National Register of Historic Places listings in Salt Lake City
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Salt Lake City, Utah. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Salt Lake City, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 353 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Salt Lake County, including 6 National Historic Landmarks. 220 of these sites, including 4 National Historic Landmarks, are located in Salt Lake City, are listed here. Another 17 sites in the city have since been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Utah National Register of Historic Places listings in Utah
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
96th Sustainment Brigade (United States)
The 96th Sustainment Brigade, is a unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 96th Infantry Division that served in the Asia-Pacific theater during World War II. Effective 17 September 2008, the unit became the 96th Sustainment Brigade, with its headquarters located at Fort Douglas, Salt Lake City, Utah; the division was first organized on 20 October 1918, during the U. S. mobilization for World War I. Based at Camp Wadsworth, South Carolina, the 96th was commanded by Guy Carleton; the 191st and 192nd Brigades comprised the infantry elements of the division. The 96th Division was reconstituted in the United States Army Reserve called the Organized Reserve, on 24 June 1921, it was allotted to the states of Washington. The headquarters was organized in December 1921; the 96th Division was ordered into active service on 15 August 1942, eight months after the Attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II. Ordered into active service: 15 August 1942, Camp Adair, Oregon.
Overseas: 23 July 1944. Campaigns: Leyte, Southern Philippines. Okinawa, Ryukyus Days of Combat:200 Entered Combat:20 October 1944 Total Casualties:8,812 Presidential Unit Citation: 1. Awards: MH-5. Commanders: Maj. Gen. James L. Bradley commanded the division throughout its entire life in World War II. Assistant Division Commanders: Brig. Gen. Claudius M. Easley. S.: 2 February 1946. Inactivated: 3 February 1946, at California. Beauford T. Anderson, Technical sergeant - 381st Infantry Regiment Clarence B. Craft, Private first class - 382nd Infantry Regiment Ova A. Kelley, Private - 382nd Infantry Regiment, KIA Edward J. Moskala, Private first class - 383rd Infantry Regiment, KIA Seymour W. Terry, Captain - 382nd Infantry Regiment, KIA Headquarters, 96th Infantry Division 381st Infantry Regiment 382d Infantry Regiment 383rd Infantry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 96th Infantry Division Artillery 361st Field Artillery Battalion 362d Field Artillery Battalion 363d Field Artillery Battalion 921st Field Artillery Battalion 321st Engineer Combat Battalion 321st Medical Battalion 96th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop Headquarters, Special Troops, 96th Infantry Division Headquarters Company, 96th Infantry Division 796th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company 96th Quartermaster Company 96th Signal Company Military Police Platoon Band 96th Counterintelligence Corps Detachment As part of the reorganization of the U.
S. Army divisions from "square" to "triangular," the two infantry brigade headquarters were converted to provide personnel for other units and the 380th Infantry Regiment was disbanded; the 192nd Infantry Brigade headquarters company was converted into the division's 96th Reconnaissance Troop, while the 191st Infantry Brigade headquarters formed the core of the division's headquarters company. After initial training at Camp White in southern Oregon, the 96th Infantry Division participation in the Oregon Maneuver combat exercise in the fall of 1943. Maj. Gen. James L. Bradley commanded the 96th Infantry Division throughout its entire life in World War II, his Assistant Division Commander, Brig. Gen. Maj. General Claudius M. Easley supervised and emphasized the 96th Division's marksmanship training, leading to the 96th's nickname of "Deadeye Division"; the 96th Infantry Division trained in Hawaiian Islands, July to September 1944, before entering combat in an assault landing in Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, between Tanauan and Dulag, 20 October 1944.
Enemy resistance in the beachhead area was broken and the Division had advanced to and secured the Tanauan-Dagami-Tabontabon sector by 9 November after heavy fighting. The Division continued to wipe out resistance on the island, engaging in small unit actions, patrolling and wiping out pockets of Japanese. Chalk Ridge was taken, 12 December 1944, major organized resistance was at an end by Christmas Day; the next 3 months were spent in mopping up, security duty and loading for the coming invasion of Okinawa. The Division left the Philippines, 27 March 1945, for Okinawa, making an assault landing on the island, 1 April 1945; the landing was unopposed and a beachhead was established near Sunabe, 1–3 April. Resistance stiffened as the Division advanced to Kakazu Ridge, where fighting was fierce, 7–16 April; the 96th assaulted and cracked the fanatically defended enemy defense line, Tanabaru Nishibaru, 17–23 April, after advancing against determined resistance, was relieved, 30 April, by the 77th Infantry Division.
The Division trained and rested, 1–9 May, while elements mopped up bypassed enemy pockets and returned to the offensive, 10 May and capturing Conical-Sugar Hill Ridge, 21 May, thus breaking the right flank of the Shuri defenses. Heavy rains the following week slowed down the advance; the offensive was resumed, 30 May, against weakening enemy resistance. Resistance stiffened again, 3 June, Laura Hill was taken, 14 June 1945, only after a bloody fight.
Central Pacific Railroad
The Central Pacific Railroad was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. With the secession of the South, the modernizers in the Republican Party controlled the US Congress, they passed legislation authorizing the railroad, with financing in the form of government railroad bonds. These were all repaid with interest; the government and the railroads both shared in the increased value of the land grants, which the railroads developed. The construction of the railroad secured for the government the economical "safe and speedy transportation of the mails, munitions of war, public stores." Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862.
It was financed and built through "The Big Four": Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins. Crocker was in charge of construction. Construction crews comprised 12,000 Chinese emigrant workers by 1868, when they constituted eighty percent of the entire work force, they laid the first rails in 1863. The "Golden spike", connecting the western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast train travel in eight days became possible, replacing months-long sea voyages and lengthy, hazardous travel by wagon trains. In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific Company. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific; the original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific, which bought Southern Pacific in 1996. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific mainline followed the historic Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay.
Chinese labor was the most vital source for constructing the railroad. Fifty Chinese laborers were hired by the Central Pacific Railroad in February 1865, soon more and more Chinese men were hired. Working conditions were harsh, Chinese men were compensated less than their white counterparts. Chinese men were paid thirty-one dollars each month, while white workers were paid the same, they were given room and board. Construction of the road was financed by 30-year, 6% U. S. government bonds authorized by Sec. 5 of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. They were issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed west of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada range near Roseville, CA where California state geologist Josiah Whitney had determined were the geologic start of the Sierras' foothills. Sec. 11 of the Act provided that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges, "doubled" per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges.
The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full by the company as and when they became due. Sec. 10 of the 1864 amending Pacific Railroad Act additionally authorized the company to issue its own "First Mortgage Bonds" in total amounts up to that of the bonds issued by the United States. Such company-issued securities had priority over the original Government Bonds. Sec. 3 of the 1862 Act granted the railroads 10 square miles of public land for every mile laid, except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers. This grant was apportioned in 5 sections on alternating sides of the railroad, with each section measuring 0.2 miles by 10 miles. These grants were doubled to 20 square miles per mile of grade by the 1864 Act. Although the Pacific Railroad benefited the Bay Area, the City and County of San Francisco obstructed financing it during the early years of 1863-1865; when Stanford was Governor of California, the Legislature passed on April 22, 1863, "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto".
On May 19, 1863, the electors of the City and County of San Francisco passed this bond by a vote of 6,329 to 3,116, in a controversial Special Election. The City and County's financing of the investment through the issuance and delivery of Bonds was delayed for two years, when Mayor Henry P. Coon, the County Clerk, Wilhelm Loewy, each refused to countersign the Bonds, it took legal actions to force them to do so: in 1864 the Supreme Court of the State of California ordered them under Writs of Mandamus and in 1865, a legal judgment against Loewy (The People ex rel The Centr
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
An Olympic Village is an accommodation center built for the Olympic Games within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city. Olympic Villages are built to house all participating athletes, as well as officials and athletic trainers. After the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Olympics, the Villages have been made secure. Only athletes and officials are allowed to room at the Village, though family members and former Olympic athletes are allowed inside with proper checks. Press and media are barred; the idea of the Olympic Village comes from Pierre de Coubertin. Up until the 1924 Summer Olympic Games, National Olympic Committees rented locations around the host city to house participants, expensive. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the organizers built cabins near the Stade Olympique de Colombes to allow the athletes to access the Games' venues; the Olympic Village of the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles served as the model of today's Olympic Villages. Athens 1906: The Zappeion, used during Athens 1896 as the main Fencing Hall, was used in 1906 as a Olympic Village.
Paris 1924: In Paris in 1924, a number of cabins were built near the stadium to house visiting athletes. Los Angeles 1932: The first Olympic Village is constructed in the Baldwin Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. For male athletes only, the Village consisted of several hundred buildings, including post and telegraph offices, an amphitheater, a hospital, a fire department, a bank. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the village was dismantled after the games. Berlin 1936: About 145 one- and two-story apartment buildings, Haus der Nationen refectory, Hindenburghaus theater, a hospital, an indoor arena, a swimming pool and a sauna in Wustermark about 6 mi west of Berlin. Used as barracks for over 50 years, the buildings are ruined. A men's residence has been restored under the name "Jesse Owens house". Helsinki 1952: The first Olympic Village, Olympiakylä, was constructed in the Käpylä district of Helsinki for the planned 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II.
Another Olympic Village, Kisakylä, was built nearby for the 1952 Olympics. Kisakylä couldn't accommodate all athletes so other villages were designated for instance in Otaniemi and the Santahamina military base. Both Olympiakylä and Kisakylä areas are listed by Docomomo as significant examples of modern architecture in Finland. Melbourne 1956: The area in Heidelberg West, where the athletes stayed is still called "Olympic Village". After the games, athlete residences were used for public housing; the area now consists of a sports center, a primary school, shopping strip, a community health centre which houses a registered training organization and a legal service. Rome 1960:consist of 33 buildings with two, three and five floors. Squaw Valley 1960: Four identical three-story apartment buildings, two of which still stand, modified into condominiums. Mexico City 1968: 904 apartments distributed in 29 multi-story buildings in the Miguel Hidalgo Olympic Village Complex. Munich 1972: Multiple buildings of 25, 22, 20, 19, 16, 15, 12 stories, used now as Olympic Village student housing.
Montreal 1976: Olympic Village, Two 23-story pyramid-shaped buildings. Now apartment buildings. Lake Placid 1980: The village was built as a minimum security federal prison to house first time offenders after the games known as FCI Ray Brook, it is still in use today. Moscow 1980: Eighteen 16-story buildings. Sarajevo 1984: Apartment buildings now used as condominiums and tourist facilities. Los Angeles 1984: The UCLA residents' facilities, CSULA, USC, UCSB. Calgary 1988: Presently student accommodations on the campus of the Mount Royal University; the athlete's village consisted of the existing Kananaskis, Castle and Brewster buildings, as well as the newly constructed Glacier and Olympus buildings. Seoul 1988: Twenty-one multiple-story buildings. Albertville 1992: Brides-les-Bains Barcelona 1992: A new neighbourhood, La Vila Olímpica, was built on reclaimed sea front in Poblenou. Secondary villages were built in Banyoles and La Seu d'Urgell for rowing and white water canoeing athletes respectively.
Lillehammer 1994: The village was built on a west-facing slope just to the north of Lillehammer, took its form from the old farms of Gudbrandsdal. Atlanta 1996: Housing was built on the campus of Georgia Institute of Technology, Clark Atlanta University, Georgia State University; the Olympic village at Georgia State was bought by Georgia Tech for students' housing. The village on the campus of Clark Atlanta became housing for students at CAU. Nagano 1998: The village is located 7 kilometers southwest of Nagano Station; the total land space is 19 hectares. There are 1032 apartments in 22 buildings, is capable of accommodating 3,000 people. Another Village was in the site for the newly entered Olympic sport of curling. Karuizawa is about 70 kilometers southeast of Nagano City. 120 people from 9 countries stayed at the Karuizawa Skate Center Hotel during the Winter Games. Sydney 2000: A new suburb, which became residential following the Games. Salt Lake City 2002: Housing from the University of Utah and Fort Douglas.
Athens 2004: A new suburb composed of four- to five-story apartments in the Parnitha area located in northeast Athens adjacent to Maroussi, the suburb where the main Olympic complex, OAKA, is located. The Athens Olympic Village became a residential area following the Games. Today, the village with a c
Central Overland Route
The Central Overland Route was a transportation route from Salt Lake City, Utah south of the Great Salt Lake through the mountains of central Nevada to Carson City, Nevada. For a decade after 1859, until the first Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869, it served a vital role in the transport of emigrants, mail and passengers between California and Utah; the route was scouted in 1855 by Howard Egan, used by him to drive livestock between Salt Lake City and California. The trail Egan used led straight through the high mountain ranges that most earlier explorers had worked so hard to avoid. Egan had discovered a series of mountain passes and mountain springs that aligned to allow an straight path across the middle of Utah and Nevada; the Schell Creek Range could be crossed at Schellbourne Pass, the Cherry Creek Range at Egan Canyon, the Ruby Mountains at Overland Pass, the Diamond Mountains at another Overland Pass, the Toiyabe Range at Emigrant Pass, the Desatoya Mountains at Basque Summit.
Although many smaller ranges and two large deserts had to be traversed, the reduction in length over the'standard' California Trail route along the Humboldt River by about 280 miles made this route about two weeks faster for emigrants getting to California. After it was developed many California emigrants and returning emigrants used this route. In 1858, hearing of Egan's Trail, the U. S. Army sent an expedition led by Captain James H. Simpson to survey it for a military road to get supplies to the Army's Camp Floyd in Utah. Simpson came back with a surveyed route, about 280 miles shorter than the'standard' California Trail route along the Humboldt River; the Army improved the trail and springs for use by wagons and stagecoaches in 1859 and 1860. When the approaching American Civil War closed the subsidized Butterfield Overland Mail southwestern route to California along the Gila River, George Chorpenning realized the value of this more direct route, shifted his existing mail and passenger line from the "Northern Humboldt Route" along the Humboldt River.
In 1861 John Butterfield, who since 1858 had been using the Butterfield Overland Mail route through the deserts of the American Southwest switched to the Central Route to avoid possible hostilities during the American Civil War. The various stage lines, by traveling day and night and changing their teams at about 10 miles to 20 miles intervals, could get light freight and mail to or from Missouri River towns to California in about 25–28 days. Gold and Silver mined in California and Nevada were part of the cargo going east as the Civil War consumed vast sums of money. Nearly all stage lines were subsidized to carry the mail. After the American Civil War, Wells Fargo & Co. absorbed the Butterfield stage lines and ran stage coaches and freight wagons along the Central Route as well as developing the first agriculture in the Ruby Valley in Nevada to help support their livestock. The Army established Fort Ruby at the southern end of Ruby Valley in Nevada to protect travelers against marauding Indians along the road.
The Army abandoned Camp Floyd in 1860 as the soldiers were reassigned back east to fight the Civil War. In 1860, William Russell's Pony Express used this route across Utah and Nevada for part of their fast 10-day mail delivery from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. In 1861, soon after the completion of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, the Pony Express was discontinued as the Transcontinental Telegraph now could provide quicker and cheaper communication from the East to the West. Under pressure and subsidizes from the U. S. Congress to establish rapid east-west communication in 1860 Hiram Sibley, the president of the Western Union Company, formed a consortium between Western Union and the telegraph companies in California to construct the First Transcontinental Telegraph; the telegraph line was authorized and subsidized by the U. S. Congress and went from Nebraska to Carson City, Nevada; the newly consolidated Overland Telegraph Company of California, which had built a telegraph line to Carson City, would build the line eastward from Carson City using the newly developed Central Route though Nevada and Utah.
At the same time, the Pacific Telegraph Company of Nebraska, formed by Sibley, would construct a line westward from Omaha, Nebraska along the eastern part of the California and Oregon Trails. The lines would meet at a station in Utah. Telegraph lines and telegraph poles for the line were collected in late 1860, rapid construction proceeded during the second half of 1861. Major problems were encountered in finding telegraph poles on the treeless plains of the Midwest and the nearly treeless deserts of the Great Basin; the telegraph line from Omaha reached Salt Lake City on October 18, 1861, the line from Carson City to Salt Lake City was completed six days on October 24, 1861—about a year ahead of predictions. Several accounts of travel along the Central Route have been published. In July 1859 Horace Greeley made the trip, at a time when Chorpenning was using only the eastern segment. Greeley published his detailed observations in his 1860 book "An Overland Journey from New York to San Francisco".
In October 1860 the English explorer Richard Burton traveled the entire route at a time when the Pony Express was operating. He gave detailed descriptions of each of the way stations in his 1861 book The City of the Saints, Across the Rocky M