Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Curtis J. Hammeke is an American university sports administrator and former college baseball player and coach. Hammeke is the director of athletics at Fort Hays State University. Prior to his current position, Hammeke served as an athletic director at a high school and two colleges, as well as the baseball coach for Fort Hays State prior to that. Hammeke, a Great Bend, Kansas native, played baseball for Barton Community College from 1981 to 1982, finished his collegiate baseball career at Fort Hays State University from 1983 to 1984. Two years after graduating from Fort Hays State, Hammeke began his career in athletics in 1987 as the Barton Cougars baseball assistant coach and Sports Information Director. In 1992, Hammeke was hired as the head coach at his alma mater, Fort Hays State Tigers baseball, as well as an assistant athletic director. During his five seasons as the head coach, Hammeke led the Tigers to an overall record of 164–81, winning the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference regular season and tournament championships in 1995.
Following a successful five seasons as a head coach, Hammeke became the Great Bend High School director of athletics, a position he held from 1996 to 1998. In 1998, Hammeke left his Great Bend to become Butler Community College's director of athletics. Hammeke was responsible for hiring the National Junior College Athletic Association winningest football coach, Troy Morrell, who won three out of seven national championship appearances, 12 conference championships. In 2003, Hammeke left Butler CC to become the athletics director at Newman University in Wichita, Kansas. In May, 2004, Hammeke was named Fort Hays State University's athletics director. During his time as the athletic director, Lewis Field Stadium has seen numerous renovations – including an artificial field – along with an indoor training facility. Hammeke has hired several successful coaches at Fort Hays State including head Tiger football coach, Chris Brown, head women's basketball coach, Tony Hobson. Fort Hays State profile
University of Central Missouri
The University of Central Missouri Central Missouri State University, is a public state university located in Warrensburg, United States. It serves 59 countries on its 1,561-acre campus. UCM offers 150 programs of study, including 10 pre-professional programs, 27 areas of teacher certification, 37 graduate programs; the University was founded in 1871 as Normal School No. 2 and became known as Warrensburg Teachers College. The name was changed to Central Missouri State Teachers College in 1919, Central Missouri State College in 1945 and Central Missouri State University in 1972. In 1965, the institution established a graduate school. In 2006, the name was changed to the University of Central Missouri. There are 32 professional accreditations and 37 graduate programs. UCM has off-campus locations in Lee's Summit and provides numerous online courses and programs. College of Arts and Social Sciences: UCM students take College of Arts and Social Sciences courses that develop critical-thinking and speaking skills.
The current dean is Gersham Nelson. Accreditations include National Association of Schools of Music and National Council for Social Studies. Departments include: School of Visual and Performing Arts Music Theatre and Dance Art and Design Government, International Studies and Languages Political Science English and Philosophy History and Anthropology Communication and SociologyReligious Studies Women's Studies Harmon College of Business and Professional Studies: The Harmon College's accreditation by AACSB International puts it in the nation's upper echelon of business colleges. U. S. News & World Report has cited UCM's MBA program in America's Best Graduate Schools; the current dean is Jose Mercado. Other accreditations include Aviation Accreditation Board International and Council on Social Work Education. Departments include: School of Business Administration Economics and Marketing School of Accountancy and Computer Information Systems Management School of Professional Studies Aviation Criminal Justice Communication Disorders and Social Work Military Science and LeadershipCollege of Education: UCM's College of Education prepares students to become teachers.
The current dean is Michael Wright. Departments include: Career and Technology Education Educational Leadership and Human Development Educational Foundations and Literacy Elementary and Early Childhood EducationCollege of Health and Technology: Combining scientific theory and applied technology, the College of Health and Technology has a unique focus that sets the university apart from others; the college's goal is to prepare students to be competent leaders in the changing global marketplace and to provide a high-quality work force for the future. The current dean is Alice Griefe. Departments include: School of Health and Human Performance Nursing Nutrition and Kinesiology Biology and Earth Science School of Environmental and Applied Sciences School of Technology School of Computer Science and Mathematics Psychological Science; the Honors College: First-time incoming freshmen must have a minimum ACT score of 25 and a minimum cumulative high school GPA of 3.5 to be considered for admission to The Honors College.
Once incoming freshmen have completed a semester at UCM as a full-time student and have a college cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher, they may apply to The Honors College. Current UCM students or students transferring to UCM must have achieved a minimum cumulative college GPA of 3.5 or higher. Benefits of being an Honors College student include, but are not limited to, early enrollment, one-on-one advising with the Dean, smaller classes, Honors-only courses and colloquia; the current dean of the Honors College and International Affairs is Joseph D. Lewandowski; the University of Central Missouri continues to hold an important role in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search. The GIMPS project at UCM is a university-wide effort managed by Steven Boone. Central's team is the No. 1 contributor to that project, is the only GIMPS team that has discovered four Mersenne primes: M43 230402457 - 1 with 9,152,052 digits, M44 232582657 - 1 with 9,808,358 digits, M48 257,885,161-1 with 17,425,170 digits, M49 274,207,281-1 with 22,338,618 digits.
The university has more than 200 student organizations with academic, recreational, community service and special interest clubs and associations. There are more than 20 intramural sports to compete in, free movie nights on campus and a bowling alley and movie theater in the student union. Freshman and sophomore students are required to live in one of the 16 residence halls their first year to help ease the adjustment from high school to college. Students can choose to live in a Special Housing Interest Program, which places students with the same program of study together in the residence halls; the University of Central Missouri is home to 26 Greek organizations. Eleven percent of UCM students are involved in Greek life. Sororities and fraternities contribute not only to enriching campus life at UCM, but helping improve their community by participating in community service throughout the year. A Greek program, Greeks Advocating Mature Management of Alcohol known as GAMMA, promotes alcohol awareness.
It assisted the Student Government Association with bringing the Night Ryder bus to campus. Night Ryder provides students a free ride to and from campus to ensure that students have safe transportation. A list are of fraternity and sorority chapters are presented below. UCM produces a weekly newspaper focusing on the campus called The Muleskinner an
Lewis Field Stadium
Lewis Field is a sport stadium in Hays, Kansas. The facility is used by Fort Hays State University for college football team; the stadium is the primary home field for Hays High School and Thomas More Prep-Marian. It was named to honor William Alexander Lewis, president of Fort Hays State University from 1913 to 1933. Lewis Field official site, with photos
Chris Brown (American football coach)
Christopher J. Brown is an American football coach and former player, he played for Pittsburg State University in Pittsburg, from 1992 to 1995. He became the head coach at Fort Hays State in 2011. Brown is a 1996 graduate of Pittsburg State University in Kansas; as a player for the Gorillas, he recorded 470 tackles in 43 starts during his career at free safety. Brown is one of only three Gorillas three times; as a player, Brown was a unanimous All-American First Team selection his senior year, was named the CNN NCAA Division II National Player of the Year in 1995, was named to the NCAA Quarter Century Team for all players from 1975 to 1999 at free safety. Brown recorded a record 21 tackles in the NCAA Division II National Championship as a freshman against Jacksonville State and was inducted into the Pittsburg State Athletic Hall of Fame in 2006. After completion of his playing time at Pittsburg State, Brown returned to his hometown Liberal, Kansas to be an assistant coach at Liberal High School from 1999 until the end of the 2001 season.
He became an assistant coach at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas under head coach Craig Schurig from 2002 until completion of the 2010 season. Brown was named the head coach for the Fort Hays Tigers located in Hays, Kansas beginning with the 2011 season, his team went 4–7 in the first season. The first game of the season was a 27–17 victory over cross-state rival Emporia State. In 2017, Brown broke a school record by leading the team to an undefeated regular season, the first in 100 years. Fort Hays State profile
Lincoln University (Missouri)
Lincoln University is a black public land-grant university in Jefferson City, Missouri. Founded in 1866 by African-American veterans of the American Civil War, it is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. During the Civil War, the 62nd Colored Infantry regiment of the U. S. Army recruited in Missouri, set up educational programs for its soldiers. At the end of the war it raised $6,300 to set up a black school, headed by a white abolitionist officer, Richard Foster. Foster opened the Lincoln Institute in Jefferson City in 1866. Lincoln had a black student body, both black and white teachers, outside support from religious groups; the state government provided $5,000 a year to train teachers for the state's new black school system. Under the Morrill Act of 1890, Missouri designated the school a land-grant university, emphasizing agriculture and teaching. By 1921, the college had expanded to offer graduate programs and was designated a university by the state of Missouri, it changed its name to Lincoln University of Missouri.
In 1954, it opened its doors to applicants of all ethnicities. It provides graduate courses. Lincoln University participates at the NCAA Division II level in Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association. Lincoln competed in the MIAA from 1970 to 1999, when it left because it had not had a football team since 1989. From 1999 to 2010 Lincoln competed in the Heartland Conference, of which it is a founding conference member; the school revitalized its football program and reentered the MIAA in 2010. The Lincoln University Women's Track Team made NCAA Division II history by winning the Outdoor Track and Field Championships five consecutive times; the school has programs in the following sports: The alma mater is sung to the tune of "Ach wie ist's möglich dann", a German folk song published in 1827 and variously credited to Georg Heinrich or Friedrich Silcher Kuchen. Founder's Day, traditionally held on the first Saturday of February, pays tribute to the founders of Lincoln University. Homecoming held in October, is a celebratory time when family and friends of Lincoln University convene to participate in gala activities.
Springfest held in late April, celebrates the arrival of spring with games and other activities throughout the week. The "Marching Musical Storm" is the university's marching band, it is one of the largest student organizations on campus. The band performs at all home football games, select basketball games, other school-sanctioned functions throughout the year; the Clarion KJLU JCTV The National Pan-Hellenic Council organizations that have chapters at Lincoln University of Missouri are: Official website Official athletics website