Kozhikode known as Calicut, is a city in Kerala and the headquarters of the Kozhikode district. The Kozhikode metropolitan area is the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala with a population of 2 million as of 2011; the city lies about 360 km south west of Bangalore, 235 km south of Mangalore and 525 km south west of Chennai. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of Indian spices, it was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris in the Middle Ages and of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period; the English landed followed by the French and the Dutch. In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in, it was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007. The exact origin of the name Kozhikode is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode is derived from Koyil-kota; the name got corrupted into Kolikod, or its anglicized version Calicut. Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ. Tamils called. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut; the word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth, exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut. It is the historical capital of Kerala as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad, near Calicut.
Kozhikode is a town with a long recorded history. From time immemorial, the city has attracted travellers with its prosperity, it has traded in spices like black pepper and cardamom with Arabs, Jews and Chinese for more than 500 years. As Kozhikode offered full freedom and security, the Arab and the Chinese merchants preferred it to all other ports; the globe-trotter Ibn Battuta said, "We came next to Kalikut, one of the great ports of the district of Malabar, in which merchants of all parts are found."Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar during the time of Sri Samoothiri Maharajas, who ruled the region before the British took over. The city's first recorded contact with Europe was when Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad in May 1498, among the leaders of a trade mission from Portugal, he was received by his highness Sri Samoothiri Maharaja. Feroke is a prominent commercial town located adjacent to the city of Kozhikode; the remnants of Tipu Sultan’s Fort area telltale of the Mysore Emperor’s dream to make Farookabad, now Ferok, his new capital, but that dream was never realized.
Known as Farookabad during the reign of Tipu Sultan, he wanted to make Farookabad his capital when he conquered Malabar in 1788. But it came under the jurisdiction of the British. Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta, who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city, he describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them". Ma Huan, the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world, he makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes and the matrilineal system of succession.
Abdur Razzak the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries from Abyssinia and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon and zedary, he calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles. The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin calls'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode include Duarte Barbosa. Kozhikode and its suburbs formed; the Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands. And after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki came to terms with the troops and people. After this, the town
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China through ancestry, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China. A number of ethnic groups within China, as well as people elsewhere with ancestry in the region, may be referred to as Chinese people. Han Chinese people, the largest ethnic group in China, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English; the ethnic Chinese form a majority or notable minority in other countries, may comprise as much as 19% of the global human population. Other ethnic groups in China include the related Hui people or "Chinese Muslims", the Zhuang, Manchu and Miao, who make up the five largest ethnic minorities in mainland China with populations exceeding 10 million. In addition, the Yi, Tujia and Mongols each number populations between six and nine million.
The People's Republic of China recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, many of whom live in the special administrative regions of the country. However, there exists several smaller ethnicities who are "unrecognized" or subsumed as part another ethnic group; the Republic of China recognizes 14 tribes of Taiwanese aborigines, who together with unrecognized tribes comprise about 2% of the country's population. During the Qing dynasty the term "Chinese people" was used by the Qing government to refer to all subjects of the empire, including Han and Mongols. Zhonghua minzu, the "Chinese nation", is a supra-ethnic concept which includes all 56 ethnic groups living in China that are recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China, it includes established ethnic groups who have lived within the borders of China since at least the Qing Dynasty. The term zhonghua minzu was used during the Republic of China from 1911–1949 to refer to a subset of five ethnic groups in China; the term zhongguo renmin, "Chinese people", was the government's preferred term during the life of Mao Zedong.
The Nationality law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality within the PRC. A person obtains nationality either by birth when at least one parent is of Chinese nationality or by naturalization. All people holding nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the Republic; the Resident Identity Card is the official form of identification for residents of the People's Republic of China. Within the People's Republic of China, a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport or Macao Special Administrative Region passport may be issued to permanent residents of Hong Kong or Macao, respectively; the Nationality law of the Republic of China regulates nationality within the Republic of China. A person obtains nationality either by naturalization. A person with at least one parent, a national of the Republic of China, or born in the ROC to stateless parents qualifies for nationality by birth; the National Identification Card is an identity document issued to people who have household registration in Taiwan.
The Resident Certificate is an identification card issued to residents of the Republic of China who do not hold a National Identification Card. The relationship between Taiwanese nationality and Chinese nationality is disputed. Overseas Chinese refers to people of Chinese ethnicity or national heritage who live outside the People's Republic of China or Taiwan as the result of the continuing diaspora. People with one or more Chinese ancestors may consider themselves overseas Chinese; such people vary in terms of cultural assimilation. In some areas throughout the world ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns are home to populations of Chinese ancestry. In Southeast Asia, Chinese people call themselves 華人, distinguished from or the citizens of the People's Republic of China or the Republic of China; this is so in the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. The term Zhongguoren has a more ideological aspect in its use. Chinese Ethnic Minorities The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population, Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, Republic of China, archived from the original on 23 November 2013, retrieved 2008-11-02
The Malabar Coast is a coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains on their westward-facing mountain slopes; the term "Malabar Coast" is sometimes used to refer to the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Kanyakumari. The Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwestern coast, which lies on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and Kerala states between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea; the coast runs from south of Goa to Kanyakumari on India's southern tip. India's southeastern coast is called the Coromandel Coast; the Malabar Coast is sometimes used as an all-encompassing term for the entire Indian coast from Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Kanyakumari. This coast is over 845 km long and stretches from the coast of southwestern Maharashtra, along the region of Goa, through the entire western coast of Karnataka and Kerala, up to Kanyakumari.
It is flanked by the Arabian Sea on the Western Ghats on the east. The southern part of this narrow coast is referred to as the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests; the Malabar Coast, throughout recorded history from about 3000 BC, had been a major trading center in commerce with Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and the Arab world. Its most famous ports were'Naura, Kochi and Mangalore, the most famous of them being Muziris, the Oddeway Torre settlement have served as centers of the Indian Ocean trade, for centuries; because of their orientation to the sea and to maritime commerce, the Malabar coast cities feel cosmopolitan, has been home to some of the first groups of Jews, Syrian Christians and Anglo-Indians in India. During Ming China's treasure voyages in the early 15th century, Admiral Zheng He's fleet landed at the Malabar Coast. Soon after, Vasco da Gama landed near Calicut in 1498, establishing a sea route between India and Europe. Portugal became the first of several European maritime empires to grow rich from the spice trade with this area.
The Malabar Coast is referenced in George Orwell's political novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, as the site of a perpetual war between the military forces of Ingsoc and their Eastasian opponents. Coromandel Coast Dutch Malabar Malabar Portuguese Empire Portuguese India Panikkar, K. M.. Malabar and the Portuguese: being a history of the relations of the Portuguese with Malabar from 1500 to 1663. Panikkar, K. M.. Malabar and the Dutch. Panikkar, K. M.. Asia and Western dominance, 1498-1945. London: G. Allen and Unwin
Thrippunithura or Tripunithura is a prominent historical and residential region in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. Located about 8 km from the city centre, Tripunithura was the capital of the erstwhile Kingdom of Cochin; the descendants of the Cochin royal family still live here. The Hill Palace situated in Tripunithura was the palace of Maharaja of Cochin, the ruler of Kingdom of Cochin. In local administration, it is a municipality named Tripunithura Municipality. In the state administrative structure, Tripunithura is part of the Ernakulam District in the state of Kerala; some latter day Sanskrit enthusiasts ascribe the origin of the name to "Poorna Veda Puri" - the town of Vedas in its entirety. Another possible origin to name comes from the meaning "the land on the shores of Poorna river" above doesn't give sense. Thirupunithra = Thiru punitha thara means land which holiness..and pooni refers to the bag used to carry arrows The'Raja nagari' or the royal city is one of the most prominent centers of traditional Kerala cultural heritage.
The erstwhile rulers of Kingdom of Cochin were great patrons of art. This made fine arts and architecture flourish under them in many ways; the town is a prominent centre of learning for classical arts like Carnatic music and Mohiniyattam besides percussion instruments like mridangam and maddalam. Much of this is facilitated by the RLV College of Music and Fine Arts was established here in 1956. Another center of learning is Kalmandalam. Tripunithura has many dedicated centers for stage performances and promotion of art. Poornathrayesa Temple Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha temple Muthukulangara Temple Pisharikovil Temple Poonithura Sree Subrahmanya Swami Temple There are a few choices in the market area, but in general Tripunithura does not have too wide a selection of restaurants and hotels; the Bharath Cafe near the Sree Poornathrayesa temple offers excellent vegetarian choices, is popular for its sweets. Expect basic service at all places; the Statue Junction of the town is filled with lots of refreshment centres including Restaurants and Juice bars.
The main lodgings available are in Vadakkekota - Prasanth Hotel and many others. The Abhishekam Convention Hall is one of the meeting halls available in Tripunithura. Tripunithura has a population of 92,522. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Thrippunithura has an average literacy rate of 94.34%, higher than the national average of 71.5%: male literacy is 97.37%, female literacy is 91.52%. In Tripunithura, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Religion Hinduism 82.78%, Christianity 15.28%, Islam 1.35%. Thrippunithura is administered by an elected municipal council headed by the chairperson. LDF is ruling the municipality with Chandrika devi as its chairperson. Tripunithura-Nadama Thekkumbhagam Thiruvankulam Tripunithura has a lot of Educational institutions which makes the place a good haven for education. Primary and Higher Secondary School Education is available in many schools; the Government schools functioning in Tripunithura include the Government Sanskrit High School, Government Girls High School, Palace Girls High School and Government Boys High School as well as private management schools like The Convent School and The Shree Venkiteshwara School.
There are a few managed CBSE schools like Bhavans Vidya Mandir, Chinmaya Vidyalaya,Sree Narayana Vidya Peetam Public School, The Nair Service Society Higher Secondary School and newer schools like The Choice School function in various parts of the town to provide the necessary basics and higher education for children. The landmark of the town is the RLV Music College which provides proteges with training in Classical music and has produced many great singers most notably K. J Yeshudas. Tripunithura has colleges like the Sanskrit College, Chinmaya college of arts commerce and science and the NSS College for Women. Thripunithura is surrounded by stretches of Vembanad Lake and Canals which sustain inland navigation; the Town is situated 8 meters above Mean Sea Level. The Town is extends up to the East Till Thiruvankulam. Tripunithura has a main bus-stand in its main centre with buses going from and coming into from different locations. Furthermore, it has bus-stops in every part of the town which makes travel by bus easier.
Railway transport is available. NH 85 or Old NH 49 passes through Karingachira. Ernakulam-Ettumanoor State Highway passes through Thrippunithura. Tripunithura railway station is a major railway station in Ernakulam to Kottayam route with many passenger trains and express trains having a stop here. Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharmasastha Temple
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
Zamorin of Calicut
Samoothiri of Kozhikode is the hereditary title of the Hindu monarch of the kingdom of Kozhikode on Malabar Coast, India. The Samoothiris were based at the city of Kozhikode, one of the important trading ports on the south-western coast of India. At the peak of their reign, the Samoothiri's ruled over a region from Kollam to Panthalayini Kollam, it was after the dissolution of the kingdom of Cheras of Cranganore in the early 12th century, the Samoothiris – autonomous chiefs of Eranadu – demonstrated their political independence. The Samoothiris maintained elaborate trade relations with the Muslim Middle-Eastern sailors in the Indian Ocean, the primary spice traders on the Malabar Coast in the Middle Ages. Kozhikode was an important entrepôt in south-western India where Chinese and West Asian trade met; the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited the Kozhikode in 1498, opening the sailing route directly from Europe to Asia. The Portuguese efforts to lay the foundations to Estado da Índia, to take complete control over the commerce was hampered by the forces of Samoothiri of Kozhikode.
The Kunjali Marakkars, the famous Muslim warriors, were the naval chiefs of Kozhikode. By the end of the 16th century the Portuguese – now commanding the spice traffic on the Malabar Coast – had succeeded in replacing the Muslim merchants in the Arabian Sea; the Dutch supplanted the Portuguese in the 17th century. In 1766 Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an English East India Company dependant at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state. After the Third Mysore War, Malabar was placed under the control of the Company; the status of the Samoothiri as independent rulers was changed to that of pensioners of the Company. The title "Samoothiri" appears in sources only after the c. 15th century, first time in the writings Ibn Batutah. It is safe to assume that the Eradis of Nediyirippu assumed the title of "Samoothiri" in a period; the Samoothiris used the title "Punthurakon" in inscriptions, in palace records known as the Granthavaris, in official treaties with the English and the Dutch.
No records indicate the actual personal name of the ruler. Punthura may be a port of great fame; the title "Kunnalakkon" and its Sanskrit form "Shailabdhishvara" are found in literary works. Thrikkavil Kovilakam in Ponnani served as a second home for the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Other secondary seats of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode, all established at much time, were Trichur and Cranganore; the chief Kerala ports under control of the Samoothiris in the late 15th century were Panthalayini Kollam, Kozhikode. The Samoothiri of Kozhikode derived greater part of his revenues by taxing the spice trade through his ports. Smaller ports in the kingdom were Puthuppattanam, Tanur, Ponnani and Kodungallur; the port of Beypore served as a ship building center. The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in Kerala, while Kollam and Kannur were commercially confined to secondary roles. Travellers have called the city by different names – variations of the Malayalam name; the travellers from Middle-East called it "Kalikooth", Tamils called the city "Kallikkottai", for the Chinese it was "Kalifo" or "Quli".
In the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of Asian spices. The Chinese and Middle-Eastern interests in Malabar, the political ambition of the newly emergent rulers, i.e. the Samoothiris, the decline of port Kodungallur, etc. boosted the prosperity of the port. The rise of the Kozhikode, both the port and the state, seems to have taken place only after the 13th century AD. Kozhikode, despite being located at a geographically inconvenient spot, owed much of its prosperity to the economic policies of the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Trade at port Kozhikode was managed by the Muslim port commissioner known as the Shah Bandar Koya; the port commissioner supervised the customs on the behalf of the king, fixed the prices of the commodities and collected the share to the Kozhikode treasury. The name of the famous fine variety of cotton cloth called calico is thought to have derived from Kozhikode. Known as "Fandarina", "Shaojunan". Located north of Kozhikode, close to a bay.
The geographical location is ideal for the wintering of ships during the annual monsoon rains. Presence of Chetti and Jewish merchants among others. According to K. V. Krishna Iyer, the court historian in Kozhikode, the members of the royal house of Samoothiri belonged the Samanta community; the Samantas claimed a status higher than the rest of the Nairs. The Hindu theological formula that the rulers must be of Kshatriya varna may have been a complication for the Nair Samantas of the Kodungallur Chera monarch. So the Samantas – crystallized as a distinctive social group, something of a "sub-caste" – began to style themselves as "Samanta Ksatriyas"; the Samantas have birth and death customs identical to the Nair community. In the royal family, thalis of the princesses were tied by Kshatriyas from Kodungallur chief's family, which the Samoothiri recognised as more ancient and therefore higher rank; the majority of the women's sambandham partners were Nambudiri Brahmins. The