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Fort Edward (Nova Scotia)

Fort Edward is a National Historic Site of Canada in Windsor, Nova Scotia, was built during Father Le Loutre's War. The British built the fort to help prevent the Acadian Exodus from the region; the Fort is most famous for the role it played both in the Expulsion of the Acadians and in protecting Halifax, Nova Scotia from a land assault in the American Revolution. While much of Fort Edward has been destroyed, including the officers quarters and barracks, the blockhouse that remains is the oldest extant in North America. A cairn was added to the site. Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied by ethnic French Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived with 13 transports on June 21, 1749 to establish Halifax; the Mi'kmaq believed the British were violating earlier treaties that were signed after Father Rale's War, by unilaterally establishing Halifax and encroaching on their territory. The British were confined to Halifax.

Four years after the founding of Halifax, Lunenburg was established. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new British Protestant settlements, the latter erected fortifications in Halifax, Dartmouth and Lawrencetown. Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, the British took firm control of peninsular Nova Scotia by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor. Fort Edward was the site of the Acadian church for the parish of l'Assomption. After failing to take the settlements of Chignecto, Major Charles Lawrence ordered his New England Rangers to control Pisiquid by having the Acadians destroy their church so that Fort Edward could be built in its place. In early March 1750, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq took three English prisoners. Gorham was ordered to Fort Edward. On Gorham's march to Pisiquid to secure the area prior to building Fort Edward, the Rangers engaged the Mi'kmaq in the Battle at St. Croix; the Fort is named after Edward Cornwallis, who established Nova Scotia.

On 9 May 1750, Phillips was fired on by Indians. Capt. John Rous was in a skirmish off Fort Edward at the same time, where he killed two native people, whose comrades took their bodies. At first Alexander Murray commanded at Fort Sackville. In September 1751 he was given command of Fort Edward, where he remained for most of the ensuing seven years, except for a tour of duty at Halifax in 1753. On 12 December 1752, Murray was charged by the Nova Scotia Council with exploiting the local Acadian community by paying unfair prices for supplies and randomly imprisoning some of the men. On November 1, 1753, Captain Hale was relieved by Commander Floyer as the commander of Fort Edward. Fort Edward, Fort Lawrence, Fort Anne were all supplied by and dependent on the arrival of Captains Cobb, Jeremiah Rogers or John Taggart, in one of the government sloops; these vessels took the semi-annual relief to their destination. They carried their families to and from, as required. Fort Edward played an important role in the Bay of Fundy Campaign of the Acadian Expulsion.

Shortly after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour on the eve of the Expulsion, the commander at Fort Edward Captain Alexander Murray wrote his wife saying, the Acadians "are in as great anxiety as I am about their fate". A month at the same time as Lieutenant Colonel John Winslow read the expulsion orders in Grand Pré. On October 20, 920 Acadians from Pisiquid were loaded on to four transports. Unlike at the neighbouring community of Grand Pré, the English did not burn and destroy the buildings at Pisiquid; as a result, when the New England Planters arrived, many houses and barns were available for use. Fort Edward was one of four forts in which Acadians were imprisoned over the nine years of the expulsion. On average, over a period of nine years, 350 Acadian prisoners at a time were held at the garrison. Both the Acadians and Mi'kmaq resisted the Expulsion. In September 1756, a group of 100 Acadians ambushed a party of thirteen soldiers of the 47th Regiment of Foot who were working outside the fort.

They took seven men prisoner, six escaped back to the fort. In April 1757, a band of Acadian and Mi'kmaq partisans raided a warehouse near Fort Edward, killing thirteen British soldiers. After taking what provisions they could carry, they set fire to the building. A few days the same partisans raided Fort Cumberland; because of the strength of the Acadian militia and Mi'kmaq militia, British officer John Knox wrote that "In the year 1757 we were said to be Masters of the province of Nova Scotia, or Acadia, however, was only an imaginary possession." He said that the situation in the province was so precarious for the British that the "troops and inhabitants" at Fort Edward, Fort Sackville and Lunenburg "could not be reputed in any other light than as prisoners."In the early 1760s it was illegal for Acadians to reside in Nova Scotia.


Pretendre was a British Thoroughbred racehorse who came within a neck of winning the 1966 Epsom Derby. Bred by The Princess Mary, Princess Royal, Pretendre's damsire was Verso II, winner of the 1943 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, he was sired by Doutelle, a multiple stakes winning son of Prince Chevalier. Racing in France in 1945/46, Prince Chevalier's wins included what are now Group One races, the Prix du Jockey Club and Prix Lupin. Prince Chevalier was the sire of the 1951 Epsom Derby winner, Artic Prince. In 1960, Prince Chevalier was the Leading sire in France and Leading broodmare sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 1972. Pretendre was purchased by J. A. Claude Lilley, a textile manufacturer and the proprietor of Quarry Stud on Duffield Bank in Makeney, Derbyshire. Conditioned for racing by Jack Jarvis, the colt was one of the top two-year-olds racing in 1965. After winning the Blue Riband Trial Stakes as a three-year-old he went into the 1966 Epsom Derby as the betting favourite. In a fierce stretch run, Pretendre finished second by a neck to Charlottown.

That year Pretendre won the King Edward VII Stakes at Ascot Racecourse and was third in the Eclipse Stakes at Sandown Park Racecourse. Retired after the 1966 racing season, Pretendre was sent to the United States to stand at stud in Kentucky. Part of his first crop foaled in 1968 was a bay colt born with a noticeably crooked foreleg. Considered to have no future in racing, he was sold as a yearling for a mere $1,200 at the Keeneland Sales. Acquired by Venezuelan interests, the horse was named Canonero and raced at age two in Venezuela where it earned an undistinguished record. At age three, because of his American birth, the colt was sent to run in the 1971 U. S. Triple Crown series. Canonero stunned the racing world when he won both Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes, the latter in race record time. Pretendre was returned to stud duty in England. In 1970 he became one of the first stallions to be shuttled across the world when he was sent to stand at Waikato Stud, near Matamata in New Zealand.

Of his offspring there, he was the damsire of Leica Pretender, the dam of the Australian horse Nothin' Leica Dane who won the Group One Victoria Derby and Group One Spring Champion Stakes. Pretendre unexpectedly died in 1972 at the age of nine. Pretendre's pedigree and partial racing stats Daily Telegraph newspaper article on Claude Lilley and Pretendre

Dom language

Dom is a Trans–New Guinea language of the Eastern Group of the Chimbu family, spoken in the Gumine and Sinasina Districts of Chimbu Province and in some other isolated settlements in the western highlands of Papua New Guinea. The Dom people live in an agricultural society, which has a tribal and patrilineal organization. There is only small dialectal differentiation among the clans; the predominant religion is Christianity. There are three different languages spoken by Dom speakers alongside Dom: Tok Pisin and English. Tok Pisin serves as the Papuan lingua franca. Kuman, a related eastern Chimbu language of high social and cultural prestige, functions as the prestige language used in ceremonies and official situations. School lessons are hold in English. I u e o a a: Vowel lengthening in a contour pitched syllable has allophonic character. Iu,io,ia uo eu,ei,ea o au,ai,ae a: The Dom consonant system consists of 13 indigenous and 3 loan consonants; the phonemes /c/, /j/and /ʟ/ are loan phonemes and unstable in use.

˩˥su'two' ~ ˩˥tu'thick' ~ ˩˥du'squeeze' ~ ˩˥nu'aim at' ~ ˩˥ku'hold in the mouth' ~ ˩˥gu'shave' ~ ˩˥pu'blow' ~ ˩˥mu'his/her back' ~ ˩˥yu'harvest taro' Variants can be determined by the factors of dialect or age. Certain exceptions show archaic variants, for example the existence of intervocal in the word ˥˩iba'but' or the otherwise non-existent sequence, used only by elderly people or in official situations. Brackets "" show, that the allophone is used only in loanwords. Dom is a tonal language; each word carries one of three tones as shown in the examples below: high: ka˥'word' mu˥kal˥'a kind of bamboo' no˥ma˥ne˥'to think' falling: ŋgal˥˩'string back' jo˥pa˩' yopa tree', jo˥pal˥˩'people' a˥ra˥wa˩'pumpkin' rising: kal˩˥'thing' a˩pal˧'woman' au˩pa˩le˧'sister.3Sg. POSS' wam˥˩ ~ wam˩'to hitch.3SG' ~ wam˥'son3SG. POSS' is optionally inserted between consonants:˥˩komna'vegetable' kom˥ na˩ or kom˥ ɨ na˩ Dom is a suffixing language. Morpheme boundaries between person-number and mood morphemes can be combined.

Noun Phrase elements preceding the head:attributive NPyal i kal man DEM thing'the thing of the man'possessive markerna bola-n you pig-2SG. POSS'your pig'relative clauseo pal bin-gwa kal hand.3SG. POSS by produce-3SG. SRD thing'thing produced by hand'noun classifierbola sipsip pig sheep'sheep'elements following the head:numeralsyal su man two'two men'adjectivesgal bl child big'big child'appositionsge apal gal girl woman child'girl, female child'demonstrativesyal i man DEM'this man'If a noun phrase includes a demonstrative element, it has always the last position of the phrase: yal su i man two DEM'the two men'Adjective Phrase er wai won ta tree good a'a good tree'Postpositional Phrase m-na bol mother-1SG. POSS with'with my mother'Verbal Phrase elements preceding the head verb:subject:yal su al-ipke man two stand up-2/3DL. IND'two men stand up'subject-object:na keepa ne-ke 1EXC sweet.potato eat-1SG. IND'I eat a sweet potato'adverbialorpl-d u-o come-2SG. IMP'come quickly'final clauseer ila na-l d u-ke to inside go-1SG.

FUT Q come-1SG. IND'I came to go inside'elements following the head verb:auxiliars:bl-n de bla d-na-wdae head-2SG. POSS burn. INF burst -FUT-3SG. MUT'Your head will be burnt and explode'mutual knowledge markermol-me =krae stay-1SG. IND=MUT'he/she stay as we know'demonstrativesyo-gwa ime be-3SG. IND down.there ` There it is down over there'There. As a subject ˩˥kamn'world' is used: ˩˥kamn ˥˩su-gwe rain hit-3Sg. IND'It rains' The predominant constituent order is ‘’’S-O-V’’’. Only the predicate has to be expressed overtly. An exception are absolute-topic type clauses. Three Place Predicate OrderIn the case of a three place predicate the recipient noun always follows the gift noun: ˥Ella ˩˥Naur ˥˩moni ˥na ˥˩ te-na-m=˥˩ua money 1EXC give-FUT-3SG=ENC. WA Noun-adjunct-Gift-Recipient-V'The Naur subtribe of the Ella tribe shall give me money.'The only position which can be optionally filled is the sentence topic. Possible constituents can be the subject of an equational sentence, an extrasentential or a topicalized constituent: subject in an equational sentence ˩˥apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥˩ep-na woman two DEM 1EXC wife'These two women are my wives'extrasentential:˩˥ apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥˩ep-na ˩˥mo-ip-ke woman two DEM 1EXC wife-1SG.

POSS stay-2/3DL-IND'As for these two women, they are my wives'topicalized constituent:˩˥ apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥i ˩˥war-ke woman two DEM 1EXC take. INF move.around-1SG. IND'As for these two women, I have them as spouses' Dom has three different person-number-systems: for pronouns, possessive suffixes on nouns and cross reference markers on verbs. Person-number system for pronouns:person-number system for possessive suffixes:cross reference markers:The marking of dual and plural is not obligatory in all cases but depends on the sem ±human ±animate: Dom has an unmarked non-future tense and a marked future tense. Non-future tense is used, if the event follows the event is in the past˥ere ˥˩e-ke to go-1Sg. IND'I go/I went' Future tense is marked by the suffix -na and is used, if the event is part of the speaker's plan for the next day the event is the speaker's intention and it is possible for the speaker to go through with it the event describes a potentiality or a permanent quality˥ere ˥˩na-ke to go.

FUT-1SG. IND'I will go"I think I will go"I might go’'I am the kind of person, who goes' A predicate is negated by the suffix -kl; the preceding negation particle ˥ta is optional. ˥na ˥˩kurl ˥ta ˥go +˩˥k -pge 1EXC fear NEG die NEG 1PL. IND'We did not fear' Noun classifiers are lexical items preceding a noun with a more specified meaning. Phonetically


Attirampakkam or Athirampakkam is a village located 60 kilometers away from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The oldest known stone tools in India were discovered near the village, which became the type site for the Madrasian culture. A large number of stone tools were recovered from Attirampakkam over 20 years by archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education in India and other Indian institutions. Due to the paucity of any hominine fossils or bones recovered yet from the site or from South Asia as a whole, it is not possible to conclude which hominin species had created these tools. By performing a luminescence dating method called post-Infrared-Stimulated Luminescence on about 7,200 artifacts found at Attirampakkam, researchers have made a chronology of Attirampakkam stone tool technology with a span of about 200,000 years. Latest studies indicate that the Levallois technology used at Attirampakkam emerged at about 385,000 years ago, at a time period when processes signifying the end of the Acheulian culture occurred and a Middle Palaeolithic culture had emerged.

Acheulean industry Madrasian culture Jwalapuram South Asian Stone Age

Sun Gun Telescope

Sun Gun Telescope, as featured in the August 1999 issue of Scientific American magazine, was designed so that large groups of people can view the sun safely - in particular it was created as a way to encourage children to become interested in astronomy. With this safe and portable device, both amateur science enthusiasts and professionals alike can observe sun spots. Bruce Hegerberg designed the Sun Gun from a 60 mm diameter 900 mm fl. optical tube, mounted inside a 3-inch PVC, in turn connected to a 20-inch plastic flower planter. A rear projection screen is mounted on the top of the flower planter; the entire Sun Gun can be made from items found at most local hardware stores. The scope itself is an inexpensive 60mm refractor available from many sources. List of telescope types Sun of a Gun featured in Scientific American "Training Squadron adds new scope to training." USAF Sun Gun web site

Ricardo Bordallo

Ricardo Jerome "Ricky" Bordallo was a Guamanian politician and member of the Democratic Party of Guam. He served as Governor of Guam from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1987. Bordallo was born on December 1927 in Hagåtña, Guam, he was the son of Baltazar Jeronimo "BJ" Bordallo, a businessman, Josefina Torres Pangelinan. BJ Bordallo was a popular politician from the 1930s to 1950s. Ricardo Bordallo was the first child of a family including his brother Paul Joseph Bordallo, a former senator. Ricardo Bordallo attended the University of San Francisco before returning to Guam and becoming a successful businessman and car dealer. Among other positions, he was the proprietor of "Ricky's Suburban Club," a restaurant and bar in Tamuning, Guam. Bordallo established "Ricky's Auto Company" in the mid 1950s which became Toyota's first American car dealer, he was married to Madeleine Zeien Bordallo in 1953. Bordallo's widow was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1990, served as Lieutenant Governor of Guam from 1995 to 2003, as the island's Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from 2003 until losing renomination in the 2018 election.

Bordallo was first elected to the Guam Legislature in 1956 as a member of the Popular Party. Bordallo served in the territorial legislature from 1956 to 1970 and twice served as Chairman of the Democratic Party of Guam; as a senator, he introduced the law that first created an unofficial Guam delegate to the U. S. Congress. Bordallo first ran for governor in the 1970 election, the first election in which the people of Guam were allowed to elect their governor, he ran with Senator Richard "Dick" Taitano against two other former gubernatorial teams: Former governor Manuel Guerrero and running mate Dr. Antonio C. Yamashita, as well as attorney and former speaker Joaquin C. "Kin" Arriola and running mate Vicente Bamba, retired judge and popular former senator. Bordallo-Taitano came in first in the primary election by a close margin over Guerrero-Yamashita and won the run-off election. However, due to the contentious Democratic campaign, Bordallo-Taitano lost in the general election to the Republican team of incumbents Carlos G. Camacho and Kurt S. Moylan.

The election was significant for Bordallo, however, as he and Dick Taitano created Guam's first "grassroots" political organization throughout the villages. Bordallo's wife, Madeleine proved to be a passionate and untiring campaigner and helped draw many supporters to the organization; this organization and base of supporters would prove valuable when Bordallo ran again in the 1974 election. Madeleine Bordallo was most known for her humanitarian pursuits, she sponsored many civil cultural events including the Guam Symphony and a program for instructing children in the Suzuki method of violin. Bordallo ran for governor for a second time in 1974, this time with Rudolph "Rudy" Guerrero Sablan, they were up against four other Democratic tickets: Manuel Guerrero and running mate David D. L. Flores. Sanchez and Esteban U. Torres. "Kin" Arriola and Theodore "Ted" Nelson. Dick Taitano was the manager of the Bordallo-Sablan campaign and broadened the organization he had set up in 1970; this organization proved decisive, Bordallo-Sablan beat the other Democratic teams.

Bordallo-Sablan went on to beat the Camacho-Moylan team, which had just beat the Republican rival team of Paul Calvo and Antonio Palomo in the primary. Calvo ran as a write-in candidate in the general election, drawing support from Camacho-Moylan, Bordallo-Sablan won by less than 600 of the 22,000-plus votes. Bordallo's first term in office, from 1975 to 1979, was contentious, he was characterized as charismatic but controversial. Someone wasn't afraid to speak his mind on any issue. During this time the issue of independence, commonwealth status or continuation as a U. S. territory was put to the voters. Senator Paul Bordallo, his brother, favored independence; the voters elected to keep the status quo as a dependent territory. Bordallo was successful in securing $367 million for typhoon reconstruction, capital improvement project and Government of Guam investments. A new was secured at the Guam Memorial Hospital. In 1978, Bordallo ran for re-election with a former University of Guam president Dr. Pedro C.

Sanchez as his running mate for lieutenant governor. Lieutenant Governor Sablan declared his candidacy for the gubernatorial election and was a candidate in the September 1978 Democratic primary, along with his running mate for Lt. Governor was Attorney Jose Iglesias Leon Guerrero. Bordallo defeated the Sablan-Leon Guerrero campaign with more votes. However, Bordallo lost to the Republican Calvo-Ada team in the gubernatorial general election. Bordallo ran for a third time political arena in 1982 with a political unknown, Air Force Colonel Eddie Reyes, as his running mate, he beat out Democrats Carl Gutierrez and John P. Aguon for the Democratic nomination and won office yet again. Promising to guide Guam out of the recession and push for commonwealth status, the Bordallo/Reyes ticket defeated incumbent Governor Calvo in the 1982 elections. Bordallo's second term in office, from 1983 to 1987. During his second term, Bordallo chaired the Commission for Self-Determination and spearheaded the drafting of the Guam Commonwealth Act developed by June 4, 1986.

He addressed Guam's education problems with his 1983 "Blueprint for Excellence" and worked on the accreditation status of the University o