The Ellis Mounds are a complex of Native American mounds near Marysville in Union County, United States. These three mounds form an east-west line on a small ridgeline in a farm field. Believed to have been built by Hopewellian peoples, the mounds are important because they may reveal information about daily life in the Hopewell culture. Archaeologists who study the Hopewell have concentrated on their largest ceremonial centers: as a result, while the mortuary customs of the Hopewell are well known, other aspects of their culture are little understood. For this reason, a site such as Ellis that bears the potential of yielding information about such aspects is valuable indeed because its date has not yet been established: Ellis may have been built as early as 300 BC and as late as AD 600. Furthermore, the location of the mounds outside of the Hopewellian heartland farther south may demonstrate the spread of Hopewell influence, since excavations in numerous locations have demonstrated the necessity of assembling a complex society with many workers in order to construct the ceremonial mounds for which the Hopewell are well known.
In 1974, the archaeological significance of the Ellis Mounds was recognized when they were listed on the National Register of Historic Places. They are one of seven National Register sites in Union County and the only one in the county's northern regions: three of the other six are within Marysville's city limits.
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features. Earthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts, mounds, platform mounds, effigy mounds, long barrows, tumuli and furrow, round barrows, other tombs. Hill forts, a type of fort made out of earth and other natural materials including sand and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection. See Oppidum. Henge earthworks are those that consist of a flat area of earth in a circular shape that are encircled by a ditch, or several circular ditches, with a bank on the outside of the ditch built with the earth from inside the ditch, they are believed to have been used as monuments for spiritual ritual ceremonies. A mound is a substantial manmade pile of earth or rocks, created to mark burial sites Platform mounds are pyramid or rectangular-shaped mounds that are used to hold a building or temple on top.
An effigy mound is a pile of earth very large in scale, shaped into the image of a person or animal for symbolic or spiritual reasons An enclosure is a space, surrounded by an earthwork. Long barrows are oblong-shaped mounds. A tumulus or barrow is a mound of earth created over a tomb. A cross dyke or cross-ridge dyke is a bank and ditch, or sometimes a ditch between two banks, that crosses a ridge or spur of high ground. Found in Europe and belonging to the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Marked on Ordnance Survey maps in the UK. Ridge and furrows are sets of parallel depressions and ridges in the ground formed through historic farming techniques. Mottes are mound structures made of stone that once held castles, they are an important part of the motte-and-bailey castle, a castle design during early Norman times in which the castle is built on the motte, surrounded by a ditch and a bailey, an enclosure with a stone wall. A round barrow is a mound, in a rounded shape, used during Neolithic times as a burial mound.
Geoglyph, a large design or motif Earthworks can vary in height from a few centimetres to the size of Silbury Hill at 40 metres. They can date from the Neolithic to the present; the structures can stretch for many tens of kilometres. In area, they can cover many hectares. Shallow earthworks are more visible as cropmarks or in aerial photographs if taken when the sun is low in the sky and shadows are more pronounced. Earthworks may be more visible after a frost or a light dusting of snow. Earthworks plotted using Light Detection and Ranging; this technique is useful for mapping small variations in land height that would be difficult to detect by eye. It can be used for features hidden by other vegetation. LIDAR results can be input into a geographic information system to produce three-dimensional representations of the earthworks. An accurate survey of the earthworks can enable them to be interpreted without the need for excavation. For example, earthworks from deserted medieval villages can be used to determine the location and layout of lost settlements.
These earthworks can point to the purpose of such a settlement, as well the context in which it existed. Earthworks in North America include mounds built by Native Americans known as the Mound Builders. Ancient people who lived in the American Midwest built effigy mounds, which are mounds shaped like animals or people; the most famous of these effigy mounds is Serpent Mound. Located in the Ohio, this 411-meterlong earthen work is thought to memorialize alignments of the planets and stars that were of special significance to the Native Americans that constructed it. Cone-shaped or conical mounds are numerous, with thousands of them scattered across the American Midwest, some over 80 feet tall; these conical mounds appear to be marking the graves of one person or dozens of people. An example of a conical mound is the Miamisburg Mound in central Ohio, estimated to have been built by people of the Adena culture in the time range of 800 B. C. to 100 AD. The American Plains hold temple mounds, or platform mounds, which are giant pyramid-shaped mounds with flat tops that once held temples made of wood.
Examples of temple mounds include Monks Mound located at the Cahokia site in Collinsville and Mound H at the Crystal River site in Citrus County, Florida. The earthworks at Poverty Point occupy one of the largest-area sites in North America, as they cover some 920 acres of land in Louisiana. Military earthworks can result in subsequent archaeological earthworks. Examples include Roman marching forts. During the American Civil War, earthwork fortifications were built throughout the country, by both Confederate and Union sides; the largest earthwork fort built during the war was Fortress Rosecrans, which encompassed 255 acres. In northeastern Somalia, near the city of Bosaso at the end of the Baladi valley, lies an earthwork 2 km to 3 km long. Local tradition recounts, it is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region. Bigo is an extensive earthworks site located in the interlacustrine region of southwestern Uganda, Africa. Situated on the south shore of the Katonga river, the Big
Lebanon is a city in and the county seat of Warren County, United States, in the state's southwestern region, within the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The population was 20,033 at the 2010 census; the city has chorus. Lebanon is in the Symmes Purchase; the first European settler in what is now Lebanon was Ichabod Corwin uncle of Ohio Governor Thomas Corwin who came to Ohio from Bourbon County and settled on the north branch of Turtle Creek in March 1796. The site of his cabin is now on the grounds of Berry Intermediate School on North Broadway and is marked with a monument erected by the Warren County Historical Society; the town was laid out in September 1802 on land owned by Ichabod Corwin, Silas Hurin, Ephraim Hathaway, Samuel Manning in Sections 35 and 35 of Town 5, Range 3 North and Sections 5 and 6 of Town 4, Range 3 North of the Between the Miami Rivers Survey. Lebanon was named after the Biblical Lebanon because of the many juniper or Eastern Red cedar trees there, similar to the Lebanon Cedar.
It is known today as "The Cedar City". City legend has it that Lebanon didn't grow as large as Cincinnati or Dayton because of the'Shaker Curse.' During their migration, the Shakers decided an area outside of town was a suitable place for them to create a homeland for themselves. There was a disagreement with some of the locals and it was said the Shakers placed a curse on the city to hinder the city's prosperity. In reality, the Shakers thrived in the area, built a settlement about 4 miles west of Lebanon called Union Village. A local man, Malchalm Worley was their first convert. Since the Shakers did not engage in procreation, they relied on converts to increase their numbers. By 1900, there were no Shakers left in Ohio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.97 square miles, of which 12.96 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Interstate 71 U. S. Route 42 Ohio State Route 48 Ohio State Route 63 Ohio State Route 123 Ohio State Route 741 As of the census of 2010, there were 20,033 people, 7,436 households, 5,213 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,545.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,920 housing units at an average density of 611.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.7% White, 2.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 1.6% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. There were 7,436 households of which 41.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.9% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age in the city was 34.7 years. 29.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,962 people residing in the city.
The population density was 1,440.6 people per square mile. There were 6,218 housing units at an average density of 528.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.98% White, 6.36% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.13% of the population. There were 5,887 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 36.8% from 25 to 44, 16.8% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $46,856, the median income for a family was $52,578. Males had a median income of $40,361 versus $27,551 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,897. About 4.7% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. Lebanon lies within the Lebanon telephone exchange, but parts are in the Mason and South Lebanon exchanges. Local and long distance telephone services for the city are provided by CenturyLink and Cincinnati Bell; the city is one of the few in the nation to once operate a government-run cable television and telephone service, as well as being a fiber-to-the-neighborhood Internet service provider. Controversial since it began operation in 1999, the Lebanon telecommunications system had struggled to recover its expenses and had accumulated over $8 million in debt. However, residents in the area, at the time, paid up to 50% less for the aforementioned services than neighboring communities, therefore saving over $40 million of the residents' money.
In the 2006 general election, voters approved the sale of this city-run telecommunications system to Cincinnati Bell. Prisons operated by the Ohio Department of Corrections in the area include: Lebanon
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Warren County, Ohio
Warren County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 212,693, its county seat is Lebanon. The county was created on May 1803 from Hamilton County. Warren County is part of OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 407 square miles, of which 401 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles is water. The county is a rough square with the sides 20 miles long. Montgomery County Greene County Clinton County Clermont County Hamilton County Butler County Warren County was created by the first Ohio General Assembly in the Act of March 24, 1803, which created Butler and Montgomery Counties; the act defined Warren County as "all that part of the county of Hamilton included within the following bounds, viz.: Beginning at the northeast corner of the county of Clermont, running thence west with the line of said county to the Little Miami. This included land now in Clinton County as far east as Wilmington.
Clinton County proved a continuing headache to the legislature. The Ohio Constitution requires. Clinton County's boundaries were several times adjusted in an effort to comply with that clause of the constitution. One of them, the Act of January 30, 1815, detached a strip of land from the eastern side to give to Clinton; that would have left Warren under four hundred square miles, so a portion of Butler County was attached to Warren in compensation. The 1815 act was as follows: Section 1—That all that part of the county of Butler lying and being within the first and second fractional townships in the fifth range, adjoining the south line of Montgomery County, shall be and the same is hereby attached to and made part of the county of Warren. Section 2—That eleven square miles 28 km² of the territory of the county of Warren and extending parallel to the said eastern boundary of Warren County, along the whole length of such eastern boundary from north to south, shall be and the same is hereby attached to and made a part of the county of Clinton."Except for the sections formed by the Great and Little Miamis, the sides are all straight lines.
The major rivers of the county are the Great Miami River, which flows through the northwest corner of the county in Franklin Township, the Little Miami River which zig-zags across the county from north to south. There is one sizable lake, the Caesars Creek Reservoir, created by a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers dam on Caesars Creek in the northeast part of the county in Massie Township; as of the census of 2000, there were 158,383 people, 55,966 households, 43,261 families residing in the county. The population density was 396 people per square mile. There were 58,692 housing units at an average density of 147 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.66% White, 2.73% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population. There were 55,966 households out of which 39.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.20% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.70% were non-families.
18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.70% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 34.00% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, 9.40% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there were 102.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,952, the median income for a family was $64,692. Males had a median income of $47,027 versus $30,862 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,517. About 3.00% of families and 4.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.40% of those under age 18 and 4.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 212,693 people, 76,424 households, 57,621 families residing in the county; the population density was 530.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 80,750 housing units at an average density of 201.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.5% white, 3.9% Asian, 3.3% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.7% were German, 14.1% were Irish, 12.0% were English, 11.6% were American, 5.0% were Italian. Of the 76,424 households, 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were non-families, 20.4% of all households
Yarmouth is a town in Cumberland County, located twelve miles north of the state's largest city, Portland. The town was settled in 1636 and incorporated in 1849, its population was 8,349 in the 2010 census. As of 2015's estimation, this is about 0.6% of Maine's total population. Five islands are part of the town. Yarmouth is part of the Portland–South Portland-Biddeford Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town's proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its location on the banks of the Royal River, which empties into Casco Bay less than a mile away, means it is a prime location as a harbor. Ships were built in the harbor between 1818 and the 1870s, at which point demand declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the Royal River's four waterfalls within Yarmouth, whose Main Street sits about 80 feet above sea level, resulted in the foundation of sixty mills between 1674 and 1931; the annual Yarmouth Clam Festival attracts around 120,000 people over the course of the three-day weekend. Today, Yarmouth is a popular dining destination, with fourteen sit-down restaurants.
This equates to an average of just over one restaurant per square mile of land area. The town is accessed via two exits on each side of Interstate 295. U. S. Route 1 passes through the town to the west of I-295, it has been designated a Tree City USA community every year since 1979. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.94 square miles, of which, 13.35 square miles is land and 9.59 square miles is water. Yarmouth is bisected by the Royal River; the Cousins River separates it from Freeport to the northeast. Included as part of the town are Cousins Island, Lanes Island and Little Moshier islands, Littlejohn Island The Royal River appealed to settlers because its four waterfalls and 45-foot rise within a mile of navigable water each provided potential waterpower sites. In October 1674, the first sawmill, of Englishman Henry Sayward and Colonel Bartholomew Gedney, was built on the eastern side of the First Falls, by present-day Route 88; the Second Falls are just on Bridge Street.
Since 1674, 57 mills and several factories have stood on the banks of the river. The Native Americans called the First Falls Pumgustuk. In addition to the 1674 sawmill, this was the site of the first grist mill — Lower Grist Mills — built in 1813 and whose foundations support the overlook of today's Grist Mill Park; the mill, in business for 36 years, ground wheat and corn into flour using power generated by the water turbines set in the fast-flowing river below. Between 1870 and 1885, it was the site of Ansel Lothrop Loring's second mill, named Yarmouth Flour Mill, his first mill, up at the Fourth Falls, burned down in 1870. In 1720, Massachusetts native Gilbert Winslow erected a saw mill on Atwell's Creek; the creek was "a considerable watercourse then". Winslow married a daughter of Samuel; the first mill to go up on the western side of the river was Samuel Seabury & Jacob Mitchell's grist mill in 1729. The first bridge carrying East Main Street was erected, above the falls, in 1748, it was rebuilt in 1800 "below the dam."
By 1874, it was flanked by a grist mill, saw mill, a store and a carpenter's shop that took care of the needs of ships built in the harbor on the other side of the bridge. In 1911, Yarmouth Manufacturing Company's electric power plant was built on the site of J. L. Craig's sawmill. Businesses on this side included a fishing and camping equipment store and Industrial Wood Products. In the present-day building, at 1 Main Street, are F. M. Beck, C. A. White & Associates and Maine Environmental Laboratory. A variety of mills have used power from the Second Falls. A cotton rag paper mill, run by Massachusetts natives William Hawes and father-and-son due Henry and George Cox, operated on the falls side of the bridge and the eastern side of the river from 1816 until 1821, at which point it was purchased by William Reed Stockbridge and Calvin Stockbridge, who operated it for twenty years as W. R. & C. Stockbridge paper company. In 1836 it was incorporated as Yarmouth Paper Manufacturing Company, but when advancements in machinery and processes arrived, competition became too difficult and the mill closed.
On its site, Philip Kimball operated a mahogany mill. The first mill of note to stand where the current Sparhawk Mill looms large was North Yarmouth Manufacturing Company, it was founded in 1847 by Eleazer Burbank. The mill produced cotton cloth. Built in 1840, the brick-made mill replaced a wooden mill dating to 1817. In 1855