Jervey Athletic Center
The Jervey Athletic Center is a building in Clemson, South Carolina, on the campus of Clemson University. It contains the gymnasium for the women's volleyball team and offices and training facilities for all of Clemson's athletic teams; the facility was built in 1973 and renovated in 1995. Official website
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, selling the item to the highest bidder. The open ascending price auction is arguably the most common form of auction in use today. Participants bid against one another, with each subsequent bid required to be higher than the previous bid. An auctioneer may announce prices, bidders may call out their bids themselves, or bids may be submitted electronically with the highest current bid publicly displayed. In a Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price for some quantity of like items. While auctions are most associated in the public imagination with the sale of antiques, rare collectibles and expensive wines, auctions are used for commodities, radio spectrum and used cars. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any set of trading rules for exchange; the word "auction" is derived from the Latin augeō, which means "I increase" or "I augment". For most of history, auctions have been a uncommon way to negotiate the exchange of goods and commodities.
In practice, both haggling and sale by set-price have been more common. Indeed, before the seventeenth century the few auctions that were held were sporadic. Nonetheless, auctions have a long history, having been recorded as early as 500 B. C. According to Herodotus, in Babylon auctions of women for marriage were held annually; the auctions began with the woman the auctioneer considered to be the most beautiful and progressed to the least. It was considered illegal to allow a daughter to be sold outside of the auction method. During the Roman Empire, following military victory, Roman soldiers would drive a spear into the ground around which the spoils of war were left, to be auctioned off. Slaves captured as the "spoils of war", were auctioned in the forum under the sign of the spear, with the proceeds of sale going towards the war effort; the Romans used auctions to liquidate the assets of debtors whose property had been confiscated. For example, Marcus Aurelius sold household furniture to pay off debts, the sales lasting for months.
One of the most significant historical auctions occurred in the year 193 A. D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On 28 March 193, the Praetorian Guard first killed emperor Pertinax offered the empire to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per guard, an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was beheaded two months when Septimius Severus conquered Rome. From the end of the Roman Empire to the eighteenth century auctions lost favor in Europe, while they had never been widespread in Asia. In some parts of England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries auction by candle began to be used for the sale of goods and leaseholds. In a candle auction, the end of the auction was signaled by the expiration of a candle flame, intended to ensure that no one could know when the auction would end and make a last-second bid. Sometimes, other unpredictable processes, such as a footrace, were used in place of the expiration of a candle.
This type of auction was first mentioned in 1641 in the records of the House of Lords. The practice became popular, in 1660 Samuel Pepys's diary recorded two occasions when the Admiralty sold surplus ships "by an inch of candle". Pepys relates a hint from a successful bidder, who had observed that, just before expiring, a candle-wick always flares up slightly: on seeing this, he would shout his final - and winning - bid; the London Gazette began reporting on the auctioning of artwork at the coffeehouses and taverns of London in the late 17th century. The first known auction house in the world was Stockholm Auction House, founded by Baron Claes Rålamb in 1674. Sotheby's the world's second-largest auction house, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of an acquaintance. Christie's, now the world's largest auction house, was founded by James Christie in 1766 in London and published its first auction catalog in that year, although newspaper advertisements of Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been found.
Other early auction houses that are still in operation include Dorotheum, Bonhams, Phillips de Pury & Company, Freeman's and Lyon & Turnbull. By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were held in taverns and coffeehouses; these auctions were held daily, auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution. During the American Civil War, goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the Colonel of the division. Thus, some of today's auctioneers in the U. S. carry the unofficial title of "colonel". The development of the internet, has led to a significant rise in the use of auctions as auctioneers can solicit bids via the internet from a wide range of buyers in a much wider range of commodities than was practical.
In 2008, the National Auctioneers Association reported that the gross revenue of the auction industry for that ye
"Tiger Rag" is a jazz standard, recorded and copyrighted by the Original Dixieland Jass Band in 1917. It is one of the most recorded jazz compositions. In 2003, the 1918 recording of "Tiger Rag" was entered into the U. S. Library of Congress National Recording Registry; the song was first recorded on August 17, 1917 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band for Aeolian-Vocalion Records. The band did not use the "Jazz" spelling in its name until 1917; the Aeolian Vocalion sides did not sell well because they were recorded in a vertical format which could not be played on most contemporary phonographs. But the second recording on March 25, 1918 for Victor was a hit and established it as a jazz standard; the song was copyrighted and credited to band members Eddie Edwards, Nick LaRocca, Henry Ragas, Tony Sbarbaro, Larry Shields in 1917. "But before the first recording, several musicians had achieved prominence as leading jazz performers, several numbers of what was to become the standard repertoire had been developed.
"Tiger Rag" and "Oh Didn't He Ramble" were played long before the first jazz recording, the names of Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, Bunk Johnson, Papa Celestin, Sidney Bechet, King Oliver, Freddie Keppard, Kid Ory, Papa Laine were well known to the jazz community."Other New Orleans musicians claimed that the song, or at least portions of it, had been a standard in the city before it was recorded. Others copyrighted the melody or close variations of it, including Ray Lopez under the title "Weary Weasel" and Johnny De Droit under the title "Number Two Blues". Members of Papa Jack Laine's band said song was known in New Orleans as "Number Two" before the Dixieland Jass Band copyrighted it. In one interview, Laine said. In his book Jazz: A History, Frank Tirro states, "Morton claims credit for transforming a French quadrille, performed in different meters into "Tiger Rag". According to writer Samuel Charters, "Tiger Rag" was worked out by the Jack Carey Band, the group which developed many of the standard tunes that were recorded by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band.
The song was known as "Jack Carey" by the black musicians of the city and as "Nigger # 2" by the white. It was compiled when Jack's brother Thomas,'Papa Mutt', pulled the first strain from a book of quadrilles; the band evolved the second and third strains in order to show off the clarinetist, George Boyd, the final strain was worked out by Jack, a trombonist, the cornet player, Punch Miller." After the success of the Original Dixieland Jass Band recordings, the song gained national popularity. Dance band and march orchestrations were published for bands. Hundreds of recordings appeared through the 1920s; these include the New Orleans Rhythm Kings version with a clarinet solo by Leon Roppolo. Archaeologist Sylvanus Morley played it on his wind up phonograph while exploring the ruins of Chichen Itza in the 1920s. With the arrival of sound films, it appeared on soundtracks to movies and cartoons when energetic music was needed. "Tiger Rag" had over 136 versions by 1942. Musicians who played it included Art Tatum, Benny Goodman, Frank Sinatra, Duke Ellington, Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, who released the song at least three times as a 78 single, twice for Okeh in 1930 and 1932, for the French arm of Brunswick in 1934.
A Japanese version was recorded in 1935 by the Columbia Rhythm Boys. The Mills Brothers became a national sensation with their million-selling version in 1931. In the same year the Washboard Rhythm Kings released a version, cited as an influence on rock and roll. During the early 1930s "Tiger Rag" became a standard showoff piece for big band arrangers and soloists in England, where Bert Ambrose, Jack Hylton, Lew Stone, Billy Cotton, Jack Payne, Ray Noble recorded it, but the song declined in popularity during the swing era, as it had become something of a cliché. Les Paul and Mary Ford had a hit version in 1952. Charlie Parker recorded a bebop version in 1954, the same year it appeared in the MGM cartoon Dixieland Droopy. In 2002 it was entered into the National Recording Registry at the U. S. Library of Congress, it is the 32nd most recorded song from 1890 to 1954 based on Joel Whitburn's research for Billboard. "Tiger Rag" is used as a fight song by American high school and college teams which have a tiger for a mascot.
"Tiger Rag" is LSU's pregame song, first introduced in 1926. The Louisiana State University Tiger Marching Band performs it on the field before every home game and after the Tigers score a touchdown; the University of Texas at Dallas adopted "Tiger Rag" as its first official fight song in 2008. The Massillon Tiger Swing Band of Massillon, Ohio began playing "Tiger Rag" at Massillon Washington High School Tigers football games in 1938 when the team was coached by Paul Brown, it has been a Tiger tradition in Massillon since."Tiger Rag" – "The Song That Shakes the Southland" – is Clemson University's familiar fight song since 1942 and is performed at Tiger sporting events, pep rallies, parades. A version has been arranged for the carillon on Clemson's campus, it has been played by Dixieland bands at Detroit Tigers home games and was popular during the 1934 and 1935 World Series. The ODJB's 1917 composition "Tiger Rag" became a jazz standard, covered by Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Ted Lewis, Joe Jackson, the Mills Brothers.
Louis Armstrong – Louis Armstrong in Scandinavia Vol. 4, January 16, 1959 Louis Armstrong – New York, May 4, 1930 The Beatles – Get Back/Let It Be sessions, 1969 Bix Beiderbecke – Richmond, June 20, 1924 Duke Ellington
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Save America's Treasures
Save America's Treasures is a United States federal government initiative to preserve and protect historic buildings and published works. It is a public-private partnership between the U. S. National Park Service and the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the National Endowment for the Arts, Heritage Preservation, the National Park Foundation are allied. Save America's Treasures was established by Executive Order 13072 in February 1998 by President Bill Clinton, in conjunction with the White House Millennium Council's activities. Instrumental in its founding was First Lady of the United States Hillary Rodham Clinton, its Honorary Chair is traditionally the First Lady as designated by the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities On December 9, 2009, First Lady Michelle Obama said “Save America’s Treasures invests in our nation’s irreplaceable legacy of buildings, documents and artistic works. These awards empower communities all over the country to rescue and restore this priceless heritage, ensure that future generations continue to learn from the voices, ideas and people represented by these projects.”
Despite this initial endorsement, both the Save America's Treasures and the Preserve America grant programs were eliminated by the Obama Administration. On January 30, 2010, President Barack Obama in his "Tough Choices" FY 2011 Budget proposed eliminating the Save America's Treasures and Preserve America grant programs, stating that "both programs lack rigorous performance metrics and evaluation efforts so the benefits are unclear." The National Trust for Historic Preservation eliminated its Save America's Treasures office in 2011 during a reorganization. From 1999 - 2010, over $318 million were awarded and matched by over $400 million from other sources, resulting in the preservation of over 1200 significant historic structures and repositories of cultural heritage; as of 2012, the program had been responsible for the creation of about 16,000 jobs. This corresponds to a cost of about $13,000 to create each job. According to the American Architectural Foundation, although no new grants have been awarded since 2010, there are 175 ongoing SAT projects.
The Mount, Lenox, MA Jay Heritage Center - 1838 Peter Augustus Jay House Rye, NY American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC - Model of World Trade Center Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, MA - Diaries of John Quincy Adams Kennedy Library, Boston, MA Ernest Hemingway's Papers Rye Meeting House, Rye, NY Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site Race Street Friends Meetinghouse,Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh Courier Historic Archives, Pittsburgh, PA Temple University - William Still Collection of Papers and Abolitionist Pamphlets Havre Historic Post Office and Courthouse, Montana Hollyhock House, Los Angeles, CA Episcopal Church of the Nativity, Huntsville, AL Smithsonian, Washington, DC - National Anthropological Archives Old Naval Hospital Washington, D. C. Norman Rockwell Museum Stockbridge, MA - Norman Rockwell’s Works on Paper, Illustrated Posters and Photographs R. Buckminster Fuller and Anne Hewlett Dome Home Carbondale, IL Fort Mason San Francisco, CA Mission Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA SS Red Oak Victory, Richmond, CA Peabody Museum of Natural History - 19th-Century Dinosaur Collections of Othniel Charles Marsh Old State House - Civil War Battle Flag Collection Harvard University Peabody Museum - Historic Alaska Native Kayaks and Related Collections Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.
C. - Heye Foundation Collection Renwick Gallery, Washington, D. C. Historical preservation State Historic Preservation Office Sustainability "The economic benefits of preserving community character: a practical methodology". Joni Liethe, National Trust for Historic Preservation. Official website Preserve America Grants Effectiveness The Economics of Historic Preservation The Economics of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader's Guide The Economic Benefits of State Historic Preservation Investment Tax Credits Measuring the Economic Impact of Federal Historic Properties The Preservation Economic Impact Model. PlaceEconomics evaluation of Save America's Treasures vs. Economic Stimulus Plan