The Kentucky River is a tributary of the Ohio River,260 miles long, in the U. S. Its watershed encompasses about 7,000 square miles and it supplies drinking water to about one-sixth of the population of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The river is no longer navigable above Lock 4 at Frankfort, concrete bulkheads have been poured behind the upper lock gates of Locks 5-14 to strengthen the weakest link in the dam structures. All 14 dams are now under the management of the state-run Kentucky River Authority, the primary importance of the locks today is to maintain a pool that allows the city of Lexington to draw its drinking water from the river. Winchester, Irvine, Lancaster, Harrodsburg, Versailles, Lawrenceburg and it is estimated that over 700,000 people depend on the river for water. It joins the Ohio at Carrollton, approximately 15 miles southwest of Boonesborough it is joined by the Red River. Approximately 20 miles southwest of Boonesborough it is joined by Silver Creek, at High Bridge, it is joined by the Dix River.
At Frankfort, it is joined by Benson Creek, approximately 10 miles north of Frankfort, it is joined by Elkhorn Creek. Between Clays Ferry in Madison County and Frankfort, the passes through the Kentucky River Palisades. It continues on until it flows into the Ohio River at Carrollton in Carroll County, the North Fork Kentucky River is approximately 168 miles long. It flows generally northwest, in a course through the mountainous Cumberland Plateau, past Whitesburg, Hazard. It receives Rockhouse Creek at Blackey near its source, approximately 8 miles southeast of Hazard, it receives the Carr Fork. It receives Troublesome Creek at Haddix, southeast of Jackson, three miles upstream from its confluence with the South Fork, it receives the Middle Fork. It joins the South Fork to form the Kentucky at Beattyville, the Middle Fork Kentucky River is a tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River, approximately 105 miles long, in southeastern Kentucky. It rises in the Appalachian Mountains in southernmost Leslie County, approximately 16 miles from the Virginia state line, at Buckhorn, it is impounded to form the Buckhorn Lake reservoir.
North of the reservoir it flows generally northwest and joins the North Fork in Lee County, the South Fork Kentucky River is approximately 45 miles long. It is formed in Clay County, at the town of Oneida in the Daniel Boone National Forest, approximately 10 miles northeast of Manchester, by the confluence of Goose Creek and it flows generally north in a highly meandering course through the mountainous Cumberland Plateau region. It joins the North Fork to form the Kentucky at Beattyville, the largest goldeye ever taken in the state of Kentucky was caught in the Kentucky River
Richmond is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Madison County, United States. It is named after Richmond, and is the home of Eastern Kentucky University, the population was 33,533 in 2015. Richmond is the third-largest city in the Bluegrass region and the states sixth-largest city, Richmond serves as the center for work and shopping for south-central Kentucky. Richmond is the city of the Richmond–Berea Micropolitan Statistical Area. The City of Richmond was founded in 1798 by Colonel John Miller from Virginia, according to tradition, Miller was attracted to the area by the good spring water and friendly Native Americans. That year, the Kentucky legislature approved moving the county seat from Milford to land owned by Colonel Miller, the residents of Milford adamantly opposed the move, which led to a fist fight between Dave Kennedy and William Kearly. The county approved the move in March 1798, on July 4,1798, the new town was named Richmond in honor of Millers Virginia birthplace.
Kentucky was a state during the Civil War and stayed in the Union. On August 30,1862, during the Civil War, the Union, troops under Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith routed the soldiers of Union General William Nelson. Out of Nelsons 6,500 men, only 1,200 escaped, one historian called this battle the nearest thing to a Cannae ever scored by any general, North or South, in the course of the whole war. In 1906, Eastern Kentucky State Normal School was founded in Richmond to train teachers, there were eleven members of the first graduating class in 1909. By 1922 it had expanded its curriculum to a program and was established as a college. It added graduate-degree programs in 1935, in recognition of its academic departments and research, in 1965 the institution was renamed as Eastern Kentucky University. In the late 1990s and through the first decade of the 21st century, as of 2009, Richmond was Kentuckys seventh-largest city, moving up four places from ranking in the 2000 census as Kentuckys eleventh-largest city.
Richmond is located at 37°44′41″N 84°17′37″W, Richmond is situated among the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. The Kentucky River comprises the northern border of Madison County, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 19.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Richmond has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. Average Annual Rainfall is 45, which is fairly evenly throughout the year
Fort Donelson National Battlefield
The commanders received national recognition for their victories in February 1862, as they were the first major Union successes of the war. This struck a blow to the Confederacy early in the war. The main portion of the park, in Dover, Fort Heiman, in nearby Calloway County, was a Confederate battery in the Battle of Fort Henry. The most vulnerable area in the Confederate defensive line in the Western Theater was the state of Kentucky, the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers were potential avenues for a Union invasion of the South through Kentucky and into Tennessee and beyond. Since Kentucky had declared neutrality, the Confederacy could not build defensive works within the state without risking alienating the local population, the local population in western Kentucky was pro-Confederate. Kentuckys westernmost congressional district elected a secessionist and Lincoln proclaimed it to be in rebellion and they surveyed possible sites along the Cumberland River, noting the high ridges and deep hollows near the Kentucky border.
In mid-May, on the west bank of the not far below Dover, Anderson laid out the water battery of Fort Donelson. The new fort was named in honor of the Confederate General Daniel S. Donelson who, along with Colonel Bushrod Johnson of the Corps of Engineers, construction was begun by a large force of men brought from the nearby Cumberland Iron Works. The site was established as Fort Donelson National Military Park on March 26,1928, the national military park and national cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966 and it was redesignated a national battlefield on August 16,1985. Public Law 108-367 increased the authorized boundary of the battlefield from 551.69 acres to 2,000 acres. On October 30,2006, Calloway County transferred the Fort Heiman site to the Park Service, Fort Heiman had been listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 12,1976.
The Cumberland River was dammed in the 1960s, this area is referred to as Lake Barkley. It covers a roughly similar to the original river while at flood stage. The Fort Donelson National Cemetery, at 15.34 acres in Stewart County, contains 670 Union dead, there are numerous veterans from wars. The cemetery is presently unavailable for additional burials, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Where the South Lost the War, An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole books,2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6. NPS Fort Donelson National Battlefield site Public Law 108-367 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Fort Donelson Fort Donelson National Cemetery at Find a Grave
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, as a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area, there, he founded the village of Boonesborough, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone, Boone was a militia officer during the Revolutionary War, which, in Kentucky, was fought primarily between the American settlers and the British-aided Indians. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778 and he escaped and alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnees were planning an attack. Although heavily outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough, Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly, during the Revolutionary War, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782.
Blue Licks, a Shawnee victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. Frustrated with the problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799, Boone emigrated to eastern Missouri. Boone remains a figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after an account of his adventures was published in 1784 by John Filson, an American edition made him equally famous across the United States. After his death, he was frequently the subject of heroic tall tales and his adventures—real and legendary—were influential in creating the archetypal Western hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen, the epic Daniel Boone mythology often overshadows the historical details of his life. Daniel Boone was of English and Welsh ancestry, because the Gregorian calendar was adopted during his lifetime, Boones birth date is sometimes given as November 2,1734, although Boone used the October date.
The Boone family belonged to the Religious Society of Friends, called Quakers, daniels father, Squire Boone emigrated from the small town of Bradninch, Devon to Pennsylvania in 1713, to join William Penns colony of dissenters. Squire Boones parents, George Boone III and Mary Maugridge, followed their son to Pennsylvania in 1717, in 1720, Squire Boone, who worked primarily as a weaver and a blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan. Sarahs family were Quakers from Wales, and had settled in 1708 in the area which became Towamencin Township of Montgomery County, in 1731, the Boones moved to the Oley Valley, near the modern city of Reading. There they built a log cabin, partially preserved today as the Daniel Boone Homestead, Daniel Boone was born there, the sixth of eleven children. Daniel Boone spent his years on what was the edge of the frontier
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a culture, as opposed to nomads who share. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group, many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. One can witness how settlers very often occupied land previously home to long-established peoples, the word settler was not originally usually used in relation to free labour immigrants, such as slaves, indentured labourers, or convicts. In United States history it refers to people who helped to settle new lands. In this usage, pioneers are usually among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands, see, e. g.
articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter, among those, Iraq – the Arabization program of the Baath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers, in recent Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government, Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria. Women and children experience violence in these highly dangerous ares because of the conflict, many natives face displacement when new settlements are established. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes, oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land.
Settlements make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees. Many are met with violence when they try to get the things they need from the land, settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets, often feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Womans University, more specifically called the Pioneer. The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a home country
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Boonesborough is an unincorporated community in Madison County, Kentucky, USA. It lies in the part of the state along the Kentucky River and is the site of Fort Boonesborough State Park. The park site has been rebuilt to look like a fort of the days when Boone resided there. Boonesborough is part of the Richmond-Berea micropolitan area, Boonesborough was founded as Boones Station by the frontiersman Daniel Boone while working for Richard Henderson and Nathanial Hart of the Transylvania Company. Boone led a group of settlers through the mountains from Fort Watauga, carving the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap, Boone lived there from 1775 to 1779. Boonesborough was the town in the area of present-day Kentucky formally chartered by the Commonwealth of Virginia which claimed it and it was one of the first English-speaking communities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Boone successfully led his fellow settlers during the Siege of Boonesborough in 1778 and he moved to his son Israels settlement at Boones New Station near present-day Athens, Kentucky.
By 1877, Boonesborough had almost disappeared as a village, George W. Boonesborough, Its Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days, and Revolutionary Annals. Fort Boonesborough Foundation Fort Boonesborough Living History Boonesborough Map Boonesborough Historical Society List of Boonesborough Pioneers
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however