Pickett's Charge was an infantry assault ordered by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Union positions on July 3, 1863, the last day of the Battle of Gettysburg in the state of Pennsylvania during the American Civil War, its futility was predicted by the charge's commander, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, it was arguably an avoidable mistake from which the Southern war effort never recovered militarily or psychologically; the farthest point reached by the attack has been referred to as the high-water mark of the Confederacy. The charge is named after Maj. Gen. George Pickett, one of three Confederate generals who led the assault under Longstreet. Pickett's Charge was part of Lee's "general plan" to take Cemetery Hill and the network of roads it commanded, his military secretary, Armistead Lindsay Long, described Lee's thinking: There was... a weak point... where, sloping westward, formed the depression through which the Emmitsburg road passes. Perceiving that by forcing the Federal lines at that point and turning toward Cemetery Hill would be taken in flank and the remainder would be neutralized....
Lee determined to attack at that point, the execution was assigned to Longstreet. On the night of July 2, Meade predicted to General Gibbon, after a council of war, that Lee would attack the center of his lines the following morning; the infantry assault was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment, meant to soften up the Union defense and silence its artillery, but was ineffective. 12,500 men in nine infantry brigades advanced over open fields for three-quarters of a mile under heavy Union artillery and rifle fire. Although some Confederates were able to breach the low stone wall that shielded many of the Union defenders, they could not maintain their hold and were repulsed with over 50% casualties, a decisive defeat that ended the three-day battle and Lee's campaign into Pennsylvania. Years when asked why his charge at Gettysburg failed, Pickett replied, "I've always thought the Yankees had something to do with it." Pickett's Charge was planned for three Confederate divisions, commanded by Maj. Gen. George Pickett, Brig. Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew, Maj. Gen. Isaac R. Trimble, consisting of troops from Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's First Corps and Lt. Gen. A.
P. Hill's Third Corps. Pettigrew commanded brigades from Maj. Gen. Henry Heth's old division, under Col. Birkett D. Fry, Col. James K. Marshall, Brig. Gen. Joseph R. Davis, Col. John M. Brockenbrough. Trimble, commanding Maj. Gen. Dorsey Pender's division, had the brigades of Brig. Gens. Alfred M. Scales and James H. Lane. Two brigades from Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson's division were to support the attack on the right flank: Brig. Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox and Col. David Lang; the target of the Confederate assault was the center of the Union Army of the Potomac's II Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock. Directly in the center was the division of Brig. Gen. John Gibbon with the brigades of Brig. Gen. William Harrow, Col. Norman J. Hall, Brig. Gen. Alexander S. Webb. To the north of this position were brigades from the division of Brig. Gen. Alexander Hays, to the south was Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday's division of the I Corps, including the 2nd Vermont Brigade of Brig. Gen. George J. Stannard and the 121st Pennsylvania under the command of Col. Chapman Biddle.
Meade's headquarters were just behind the II Corps line, in the small house owned by the widow Lydia Leister. The specific objective of the assault has been the source of historical controversy. Traditionally, the "copse of trees" on Cemetery Ridge has been cited as the visual landmark for the attacking force. Historical treatments such as the 1993 film Gettysburg continue to popularize this view, which originated in the work of Gettysburg Battlefield historian John B. Bachelder in the 1880s. However, recent scholarship, including published works by some Gettysburg National Military Park historians, has suggested that Lee's goal was Ziegler's Grove on Cemetery Hill, a more prominent and visible grouping of trees about 300 yards north of the copse; the much-debated theory suggests that Lee's general plan for the second-day attacks had not changed on the third day, the attacks on July 3 were aimed at securing the hill and the network of roads it commanded. The copse of trees a prominent landmark, was under ten feet high in 1863, only visible to a portion of the attacking columns from certain parts of the battlefield.
From the beginning of the planning, things went awry for the Confederates. While Pickett's division had not been used yet at Gettysburg, A. P. Hill's health became an issue and he did not participate in selecting which of his troops were to be used for the charge; some of Hill's corps had fought on July 1 and not at all on July 2. However, troops that had done heavy fighting on July 1 ended up making the charge. Although the assault is known to popular history as Pickett's Charge, overall command was given to James Longstreet, Pickett was one of his divisional commanders. Lee did tell Longstreet that Pickett's fresh division should lead the assault, so the name is appropriate, although some recent historians have used the name Pickett-Pettigrew-Trimble Assault to more distribute the credit. With Hill sidelined, Pettigrew's and Trimble's divisions were delegated to Longstreet's authori
Battle of Palo Alto
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican–American War and was fought on May 8, 1846, on disputed ground five miles from the modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas. A force of some 3,700 Mexican troops – most of the Army of The North – led by General Mariano Arista engaged a force of 2,300 United States troops – the Army of Occupation led by General Zachary Taylor. On April 30, following the Thornton Affair, Mexican General Mariano Arista's troops began to cross the Rio Grande. On May 3, the troops began to besiege the American outpost at Fort Texas. Taylor marched his Army of Occupation south to relieve the siege. Arista, upon learning of his approach, diverted many of his units away from the siege to meet Taylor's force; the battle took place on May 8, three days before the formal declaration of war on Mexico by the United States. Arista ordered two cavalry charges, first against the American right flank and against the left. Both were unsuccessful; the American victory is attributed to superior artillery, while the U.
S. "light" artillery was accurate than that of the Mexican forces. That evening, Arista was forced to withdraw further south; the armies clashed again the next day at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. On April 30, following the Thornton Affair, Arista started crossing the Rio Grande at Longoreno with his main army, first with General Pedro de Ampudia's 1st Brigade and four guns. Taylor prepared Fort Texas to withstand a siege while he moved most of his forces to protect his supply base at Fort Polk near Point Isabel, 23 miles northeast of present day Brownsville and having a Gulf of Mexico pass suitable for ships. Fort Texas was garrisoned by Taylor with 500 men under Major Jacob Brown, including the 7th Infantry, Capt. Allen Lowd's four 18-pounders, Lt. Braxton Bragg's field battery; the battle began as a result of Mexican efforts to besiege Fort Texas on May 3, General Zachary Taylor, in command of the Army of Occupation, receiving supplies from Fort Polk on Point Isabel, heard the distant report of cannon fire.
Taylor started his return to Fort Texas on May 7 with 2,228 men plus his 200-wagon supply train. General Arista left his camp at the Tanques del Ramireno with his army, with the intention of blocking Taylor. Ampudia's brigade left the Fort Texas siege to join him. Taylor's scouts sighted the Mexican force at noon on the 8th. Facing north and moving left to right, General Arista's army consisted of General Antonio Canales Rosillo's 400 irregular cavalry in chaparral, Anastasio Torrejon's cavalry brigade consisting of the 8th, 7th and Light Cavalry, astride the Point Isabel road came General Jose Maria Garcia's brigade of the 4th and 10th Infantry with two 8-pounders General Rómulo Díaz de la Vega's brigade of the 10th and 6th Infantry with five 4-pounders the Tampico Corps, the 2d Light Infantry and a sapper battalion with a 4-pounder. Behind this line was Col. Cayetano Montero's light cavalry. Facing south and moving right to left, with a force of 2,300 men and 400 wagons, placed Col. David E. Twiggs with Lt. Col. James S. McIntosh's 5th Infantry and Maj. Samuel Ringgold's artillery battery, followed by Capt. Lewis N. Morris' 3d Infantry with Lt. William H. Churchill's two 18-pounders astride the road, followed by Capt. George W. Allen's 4th Infantry, Lt. Thomas Childs' artillery battalion, Lt. Col. William G. Belknap's wing, James Duncan's battery Capt. William R. Montgomery's 8th Infantry on the American left.
Lt. Col. Charles A. May's dragoon squadron guarded Capt. Croghan Ker guarded the train. Montgomery was wounded during the battle, along with ten other officers, some of them severely. Taylor halted his columns and formed a line behind his batteries when the Mexican artillery started firing at 2 PM; the American artillery was effective while the Mexican artillery fell short. Arista ordered Torrejon's cavalry to attack the American right, but progress was slow, allowing Twiggs to form the 5th Infantry into a square to meet them with a couple of volleys. A fire started from a cannon burning wad which halted fighting for an hour as the smoke paralleled between the lines of the opposing forces. Arista pulled back 1,000 yards on his left and Taylor advanced accordingly, rotating the axis of the battle 40 degrees counterclockwise. May failed to turn the Mexican left. Child's artillery battalion formed a square to repel another Torrejon cavalry charge. Duncan's battery stopped Arista from turning the American left and advanced with the 8th Infantry and Ker's dragoons to drive the Mexican right from the field.
A charge ordered by Arista at this time resulted in the light cavalry fleeing along the Mexican line, taking the 6th Infantry with them. Fighting stopped with both armies camped for the night; the morning of the 9th revealed the Mexican army moving south. Taylor sent forward a 220-man battalion under McCall to reconnoiter the Mexican positions; the Battle of Resaca de la Palma would follow. Major Ringgold was struck by a cannon ball and mortally wounded during the battle but Ringgold's and Duncan's effective cannoneers with their "Flying Artillery"—the tactic of using light artillery to attack quickly move to another location and fire once more, carried the day and won the battle for the Americans. General Zachary Taylor emerged from the war a national hero; the battlefield is now Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park and is maintained by the National Park Service. Army of the North – Gen.div. Mariano Arista Deputy – Gen.br. Pedro AmpudiaInfantry 1st Brigade – Gen. Jose M. Garcia 10th Line – Col. Jose M. Garcia, Bn.
Comdte. Manuel Montero Artillery battery 2nd Brigade
Battle of Resaca de la Palma
At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican–American War, United States General Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Ejército del Norte under General Mariano Arista on May 9, 1846. United States troops forced the Mexicans out of Texas. Following his disappointments at the Battle of Palo Alto, Arista on the morning of 9 May moved to a more defensible position along a resaca, an old meandering river bed, known as Resaca de la Guerrero but as Resaca de la Palma by the Americans. Recalling his forces besieging Fort Texas, he was established along the twelve foot deep and 200 foot wide resaca, three miles from the Rio Grande, by 10 AM. Arista placed most of his infantry in the ravine, thickly forested on either side, to negate the effectiveness of Taylor's artillery, with the 6th and 10th Infantry, Sappers, 2nd Light Infantry and 1st Infantry east of the road, the 2nd Infantry, Tampico Battalion and 4th Infantry west of the road. Covering the flanks in the rear were the Presidiales, the light cavalry, the 7th and 8th Regiments, two batteries on the south bank.
Taylor reached the area about 3 PM and ordered Capt. William W. Mackall's skirmishers and Capt. Randolph Ridgely's battery along the road, with the 4th and 5th Infantry to the left and the remaining 4th and 3d Infantry on the right. Fighting was disorganized and uncoordinated due to the dense chaparral and the intense Mexican artillery fire, although Ridgely did repulse a lancer charge. Taylor ordered a charge by Capt. Charles A. May's dragoon squadron with the objective of clearing the Mexican battery. May's exchange with Ridgeley included, "Hello Ridgely, where is that Battery? I am ordered to charge it." "Hold on Charley,'till I draw their fire and you will see where they are." May's charge however carried them well past the guns and although he captured General Romulo Diaz de la Vega, he could not hold the guns. Taylor ordered William G. Belknap's 5th and 8th Infantry to secure the guns, which they did. One of the battery commanders Capitan Dolores Ramires died defending the guns; the Mexicans east of the road retreated.
West of the road, Capt. Robert C. Buchanan and members of the 4th Infantry, found a trail which turned the Mexican left flank, enabling them to take and hold the battery located there, they were able to defend the position from General Pedro de Ampudia's counterattacks, the entire Mexican force panicked and fled across the Rio Grande, many drowning. The Mexican Army left behind a number of artillery pieces, Arista's writing desk and silver service, the colors of Mexico's lauded Tampico Battalion, other baggage. Among the several captured Mexican artillery pieces were two 8-pounder bronze guns, two 6-pounder bronze guns, four 4-pounder bronze guns. Taylor's army settled into their Fort Texas campsite as Taylor considered his next move, although he did exchange prisoners with Arista. Taylor crossed the Rio Grande on 18 May, Arista's army having abandoned their artillery and wounded at Linares, Nuevo Leon during their retreat to Monterrey. Before accepting a prisoner exchange with General Arista, Taylor was noted for his humane treatment of the abandoned wounded Mexican soldiers, giving them the same care as was given to the American wounded.
After tending to the wounded he performed the last rites for the dead of both the American and Mexican soldiers killed during the battle. The Resaca De La Palma Battlefield is in the city limits of present-day Brownsville, but is part of the Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park; the Battle of Resaca de la Palma inspired the name of Resaca, Georgia, a community that became the site of a Civil War battle. Grant, U. S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Vol. I, pp 65–69, ISBN 0-940450-58-5 Appendix To The Congressional Globe, 29th Cong...1st Session Battles of the Mexican–American War 1848 in Mexico List of conflicts in the United States Saint Patrick's Battalion Resaca de la Palma Overview @ Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site NPS website Guns Along the Rio Grande: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, CMH Pub 73-2, Center of Military History A Continent Divided: The U. S. - Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington
The Leon River is a river in the U. S. state of Texas. It has three primary forks. Belton Lake Proctor LakeConstruction of Belton Dam on the Leon River began in 1947 and was completed in 1954. Belton Lake took less than two years to fill up and nearly overflowed in 1957. In October 1993 the Miller Springs Nature Center was constructed along the Leon River just downstream of Belton Dam. Miller Springs Nature Center - The nature center is located on both banks of the Leon River just downstream of Belton Dam, it consists of nearly 11 miles of trails winding amongst canyon, upland and riparian habitats. The hiking and biking trails in the nature center are enjoyed by hikers, joggers and all kinds of nature enthusiasts. There is good access to the Leon River for canoers and kayakers, it is operated by the non-profit Miller Springs Alliance, an organization made up of volunteers. It is accessible from the Belton side of Belton Dam, via the Park Road off of Highway FM 439, from the Temple side, via the Nature Center entrance, off of Highway FM 2271 at the north end of Belton Dam.
List of rivers of Texas Leon River from the Handbook of Texas Online South Leon River from the Handbook of Texas Online
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Texas Historical Commission
The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas; the commission identifies Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks and recognizes them with Official Texas Historical Marker medallions and descriptive plaques. The commission identifies Historic Texas Cemeteries. A quarterly publication, The Medallion, is published by the agency and includes news and advice about preservation projects, Texas’ historic sites, heritage tourism opportunities; the agency maintains the online Texas Historic Sites Atlas featuring more than 300,000 site records, including data on Official Texas Historical Markers and National Register of Historic Places properties in Texas. The commission has main offices in the Capitol Complex in downtown Austin. Established in 1953, the state legislature created the Texas State Historical Survey Committee to oversee state historical programs; the legislature revised the agency’s enabling statute to give it additional protective powers, expand its leadership role and educational responsibilities, changed its name to the Texas Historical Commission.
In 2007, the legislature transferred management of 20 state historic sites from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department to the THC. Today, the agency employs about 200 personnel; the Texas Historical Commission leadership is composed of 18 members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate, serving overlapping six-year terms. All members must be citizens of Texas, together represent all geographical areas of Texas; the commission employs personnel in various fields, including archeology, economic development, heritage tourism, public administration and urban planning. These personnel consult with citizens and organizations to preserve Texas's architectural and cultural landmarks of balls and vagains The agency includes the following divisions dedicated to overseeing the agency's programs: Administration Architecture Community Heritage Development Historic Sites History Programs Public Information and Education Staff ServicesThere are several boards associated with the Texas Historical Commission: The State Board of Review The Antiquities Advisory Board The Guardians of Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Advisory Board of the Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Main Street Interagency Council The Texas Historical Commission administers this statewide heritage tourism program.
This program is based in the ten scenic driving regions that Texas Department of Transportation and Gov. John Connally designated in 1968 in connection with the World's fair in San Antonio, called HemisFair'68. After the fair, these trails were all but forgotten; the Texas Historical Commission began its program based on these historical designations in 1998, starting with the Texas Forts Trail. The goal of the program is to promote historic preservation; the THC divides Texas into 10 heritage regions: Texas Brazos Trail Texas Forest Trail Texas Forts Trail Texas Hill Country Trail Texas Independence Trail Texas Lakes Trail Texas Mountain Trail Texas Pecos Trail Texas Plains Trail Texas Tropical TrailIn 2005 the Heritage Trails Program won the Preserve America Presidential Award for exemplary accomplishment in the preservation and sustainable use of America's heritage assets, which has enhanced community life while honoring the nation's history. The Texas Historical Commission operates 22 state historic sites across Texas.
These unique places inspire an understanding of what it means to be a Texan. From American Indian sites to frontier forts to common and elegant homes and the leaders and statesmen who lived in them, these sites enrich people’s lives through history. Fort Griffin is home to the official State of Texas Longhorn Herd. Sponsors may apply for official historical markers through their county historical commissions; the purpose of the markers, which are available in a variety of types and sizes, is to educate the public. An application must meet certain requirements to be approved by the THC commissioners as qualifying for a marker. Beginning in November 2006, the Texas Historical Commission adopted a new marker program; the following are some of the major changes to the program: All applications are to be submitted electronically There is now an annual application deadline An application fee is required The inscription process has been reworkedAs of 2007, there are over 13,000 Official Texas Historical Markers placed throughout the state.
Texas has the most prolific state historical marker program in the United States. One of the devotees of the expanded historical marker program was Rupert N. Richardson, the Texas historian who served as a THC member from 1953–1967 and was from 1943-1953 the president of Hardin-Simmons University in Abilene; the Historical Markers have been manufactured by The Southwell Company, located in San Antonio, Texas. In 1936 the company was awarded the contract to manufacture all of the bronze historical markers for the Texas Centennial. Since thousands of cast aluminum historical markers have been provided for the State of Texas. In 1976, the company was selected to manufacture all of the historical markers for the Bicentennial. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark is the highest designation given by the Texas Historic Commission for significant structures in Texas; the THC may designate certain locations as State Antiquities Landmarks provided that they are not located on federal lands. These locations may fall i
Fort Lincoln, Texas
Fort Lincoln is a town in Medina County, Texas. It was established on July 7, 1849 by Major James Longstreet, with two companies of the Eighth United States Infantry, after the Mexican–American War; the fort is named in honor of Captain George Lincoln, killed in the Battle of Buena Vista. The fort was abandoned on July 20, 1852. A line of seven army posts were established in 1848-49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of West Texas and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln and Fort Duncan. Other famous officers stationed here include Richard Irving Dodge and William Steele