Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in North Central Kansas, on the Kansas River, known as the Kaw, between Junction City and Manhattan. The Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 101,733 acres in Geary, the portion of the fort that contains housing development is part of the Fort Riley census-designated place, with a residential population of 7,761 as of the 2010 census. The fort has a population of nearly 25,000. Fort Riley is named in honor of Major General Bennett C, Riley who led the first military escort along the Santa Fe Trail. The fort was established in 1853 as a military post to protect the movement of people and trade over the Oregon, California, in the years after the Civil War, Fort Riley served as a major United States Cavalry post and school for cavalry tactics and practice. The post was a base for skirmishes with Native Americans after the Civil War ended in 1865, in 1887, Fort Riley became the site of the United States Cavalry School. The famous all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments, the soldiers of which were called Buffalo Soldiers, were stationed at Fort Riley at various times in the 19th, since the end of World War II, various infantry divisions have been assigned there.
Most notably, from 1955–1996 the post was home to the famed Big Red One, between 1999–2006, the post was headquarters to the 24th Infantry Division and known as Americas Warfighting Center. In August 2006, the Big Red One relocated its headquarters to Fort Riley from Leighton Barracks, Germany. Camp Whitside is named in honor of Brigadier General Samuel M. Whitside, Army Garrison Partners 10th Air Support Operations Squadron, USAF 407th Army Field Support Brigade 902nd Military Intelligence Group Det. During the 1850s, a number of posts were established at strategic points to provide protection along these arteries of emigration. In the fall of 1852, a party under the command of Captain Robert Chilton, 1st U. S. Dragoons, selected the junction of the Republican. This location, approved by the War Department in January 1853, offered a location from which to organize, train. Surveyors believed the location near the center of the United States and named the site, during the late spring, three companies of the 6th Infantry occupied the camp and began construction of temporary quarters.
On June 27,1853, Camp Center became Fort Riley—named in honor of Maj. Gen. Bennett C, Riley who had led the first military escort along the Santa Fe Trail in 1829. The fort took shape around a plain that overlooked the Kansas River valley. The forts design followed the frontier post configuration, buildings were constructed of the most readily available material - in this case. In the spring, troops were dispatched to escort mail trains, at the fort, additional buildings were constructed under the supervision of Capt
American Indian Wars
These conflicts occurred in the current boundaries of the United States from the time of earliest colonial settlements until 1924. In many cases, wars resulted from competition for resources and land ownership as Europeans and raiding took place as a result of conflicts between European governments and the United States. These governments enlisted Native Americans tribes to help them conduct warfare against each others settlements, after 1776, many conflicts were local, involving disputes over land use, and some entailed cycles of reprisal. In the 1800s, conflicts were spurred by ideologies such as Manifest Destiny, in the years leading up to the Indian Removal Act of 1830 there were many armed conflicts between settlers and Native Americans. Prior to the Act of 1830, some conflicts were resolved through sale or exchange of territory through treaties between the government and specific tribes. The 1830 act authorized the removal of indigenous peoples who lived East of the Mississippi River to the West.
As United States citizens continued to settle areas towards the Pacific, the policy of removal was refined to move some indigenous peoples to very specific reservations. The 2010 census found 2,932,248 Americans who identified themselves as being Native American, no consensus exists on how many native people lived in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus, but extensive research has been and continues to be conducted. Estimates on the population of pre-Colombus North America range from a low of 2.1 million to 7 million people to 18 million, scholars believe that the overwhelming main causes were new infectious diseases carried by European explorers and traders. Native Americans had no acquired immunity to diseases, which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for over five centuries. For instance, some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–98% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men and children, including those killed in individual combats, the actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the number given.
Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate, from about 1600 onwards, the process of European colonization of North America by the English, Spanish and Swedish was contested by various indigenous tribes. Similarly, in the American Revolution and the War of 1812, the British planned to set up an Indian nation in what is now the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion. The U. S. protested and finally, in 1812, most Indian tribes, especially those allied with Tecumseh, supported the British and were ultimately defeated by General William Henry Harrison. The latter were defeated by General Andrew Jackson and after such warfare, many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada, those in the South went to Florida while it was under Spanish control. During the early 19th century, the government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Native Americans from their areas. Some resisted fiercely, most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida and they were never finally defeated, although some Seminole did remove to Indian Territory
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27,1864, during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. Strategically, the failed to deliver the result that the Confederacy desperately needed—namely a halt to Shermans advance on Atlanta. McPherson feinted against the end of Kennesaw Mountain, while his corps under Maj. Gen. John A. Logan assaulted Pigeon Hill on its southwest corner. At the same time, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas launched strong attacks against Cheatham Hill at the center of the Confederate line, both attacks were repulsed with heavy losses, but a demonstration by Maj. Gen. John M. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and he devised a strategy of multiple, simultaneous offensives against the Confederacy, hoping to prevent any of the rebel armies from reinforcing the others over interior lines. This was a strategy that President Abraham Lincoln had emphasized throughout the war, as their campaigns progressed, the political importance of the cities of Richmond and Atlanta began to dominate their strategy.
By 1864, Atlanta was a critical target, the city of 20,000 was founded at the intersection of four important railroad lines that supplied the Confederacy and was a military manufacturing arsenal in its own right. Atlantas nickname of Gate City of the South was apt—its capture would open virtually the entire Deep South to Union conquest, Shermans force of about 100,000 men was composed of three subordinate armies, the Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, and the relatively small Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield. Their principal opponent was the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the 50, 000-man army consisted of the infantry corps of Lt. Gens. William J. Hardee, John Bell Hood, and Leonidas Polk, Shermans campaign began on May 7,1864, as his three armies departed from the vicinity of Chattanooga. As Sherman swung his entire army in the direction of Resaca, full scale fighting erupted in the Battle of Resaca on May 14–15 but there was no conclusive result and Sherman flanked Johnston for a second time by crossing the Oostanaula River.
As Johnston withdrew again, skirmishing erupted at Adairsville on May 17, Johnston planned to defeat part of Shermans force as it approached on multiple routes, but Hood became uncharacteristically cautious and feared encirclement, failing to attack as ordered. Encouraged by Hood and Polk, Johnston ordered another withdrawal, this time across the Etowah River, Johnston was forced to move from his strong position and meet Shermans army in the open. Fierce but inconclusive fighting occurred on May 25 at New Hope Church, May 27 at Picketts Mill, by June 1, heavy rains turned the roads to quagmires and Sherman was forced to return to the railroad to supply his men. Johnstons new line was established by June 4 northwest of Marietta, along Lost Mountain, Pine Mountain, on June 14, following eleven days of steady rain, Sherman was ready to move again. While on a reconnaissance, he spotted a group of Confederate officers on Pine Mountain. Lt. Gen. Hoods corps attempted an attack at Peter Kolbs farm south of Little Kennesaw Mountain on June 22
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Fort Larned National Historic Site
Fort Larned National Historic Site preserves Fort Larned which operated from 1859 to 1878. It is approximately 5.5 miles west of Larned, the Camp on Pawnee Fork was established on October 22,1859 to protect traffic along the Santa Fe Trail from hostile American Indians. It was renamed Camp Alert in 1860, as the garrison of about 50 men had to remain constantly alert for Indians. In May 1860 it was moved upstream,3 miles 30 miles to the west up the Pawnee Fork, and by the end of the month was renamed Fort Larned. It served the purpose as Camp Alert and as an agency for the administration of the Central Plains Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs under the terms of the Fort Wise Treaty of 1861. The forts service ended as a combination of the relocation to reservations. Larned and the fort that was constructed there are named in honor of Colonel Benjamin F. Larned, Larned experienced a lengthy military career, first serving as an ensign in the 21st Infantry during the War of 1812. He was promoted to captain after the defense of Fort Erie, despite the town and fort bearing his name, Colonel Larned ironically never came to Kansas.
As the American government claimed vast amounts of land west of the Mississippi River, according to one source in 1859, trade had risen $10,000,000 annually. In the Missouri Republican, it was reported that 2,300 men,1970 wagons,840 horses,4,000 mules,15,000 oxen,73 carriages and it became apparent an additional fortification was required to protect the trade routes. Fort Larneds location was chosen by William Bent, an agent for the Upper Arkansas Indians, the forts original structures were poorly constructed and inadequate. After its establishment, nearby Plains Indians began to respect the trail commerce, in August,1861, Colonel Leavenworth, reporting from Fort Larned, stated the Indians had left the Santa Fe trail area and there was no apprehension of any hostilities. When the Civil War erupted in 1861, Fort Larned witnessed its first action, Soldiers in the regular army were removed from the post to join the growing conflict in the East, leaving the fort to be operated by volunteer troops from Kansas and Wisconsin.
Raids and harassment of travelers by Plains Indians increased during the Civil War years, on July 17,1864, Kiowa Indians raided Fort Larned and stole 172 horses and mules from the corral. The raiders were pursued but never caught. In 1865 a system of escorting wagon trains was established, though the fort was never directly involved in any Civil War engagements, one incident nearly brought the fighting to Larned. In May 1862, Confederate General Albert Pike arranged an alliance with some Kiowa and Seminole Indians with intentions of capturing Forts Larned, the plan was never carried out, as the Indians left for their annual hunt when the weather improved. After the meeting, along with George Armstrong Custer, Hancock ordered the village burned, beginning a summer of warfare known as Hancocks War. Fort Larned assisted in bringing Hancocks War to an end by supplying the Medicine Lodge Treaty, during the winter of 1868–69, U. S. Major General Philip H. Sheridan launched a campaign against the Cheyenne and Comanche Indians in the Great Plains region
Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalices
Ellsworth is a city in and the county seat of Ellsworth County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,120, once called The Wickedest Cattletown in Kansas, the city is named for Fort Ellsworth, which was built in 1864. Due to speculation on imminent railroad construction, the population of Ellsworth boomed to over two thousand by the time it was incorporated in 1867 and it has since been said, the first, Dodge City, the last, but Ellsworth the wickedest. Ellsworth was a cattle town for a time during the late 1860s. Cattle were driven up from Texas to this point, and shipped to major markets, often cowboys had the run of the town. In 1875 Kansas Pacific closed its cattle pens, moving to another location, the cattle trade dwindled to almost nothing by the mid-1880s. During the late 1860s into the 1870s, Ellsworth was known for being one of the wickedest cattle towns, the town sported numerous saloons and gambling halls, with prostitution being rampant. Wild Bill Hickok ran for Ellsworth County Sheriff in 1868, but was defeated by veteran Union Army soldier E. W.
Kingsbury, Kingsbury was an effective lawman, but relied on local marshals to patrol the town, as he had to police the county. Violence in Ellsworth was commonplace among the cowboys and people associated with them, Ellsworth marshal Will Semans was shot and killed on September 26,1869, while attempting to disarm a rowdy man in a dance hall. For a time during this period, two small-time outlaws known only as Craig and Johnson began bullying people around the community, often committing armed robbery, after Semans murder, they operated openly. Before long, citizens formed a squad and captured both men, hanging them in a lynching near the Smoky Hill River. Chauncey Whitney, a deputy to Kingsbury, took over following Sheriff Kingsburys departure, Whitney quickly gained a reputation as being both tough and respectable, and was well liked. The scale of business is shown by construction of the Drovers Cottage in 1872 and it could accommodate 175 guests, and stable 50 carriages and 100 horses. Lawman Wyatt Earp served in Ellsworth for a short time and he claimed to have arrested gunman Ben Thompson there.
But Thompson was arrested by Deputy Ed Hogue after his brother Billy Thompson accidentally shot, Billy Thompson fled, fearing that he would be lynched for the death of the popular sheriff. Thompson was eventually captured and put on trial, but was acquitted in the shooting, Sheriff Whitney, a friend to both Thompsons, had told bystanders before his death that the shooting was an accident. By the late 1870s the crime rate had dropped dramatically, as fewer cowboys came through after Kansas Pacific closed its stockyard here, Cattle drives were directed to other market cities, such as Dodge City and Abilene, Kansas. Ellsworth has been developing heritage tourism related to its unique 19th-century history, the city and activists have plans to restore Ellsworths Signature Insurance Building for use as the National Drovers Hall of Fame
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth in the upper northeast portion of the state. Built in 1827, it is the oldest active United States Army post west of Washington, D. C. Fort Leavenworth has been historically known as the Intellectual Center of the Army. Fort Leavenworth was the base of African-American soldiers of the U. S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on 21 September 1866 at Fort Leavenworth and they became known as Buffalo Soldiers, nicknamed by the Native American tribes whom they fought. This term eventually was applied to all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866, during the countrys westward expansion, Fort Leavenworth was a forward destination for thousands of soldiers, immigrants, American Indians and settlers who passed through. On August 1,1846, a Mormon Battalion, led by Col. James Allen, colonel Allen became ill and died at the fort, his headstone marks his grave at the Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery.
Today, the garrison supports the U. S. Army Training, cACs mission involves leader development, collective training, Army doctrine and battle command. The fort occupies 5,600 ac and 7,000,000 ft2 of space in 1,000 buildings and 1,500 quarters. It is located on the Frontier Military Scenic Byway, which was originally a road connecting to Fort Scott National Historic Site. The garrison commander is a colonel reporting via IMCOM West to the Installation Management Command, the fort is nicknamed the intellectual center of the Army because much of its mission involves training. S. and allied soldiers and officers. The school trains almost all of the armys majors, all modern five-star army generals have passed through the college including George Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, Henry “Hap” Arnold, and Omar Bradley. Since 1978 it has been commanded by a Lieutenant General, in 2007, its commander was David Petraeus. It reports to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, United States Disciplinary Barracks, which is the only maximum security prison for military personnel of all branches.
Since a 2007 reorganization, its commander is a colonel who reports to the United States Army Corrections Command, midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a low security prison. Reports to the United States Army Corrections Command, army/ACE Registry Transcript Systems See Fort Leavenworth School District The Fort Leavenworth Lamp newspaper serves the military community living on post. The fort is 10 miles south of the 18th century French Fort de Cavagnal and its commandant was François Coulon de Villiers, a brother to Louis Coulon de Villiers, who was the only military commander to force George Washington to surrender. The French abandoned the fort after ceding its territory to Louisiana at the conclusion of the French, early American explorers on the Missouri River to visit the area of Fort de Cavagnal include Lewis and Clark on 26–29 June 1804 and Stephen Harriman Long in 1819. The fort location had been chosen because of its proximity to a large Kansa tribe village, the spot being chosen, he will construct with the troops of his command comfortable, though temporary quarters sufficient for the accommodation of four companies.
This movement will be made as early as the convenience of the service will permit, the first army installation in Cantonment Leavenworth was located on Scott Avenue, south of the Post Chapel with initial strength of 14 officers and 174 enlisted men
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the US states of Colorado, Oklahoma and it flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. At 1,469 miles, it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, and its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, the Arkansas Rivers mouth is at Napoleon and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi. In terms of volume, the river is smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers. The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the US-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America.
At its headwaters, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley and this section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers, Browns Canyon, and the Royal Gorge. At Cañon City, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly, just west of Pueblo, the river enters the Great Plains. Through the rest of Colorado and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding, tributaries include the Cimarron River and the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel, the river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas. It continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Pueblo, Garden City, Wichita, Tulsa, Fort Smith and Little Rock, Arkansas.
The I-40 bridge disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40s crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. The problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado, while Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river. The Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and it led to the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Commission, which was charged with administering the compact and reducing pollution. The compact was approved and implemented by states in 1970, and has been in force since then. Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams artificially deepen and widen the river to build it into a navigable body of water. Many nations of Native Americans lived near, or along, the 1, the first Europeans to see the river were members of the Spanish Coronado expedition on June 29,1541
George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1857, with the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army. Custer developed a reputation during the Civil War. He participated in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861, near Washington and his association with several important officers helped his career as did his success as a highly effective cavalry commander. He was wounded in the Battle of Culpeper Court House in Virginia on September 13,1863, in 1864, Custer was awarded another star and brevetted to major general rank. At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a role, Custer was present at General Robert E. Lees surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant. After the Civil War, Custer remained a general in the United States Volunteers until they were mustered out in February 1866.
He reverted to his permanent rank of captain and was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry Regiment in July 1866 and he was dispatched to the west in 1867 to fight in the American Indian Wars. The battle is known in American history as Custers Last Stand. Custer and his regiment were defeated so decisively at the Little Bighorn that it has overshadowed all of his prior achievements, according to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mothers hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith and he had two younger brothers, Thomas Custer and Boston Custer, both of whom died with him on the battlefield at Little Bighorn. His other full siblings were the familys youngest child, Margaret Custer, and Nevin Custer, Custer had three older half-siblings. It was in large, close knit family that Custer. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics, in a February 3,1887 letter to his sons widow, Libby, he related an incident when Autie was about four years old.
He had to have a tooth drawn, and he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get right away. When he got to the doctor he took his seat, the forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial. He pulled it out, and Autie never even scrunched, going home, I led him by the arm