, opened in 1912, in 1913 the Uncle Remus Branch opened in the West End home of Joel Chandler Harris. Over the next century the library system has expanded from four branches in 1913 to the 34 branches operating today. By 1924 the library system had eight branches throughout the city, by 1967 the system had 19 branches. In the first decades of the library system service was maintained for Atlanta residents only, as a result Fulton County was left without library service. Using Works Progress Administration and city funds, the City of Atlanta and the Fulton County Board of Commissioners signed a contract in 1935 to provide library coverage throughout the county. In 1982, Georgia passed a constitutional amendment that allowed the city to transfer control of the system to the county, in 1983 the system was turned over the county control.
To reflect the change in control the system was renamed the Atlanta–Fulton Public Library System. When the Carnegie Library opened in 1902, blacks were excluded from the library. Activist W. E. B. Du Bois led an unsuccessful campaign for black representation and equal use of the library, or at the least a branch library for blacks, but the library board rebuffed his efforts. Carnegie had offered funds for a black branch library, but the library system did not use the money until 1921 when the system opened the Auburn Avenue Branch Library, the first branch library for blacks. During segregation two other libraries were opened for the use of blacks. In 1959, Irene Dobbs Jackson, the mother of future Atlanta mayor Maynard Jackson requested a library card for the central library. After days of public furor, the library board voted to allow blacks full access to the library on 19 May 1959. Between 1966 and 1973 the library staff was desegregated. In 2008 Fulton County voters approved a $275 million library bond referendum, which provides money for renovation and construction of library facilities in Fulton County.
The plan includes money for eight new libraries, a new central library, expansions of two libraries, renovations of 23 branch libraries. Five 25,000-square-foot libraries will be built in Alpharetta, Northwest Atlanta, Wolf Creek, Stewart-Lakewood; the Alpharetta and Stewart-Lakewood libraries will replace existing 10,000-square-foot libraries, the Northwest Atlanta library will replace three small branch libraries, the Milton and Wolf Creek libraries will be new. A new 10,000-square-foot library will be built in Palmetto/Chattahoochee Hill County, two new 15,000-square-foot libraries will be built in Southeast Atlanta and East Roswell; the Southeast Atlanta library will replace three small branch libraries. In the original Library Facility Master Plan $34 million was allocated to restore and upgrade the site. In the final referendum, however, $84 million was provided for the construction of a new 300,000-square-foot central library; the Auburn Avenue Research Library and the South Fulton branch library will be expanded.
The Central Library in Downtown Atlanta serves as the headquarters of the library system. Completed in 1980, it was the last building to be designed by Bauhaus-movement architect Marcel Breuer; the building, designed in the brutalist architectural style, is considered a "masterpiece" by architectural experts, such as Barry Bergdoll, the Chief Architectural Curat
Gwinnett County Public Library
The Gwinnett County Public Library is located in unincorporated Gwinnett County, Georgia, USA, north-east of Atlanta. The library has 15 branches throughout the county and employs an interlibrary loan system for those with a valid library card. In 2000 the Gwinnett County Public Library won the Library of the Year award. In 2009 it won the John Cotton Dana Award, the most prestigious of all library awards in the field of public relations and marketing; this library system has achieved the highest amounts of material circulation out of all libraries in Georgia. The first library in the Gwinnett County region was the Norcross library, established in 1907 by the Norcross Woman's Club. Following this, in 1935, the Lawrenceville PTA began the Lawrenceville Public Library in City Hall, renamed to the Gwinnett County Library the following year. In 1956, in an effort to consolidate resources with nearby Forsyth county, the two library systems agreed to form a joint venture named the Gwinnett-Forsyth Regional Library.
During this time Gwinnett county opened the Lake Lanier Regional Library in Buford, libraries in Snellville and Mountain Park. As the Atlanta metropolitan region began to fill out and the surrounding counties saw a huge influx of residents, therefore a much greater need to expand their library services. In 1986 a bond referendum allowed for each of the seven existing branches to be updated, allocated funds for the construction of an eighth branch at Peachtree Corners. Following suit not long after, Forsyth county received monies to refurbish their libraries and add a location of their own. With the increasing amount of branches in the Gwinnett-Forsyth Regional Library System, Gwinnett county opted to dissolve the venture in 1996, it is at this point. In 1999, the GCPL's tenth branch opened at Collin's Hill, it was named a finalist for the Library of the Year award. In 2000 the library system was again among finalists for library of the year, at this point won. In 2002 the Centerville branch opened, sharing facilities with the adjacent Gwinnett County community center.
A twelfth branch opened in Suwanne in 2004, yet another in Dacula in 2006. In 2005 the Grayson branch was opened, in 2010 the Hamilton Mill branch opened as a LEED Gold certified building. In 1997, Gwinnett County Public Library removed Nancy Friday's bestseller Women On Top from its collection after two patrons complained about its sexual content. Connie Cosby, one of the patrons, had requested that the book be made unavailable to children, was "stunned" but "ecstatic" that library director Jo Ann Pinder removed it entirely. Women On Top became the fourth book Gwinnett County Public Library had removed from its shelves because of complaints about content; the library's decision prompted many residents to write letters opposing and supporting the library's decision. Area booksellers reported increased sales of the book. One county resident called for Pinder and another librarian to be fired for describing the reasons for the book's removal as "editing errors and changes in library purchasing guidelines" rather than stating that it was censored because of its sexual content.
As a result of the controversy, Gwinnett County Public Library created a "parental advisory" category for books deemed suitable only for adults, allowing parents to give consent for their minor children to check those items out. The library created an advisory board to review the process for handling residents' complaints about library materials, on the advice of county lawyers the library opened those meetings to the public; the library made it easier to request removing books from the library, on the advice of the advisory board, because the old form had been "too complicated". Forsyth County Public Library to the north. Hall County Library System to the north east. Uncle Remus Regional Library System to the east. Conyers-Rockdale Library System to the south. DeKalb County Public Library to the south west. Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System to the west. Gwinnett County Public Library
Gwinnett County, Georgia
Gwinnett County is a county in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of 2017, the population is estimated to be 920,260, making it the second-most populous county in Georgia, its county seat is Lawrenceville. The county is named for one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Gwinnett County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Created in 1818 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly, Gwinnett County was formed from parts of Jackson County and from lands gained through the cession of Creek Indian lands. Named for Button Gwinnett, one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence, the first county election was held at the home of Elisha Winn, the first Superior Court was held in his barn; the county seat was placed at Lawrenceville. In 1831 a group of white men were tried and found guilty in Lawrenceville for violating Georgia law by living in the Cherokee Nation without a valid passport from the Governor. Two of the men appealed to the US Supreme Court in Worcester v. Georgia, which resulted in a ruling stating that only the federal government had jurisdiction over native lands, a decision which still stands.
The Freedmen's Bureau was active in Gwinnett County during Reconstruction. In 1871 the courthouse in Lawrenceville was burned by the Ku Klux Klan in an attempt to avoid prosecution for their crimes, which included the shooting of a black election manager in Norcross. In 1861, all three of Gwinnett County's representatives at the Georgia Constitutional Convention in Milledgeville voted against secession. Towards the end of the war, Union troops foraging in Gwinnett County as part of the Atlanta Campaign. Early in the county's history, gold mining was a minor industry; the Gwinnett Manufacturing Company, a cotton textile factory, operated in Lawrenceville in the 1850s through 1865, when it burned. The Bona Allen Company in Buford, Georgia produced saddles and other leather goods from 1873 to 1981; the northeastern part of Gwinnett County was removed to form a part of the new Barrow County in 1914. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 437 square miles, of which 430 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles is water.
It is located along the Eastern Continental Divide. A portion of the county to the northwest is a part of the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area chain. Allocation of water from the regional reservoir, Lake Lanier, at the extreme north of the county, has been subject to the Tri-state water dispute; the southern and central portions of Gwinnett County are located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Most of the county's northern edge, from south of Peachtree Corners to north of Buford, is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the county's eastern edge and south of Dacula, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. The county maintains a regional airport under the name Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field. Xpress GA/ RTA Commuter buses and Gwinnett County Transit serve the county. Norcross Greyhound Bus Terminal, 2105 Norcross Pkwy, Norcross, GA 30071 On April 12, 2018, Gwinnett County Officials updated the transit plans to connect to the rest of Metro Atlanta via heavy rail.
In 2016, Suwanee unvealed the first Bike Share program in Gwinnett County. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 805,321 people, 268,519 households, 203,238 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,871.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 291,547 housing units at an average density of 677.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 53.3% White, 23.6% black or African American, 10.6% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 8.8% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 20.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.3% were German, 7.8% were Irish, 7.7% were English, 5.8% were American. Of the 268,519 households, 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families, 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.40.
The median age was 33.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $63,219 and the median income for a family was $70,767. Males had a median income of $48,671 versus $39,540 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,901. About 8.7% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. AGCO is headquartered in Duluth. American Megatrends is headquartered in Building 200, at 5555 Oakbrook Parkway, in unincorporated Gwinnett County, near Norcross. Primerica is headquartered near Duluth. Waffle House is headquartered near Norcross. Yerkes National Primate Research Center, the CDC's primate research center located on the campus of Emory University near Atlanta, maintains its high security Yerkes Field Station, which houses most of its primates, near Lawrenceville. Canon has its southeast region headquarters in Norcross. Datapath, a firm specializing in satellite communications and wireless communications systems, is headquartered in unincorporated Gwinnett, near Duluth.
Under Georgia's "home rule" provision, county governments have free rein to legislate on all matters within the county, provided that such legislation does not conflict with state or federal l
Cumming is a city in Forsyth County, United States, the sole incorporated area in the county. It is part of the Atlanta metropolitan area, its population was 5,430 at the 2010 census, up from 4,200 in 2000. Surrounding unincorporated areas with a Cumming mailing address have a population of 100,000. Cumming is the county seat of Forsyth County; the area now called Cumming is located west of the historic location of Vann's Ferry between Forsyth County and Hall County. The area, now called Cumming, was first inhabited by Cherokee tribes, they came in 1755. The Cherokee and Creek people developed disputes over hunting land. After two years of fighting, the Cherokee won the land in the Battle of Taliwa; the Creek people were forced to move south of the Chattahoochee River. The Cherokee coexisted with white settlers until the discovery of gold in Georgia in 1828. Settlers that moved to the area to mine for gold pushed for the removal of the Cherokee. In 1835, the Treaty of New Echota was signed; the treaty stated that the Cherokee Nation must move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
This resulted in the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee territory was formed into Cherokee County in 1831. In 1832, the county was split into several counties including Forsyth County. In 1833, the town of Cumming was formed from two 40-acre land lots, issued as part of a Georgia State Land Lottery in 1832; the two lots designated as Land Lot 1269 and Land Lot 1270 were purchased by a couple of Forsyth County Inferior Court justices who realized that it was necessary to have a seat of government to conduct county business. The boundaries of the two lots ended at what is now Tolbert Street on the west side, Eastern Circle on the east side, Resthaven Street on the south side, School Street on the north side. In 1834 the post office began delivering mail; the justices of the Inferior Court divided the town land into smaller lots and began selling them to people over the next several years, reserving one lot for the county courthouse. During that same year, the Georgia State Legislature incorporated the town of Cumming into the City of Cumming and made it the official government seat of Forsyth County.
The community is thought to be named after Colonel William Cumming. An alternate theory proposed by a local historian posits the name honors Rev. Frederick Cumming, a professor of Jacob Scudder, a resident of the area since 1815 who owned land in present-day downtown. During the 1830s and 1840s, Cumming benefited from the gold mining industry as many businesses were created to meet the needs of the miners. However, the California Gold Rush in 1849 put the city into an economic depression. Newly built railroads bypassed the city and took traffic from the Federal Road that ran near Cumming; the city was spared during the Civil War because William T. Sherman did not pass through the city during his March to the Sea. In 1900, the county courthouse was destroyed in a fire. In 1912, Governor Joseph M. Brown sent four companies of state militia to Cumming to prevent riots after several rapes of young white women by African-American men; the governor declared martial law, but the effort did little to stop a month-long barrage of attacks by night riders on the African-American citizens.
This led to the banishment of Blacks, the city had no black population. Racial tensions were strained again in 1987 when a group of black people were assaulted while camping at a park on Lake Lanier; this was reported by local newspapers and in Atlanta. As a result of this a local businessman decided to hold a "Peace March" the following week. Civil rights leader, the Reverend Hosea Williams joined the local businessman in a march along Bethelview and Castleberry Road in south Forsyth County into the City of Cumming, where they were assaulted by whites; the marchers vowed to return. During the following "Brotherhood March" on January 24, 1987, another racially mixed group returned to Forsyth County to complete the march the previous group had been unable to finish. March organizers estimated the number at 20,000, while police estimates ran from 12-14,000. Hosea Williams and former senator Gary Hart were in the demonstration. A group of the National Guard kept the opposition of about 1,000 in check.
Oprah Winfrey featured Forsyth County on her Oprah Winfrey Show. She formed a town hall meeting where one audience member said: However, most of the audience members agreed that Forsyth County should integrate. Rev. Hosea Williams was arrested for trespassing. Today, the city is experiencing new growth and bears little resemblance to the small rural town it was mere decades ago; the completion of Georgia 400 has helped turn Cumming into a commuter town for metropolitan Atlanta. The city holds the Cumming Country Festival every October; the Sawnee Mountain Preserve provides views of the city from the top of Sawnee Mountain. In 1956, Buford Dam, along the Chattahoochee River, started operating; the reservoir that it created is called Lake Lanier. The lake, a popular spot for boaters, has generated income from tourists for Cumming as well as provides a source of drinking water. However, because of rapid growth of the Atlanta area and mishandling of a stream gauge, Lake Lanier has seen record-low water levels.
Moreover, the lake is involved in a longstanding lawsuit between Georgia and Florida. Because of a recent ruling, the city may not be able to withdraw its water. However, the city is looking into different sources of water such as various creeks. Cumming is located in the center of Forsyth County at 34°12′30″N 84°8′15″W, it is 39 miles northeast of dow