New York Avenue (Washington, D.C.)
New York Avenue is diagonal avenue radiating northeast from the White House in Washington, D. C. to the border with Maryland. It is a major east–west route in the city's Northwest and Northeast quadrants and connects downtown with points east and north of the city via Cheverly, the John Hanson Highway, the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Interstate 95. New York Avenue was planned as one of the original streets in the L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D. C, it was intended to begin at the Potomac River and extend northeast toward the White House continue past the Executive Residence northeast to the boundary of the Federal City. The portion of the street southwest of the White House was to give the President of the United States an uninterrupted view of the river. Construction of the State and Navy Building from 1871 to 1888 blocked this view, it remains blocked to this day, it extended to the grounds of the U. S. Naval Observatory, but the construction of Rawlins Park in 1873 destroyed a block of New York Avenue between 18th and 19th Streets NW.
Its consolidation with Triangle Park and three other "parklets" into a "Little Mall" in 1937 consumed another block between 20th and 21st Streets NW. Construction of the United States Department of War Building, an associated park from 1940 to 1941 destroyed the lower three blocks of New York Avenue. Construction of the Theodore Roosevelt Building in 1963 eliminated another block between 19th and 20th Streets NW; this left a single block of New York Avenue NW, between 17th and 18th Streets NW, southeast of the White House. New York Avenue northeast of the White House retains its uninterrupted character, it terminated at Boundary Avenue (now Florida Avenue NE, as all city streets did in the L'Enfant Plan. Extensive development occurred beyond Boundary Avenue from 1870 to 1900. Extension of New York Avenue to Bladensburg Road was considered as early as 1899, but no action was taken. The McMillan Plan, a master plan for the capital published in 1901 endorsed extension of the street, but although many portions of the plan were acted on, no road construction occurred.
Plans were drawn up in 1903 to extend the street about 1-mile beyond the "city limits" to reach the Ivy City development, but these, fell through. In 1907, as construction of Union Station was under way, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad created a diversion track so that its passenger trains could reach the new station; as part of this effort, the B&O was required to build a bridge to carry New York Avenue over its new track route, extending New York Avenue to Fourth Street NE. The B&O built the bridge and extension. Extensions to Bladensburg Road were debated again in 1908, failed; the right of way was purchased in 1914, property owners along the street route assessed for construction. But no construction occurred. An extension was proposed to South Dakota Avenue NE in 1925. Construction on New York Avenue Extended began in September 1930; the $231,000 project created a 50-foot roadway 2.125 miles long from Florida Avenue NE to Bladensburg Road NE. There were no intersections with side streets, only 4th Street NE merged with it.
New York Avenue Extended opened on November 2, 1931. The final section of New York Avenue NE, from Bladensburg Road to the District-Maryland border and the connection with U. S. Route 50, opened in October 1954; the construction of Route 50 was a joint effort of the state of the federal government. The District of Columbia paid to have New York Avenue extended to the connection. A "gateway" to the city was proposed at this time; this section of the avenue was not well-planned. At the bridge over South Dakota Avenue and the railroad track just a few hundred feet westward, New York Avenue narrowed from three lanes to two, creating major back-ups. New York Avenue NW and NE within the boundary of the old Federal City has remained in good to excellent condition; the city rebuilt New York Avenue between 9th and 15th Streets NW from 1992 to 1994. New York Avenue NE beyond Florida Avenue NE, has had serious degradation issues; this section of the roadway saw only minor repairs until the mid 1980s, when major portions of the road began to fail.
In 1987, a complete reconstruction of New York Avenue NE from Bladensburg Road to South Dakota Avenue occurred. The lower portion of the street did not receive major repairs, by 1990 was listed by the city as one of the worst for potholes. In 1995, the District of Columbia Department of Transportation estimated that New York Avenue Extended carried 107,000 vehicles each day. By 1997, this had risen to 135,000 vehicles every day; the road was D. C.'s most trafficked. It was the city's most-used commercial corridor, as semi-trailer trucks were twice as to use New York Avenue to enter the city than any other street. In the spring of 1998, the city announced a two-year, $24.7 million project reconstructed New York Avenue from South Dakota Avenue to the District line. The two bridges which created two-lane traffic
Forest Hills (Washington, D.C.)
Forest Hills is a residential neighborhood in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D. C. United States, bounded by Connecticut Avenue NW to the west, Rock Creek Park to the east, Chevy Chase to the north, Tilden Street NW to the south; the neighborhood is referred to as Van Ness, both because of its proximity to the University of the District of Columbia's Van Ness campus, because it is served by the Van Ness–UDC station on the Washington Metro's Red Line. In addition to its location adjacent to Connecticut Avenue, Forest Hills is served by the Red Line of the Washington Metro, the Crosstown Line and Connecticut Avenue Line of the D. C. Metrobus. Forest Hills contains the former site of the Civil War-era Fort Kearny, of which no trace remains today, the Soapstone Valley Park, which surrounds a tributary of Rock Creek; the Howard University School of Law campus is across Connecticut Avenue from UDC on Upton Street NW. The Levine School of Music is located on Upton Street, in the building occupied by the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory.
The Edmund Burke School, founded in 1968, is located on Upton Street, in the building, occupied by Devitt Prep. The Hillwood Museum, located in a house that once belonged to philanthropist and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post, contains her collection of decorative objects, including several Fabergé eggs; the embassies of the Czech Republic and the Netherlands are located on Linnean Avenue NW in Forest Hills, while that of Suriname is on Connecticut Avenue. The embassy of Hungary is just south of Tilden Street in Cleveland Park, a number of other embassies are located just to the west in North Cleveland Park; the Seventh-day Adventist Capital Memorial Church is located in 3150 Chesapeake Street NW. The National Bureau of Standards was at one time the largest employer in the neighborhood. Due to a lack of restricted housing covenants, the Forest Hills neighborhood became predominantly Jewish during the 1940s and 1950s. ANC 3F, Forest Hills Advisory Neighborhood Commission Forest Hills Metro Station Info from Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Chevy Chase (Washington, D.C.)
Chevy Chase is a neighborhood in northwest Washington, D. C, it borders Chevy Chase, Maryland, a collection of affluent neighborhoods. The neighborhood is agreed to be bounded by Rock Creek Park on the east, Western Avenue and Tennyson Street on the north, Reno Road to the west. Opinions differ on the southern boundary, where Chevy Chase meets Forest Hills, but many residents consider it to be Broad Branch Road between 32nd and 27th streets; the main roads leading in and out of Chevy Chase, D. C. are Nebraska Avenue, Reno Road, Military Road and Western Avenue. The area is served by the L1, L2, L8, E2 and E6 Metrobus lines. Chevy Chase is within walking distance of three Red Line stations: Van Ness-UDC, Tenleytown-AU, Friendship Heights; the public schools that serve Chevy Chase are Lafayette Elementary, Ben W. Murch Elementary, Alice Deal Middle School, Woodrow Wilson Senior High. In the late 1880s, then-Representative Francis G. Newlands of Nevada and his partners began the aggressive acquisition of farmland in northwest Washington, D.
C. and southern Montgomery County, for the purpose of developing a residential streetcar suburb. They founded the Chevy Chase Land Company in 1890, its eventual holdings are now known as this neighborhood and Chevy Chase, Maryland. Chevy Chase D. C. was developed beginning in the early 1900s after construction was completed on the Chevy Chase Line, a streetcar line stretching to and beyond the northwestern boundary of the District of Columbia, thereby linking the area to downtown. Over succeeding decades the remote area was transformed from farmland and woods to middle-class housing; the housing stock in Chevy Chase D. C. includes many "Sears Catalog Homes", a popular housing option in the early twentieth century that allowed individuals of modest means to order by mail the materials and instructions for a home and build it themselves. The neighborhood's major commercial road is Connecticut Avenue NW, which, in addition to commercial establishments, is home to apartments, a community center, a regional branch of the D.
C. Public Library. Unlike many urban neighborhoods that have lost local businesses to large chains and suburban malls, the small locally owned businesses along Connecticut Avenue remain, are well patronized by the local population; these businesses include Magruder's Supermarket, established in 1875, the Avalon Theatre, which opened in 1923 as a silent film house and ran until the theater underwent renovations in 2003. The Avalon thereafter reopened as a non-profit movie theater. In addition to historical commercial buildings the area has multiple parks including Rock Creek Park, Lafayette Park and Livingston Park. Prior to 2002, the entire neighborhood was located in Ward 3; because the 2000 census revealed an increase in population in Ward 3 and a decrease in population in Ward 4, the Council of the District of Columbia voted to reassign the portion of the neighborhood east of Broad Branch Road to Ward 4 as of January 1, 2002. Many residents were quite upset at the decision; the Chevy Chase Civic Association filed suit to prevent the redistricting on the grounds that it would reduce African American voting strength in Ward 3 and would result in unconstitutional and racially motivated gerrymandering.
The U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia upheld the redistricting, as did the U. S. Court of Appeals. Following the redistricting, the neighborhood's Advisory Neighborhood Commission was called 3/4G. District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools, including Lafayette Elementary, Alice Deal Junior High School, Woodrow Wilson High School. Private schools located in Chevy Chase D. C. include St. John's College High School Catholic high school, Blessed Sacrament School Catholic elementary school; the District of Columbia Public Library operates the Chevy Chase Neighborhood Library. Chevy Chase, Maryland Media related to Chevy Chase, Washington, D. C. at Wikimedia Commons
Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D. C. Foggy Bottom is west of the White House and downtown Washington, in the Northwest quadrant, bounded by 17th Street NW to the east, Rock Creek Parkway to the west, Constitution Avenue NW to the south, Pennsylvania Avenue NW to the north. Much of Foggy Bottom is occupied by the main campus of the George Washington University. Foggy Bottom is thought to have received its name due to its riverside location, which made it susceptible to concentrations of fog and industrial smoke, an atmospheric quirk; the Foggy Bottom neighborhood not only borders Downtown Washington D. C. but borders the affluent neighborhood of Georgetown as well. Residents of Foggy Bottom have convenient access to Georgetown University as well; the United States Department of State gained the metonym "Foggy Bottom" when it moved its headquarters to the nearby Harry S Truman Building planned and constructed to be the new United States Department of War headquarters building, from the State and Navy Building near the White House in 1947.
The Foggy Bottom area was the site of one of the earliest settlements in what is now the District of Columbia, when German settler Jacob Funk subdivided 130 acres near the meeting place of the Potomac River and Rock Creek in 1763. The settlement was named Hamburgh, but colloquially was called Funkstown. In 1765, German settlers established the town of Hamburg on what would become the area between 24th and 18th NW Street. There are two more founders: Robert Peter and James Linigan; the three had control of the land until 1791 when the territories were given to the city of Washington and the United States government. In the town of Hamburg, a German community was founded by many German immigrants. In 1768, Funk sold two lots of territory to both the German Lutheran and the German Presbyterian communities; the lot, sold to the German Lutherans was located on the corner of 20th and G Street. The lot sold to the German Presbyterians was located on the southeast corner of G Street; the Lutheran lot would not the Presbyterian until the 1880s.
The lot, sold to the German Lutheran community was turned into the Concordia German Church. By the 19th century, Foggy Bottom became a community of white and black laborers employed at the nearby breweries, glass plants, city gas works; these industrial facilities are cited as a possible reason for the neighborhood's name, the "fog" being the smoke given off by the industries. Foggy Bottom attracted few settlers until the 1850s, when more industrial enterprises came into the area. Funk set aside land in Hamburgh for a German-speaking congregation in 1768. Concordia German Evangelical Church, located at 1920 G Street NW was founded in 1833. Today the congregation is The United Church, is the oldest religious community remaining in Foggy Bottom. Foggy Bottom became the site of the George Washington University's 42-acre main campus in 1912. Foggy Bottom was the name of a line of beer by the Olde Heurich Brewing Company, founded by German immigrant Christian Heurich's grandson, Gary Heurich, he tried to revive the tradition of his family's Christian Heurich Brewing Company, which had ceased production in Foggy Bottom.
Christian Heurich Brewing Company's most successful products bore such local names as Senate and Old Georgetown. During the 1950s, Heurich Brewing sponsored the city's professional baseball team, the Washington Senators. Industry consolidation led the brewery to cease operations in 1956. In 1961–1962, the brewery buildings were razed to make way for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Heurich, Jr. and his two sisters donated a portion of the brewery land to the Kennedy Center in memory of their parents, established the Christian Heurich Family as one of the Founders of the national cultural center. Although the firm was founded in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood, the modern beer was brewed in Utica, New York. Foggy Bottom, along with the rest of Washington D. C, was designed using the L'Enfant Plan, which created squares of housing with open space left in the middle. Foggy Bottom's alley life issue emerged during the 1860s when an influx of Irish and German immigrants attempted to move into Foggy Bottom.
This influx was a result of the large number of industrial buildings that were located in Foggy Bottom. There were no immediate houses available for these new immigrants, so they were forced to move into the uninhabited alleys that were located in the middle of the squares; the situation became worse after the Civil War when a wave of newly freed blacks moved to Washington and began populating the alleys. Construction of the alleys continued until 1892 because the government needed to reduce overcrowding in residential areas. For the next decade, the government left the alleys untouched. However, at the turn of the 20th century, the government began relegating more responsibilities and authority to the Health Department, which began demolishing the alleys because of the copious amounts of crime and disease; the living conditions of the inhabitants were quite abysmal, with half of the population sharing or having no toilet facilities Furthermore, crime was a major problem. The following decades showed an improvement in the overall living conditions in the alleys of Foggy Bottom.
The Health Department's effort to reduce crime and overcrowding succeeded until the 1920s, when prohibition began being enforced. Because breweries were a major source of income for the in
Chinatown (Washington, D.C.)
Washington, D. C.'s Chinatown is a small, historic area east of Downtown Washington, D. C. consisting of about 20 ethnic Chinese and other Asian restaurants and small businesses along H and I Streets between 5th and 8th Streets, Northwest. It is the home to numerous non-Asian stores and businesses, including national and international chains like McDonalds and Starbucks, many of which display their names in Chinese characters, it is known for its annual Chinese New Year festival and parade and the Friendship Arch, a Chinese gate built over H Street at 7th Street. Other nearby prominent landmarks include the Capital One Arena, a sports and entertainment arena, the Old Patent Office Building, which houses two of the Smithsonian Museums; the neighborhood is served by the Gallery Place station of the Washington Metro. The Chinatown area was once home to many Chinese immigrants. Chinese immigrants began to move into the area in the 1930s, having been displaced from Washington's original Chinatown along Pennsylvania Avenue by the development of the Federal Triangle government office complex.
The newcomers marked it with railings as well as Chinese signage. At its peak, Chinatown extended from G Street north to Massachusetts Avenue, from 9th Street east to 5th Street. In 1986, the city dedicated a traditional Chinese gate; this was its sister city Beijing. It was intended to promote attract visitors in addition to recognizing the local Chinese residents. In 1986, the Metro station was given its present name: Gallery Place-Chinatown; the city constructed the Wah Luck House apartments at 6th and H Streets, NW, to accommodate the displaced residents in 1982. Designed by architect Alfred Liu, the apartment building introduced modern Chinese design motifs due to the red-paneled balconies; the MCI Center was completed in 1997. After the construction of the arena, AsianWeek said in 2000. Numerous authors have cited Chinatown as an example of gentrification and an example of the commodification of culture. In 2015, the Washington Post reported that only about 300 Chinese-Americans remained in the borough, many of them were being forced out by their landlords.
Chinatown had fallen into disrepair after the 1968 riots. Ethnic Chinese residents, as well as many others, left for suburban areas in Virginia. In 2010, the census tract that contains Chinatown has around 3,000 residents. Chinatown is only 21 % Asian, compared to 1990. In 1990, its population was 20 % African American. Washington, D. C.'s Chinatown is small in terms of size and number of Chinese residents in comparison to other major Chinatown neighborhoods in the U. S. such as those in San Francisco and in Manhattan. Half of Chinatown's residents live in the Wah Luck House, which has 153 units of apartment complexes; the closest Chinese supermarket, the Great Wall Supermarket, is fourteen miles west in Falls Church, Virginia. After the 1968 riots following the Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, many Chinese people sought a more economically stable and safe environment and moved out of Washington, D. C.'s Chinatown, relocating to suburban neighborhoods in Fairfax County and Montgomery County, Maryland.
In 1970, there were 3,000 Chinese residents in Washington's Chinatown. North Potomac, Maryland is 18.4% Chinese American, the highest of any community within the Washington metropolitan area. The Maryland city of Rockville has a significant population of residents of Chinese descent, at eight percent. In Virginia, sizable Chinese American communities are located in Centreville and Floris, south of Washington Dulles International Airport. Along with the development of the Verizon Center, historic buildings along the west side of 7th Street, were renovated and tenanted with nationally known brand shops and dining establishments. Within a short time, a significant mixed-use office-residential-retail development on the southeast corner of 7th and H streets commenced construction; these developments, which included restaurants, shops, a cinema complex, a bowling alley, together with the Verizon Center, transformed the area into a bustling scene for nightlife and entertainment. An anomaly is that most of the businesses are no longer representative of Chinatown, yet due to a city design guidelines encouraging businesses to use Chinese characters national chains such as Starbucks, Ruby Tuesday, Ann Taylor, Urban Outfitters, Bed Bath and Beyond, Legal Sea Foods hang their names in Chinese outside their stores.
Chinatown has become home to many high-growth technology companies, such as Blackboard, Blue State Digital, LivingSocial, The Knowland Group. It is the location of the Washington branch of the Goethe-Institut. Chinatown's most prominent businesses are the 20 Chinese and Asian restaurants all of which are owned by Asian American families. Among the most well-known are Chinatown Express, Eat First, Full Kee, Tony Cheng's. One of the restaurants, Wok & Roll, occupies what was once Mary Surratt's boarding house — the meeting place for John Wilkes Booth and his conspirators in Abraham Lincoln's assassination. Another is located in a house once owned by the On Leong Chinese Merchants Association, among the first Chinese organizations to move into the neighborhood.
Prince George's County, Maryland
Prince George's County is a county in the U. S. state of Maryland, bordering the eastern portion of Washington, D. C; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 863,420, making it the second-most populous county in Maryland, behind only Montgomery County, its county seat is Upper Marlboro. It is one of the richest African American-majority counties in the United States, with five of its communities identified in a 2015 top ten list. Prince George's County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Due to its proximity to Washington, D. C. the county hosts many U. S. governmental facilities, such as Joint Base Andrews, a U. S. military airbase, as well as the headquarters of the United States Census Bureau. The official name of the county, as specified in the county's charter, is "Prince George’s County, Maryland"; the county is named after Prince George of Denmark, the consort of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, the brother of King Christian V of Denmark and Norway.
The county's demonym is Prince Georgian, its motto is Semper Eadem, a phrase used by Queen Anne. Prince George's County is referred to as "PG" or "PG County", an abbreviation, the subject of debate, some residents viewing it as a pejorative and others holding neutral feelings toward the term or preferring the abbreviation over the full name; the Cretaceous Era brought dinosaurs to the area which left a number of fossils, now preserved in a 7.5-acre park in Laurel. The site, which among other finds has yielded fossilized teeth from Astrodon and Priconodon species, has been called the most prolific in the eastern United States. In the mid to late Holocene era, the area was occupied by Paleo-Native Americans and later, Native Americans; when the first European settlers arrived, what is now Prince George's County was inhabited by people of the Piscataway Indian Nation. Three branches of the tribe are still living today, two of which are headquartered in Prince George's County. Prince George's County was created by the English Council of Maryland in the Province of Maryland in April 1696 from portions of Charles and Calvert counties.
The county was divided into six districts referred to as "Hundreds": Mattapany, Collington, Mount Calvert and New Scotland. A portion was detached in 1748 to form Frederick County; because Frederick County was subsequently divided to form the present Allegany, Garrett and Washington counties, all of these counties in addition were derived from what had up to 1748 been Prince George's County. In 1791, portions of Prince George's County were ceded to form the new District of Columbia. During the War of 1812, the British marched through the county by way of Bladensburg to burn the White House. On their return, they kidnapped William Beanes. Lawyer Francis Scott Key was asked to negotiate for his release, which resulted in his writing "The Star-Spangled Banner". Since much of the southern part of the county was tobacco farms that were worked by enslaved Africans, there was a high population of African Americans in the region. After the Civil War, many African Americans attempted to become part of Maryland politics, but were met with violent repression after the fall of Reconstruction.
In April 1865, John Wilkes Booth made his escape through Prince George's County while en route to Virginia after shooting President Abraham Lincoln. The proportion of African Americans declined during the first half of the 20th century, but was renewed to over 50% in the early 1990s when the county again became majority African American; the first African American County Executive was Wayne K. Curry, elected in 1994. On July 1, 1997, the Prince George's County section of the city of Takoma Park, which straddled the boundary between Prince George's and Montgomery counties, was transferred to Montgomery County; this was done after city residents voted to be under the sole jurisdiction of Montgomery County, subsequent approval by both counties and the Maryland General Assembly. This was the first change in Prince George's County's boundaries since 1968, when the City of Laurel was unified in Prince George's County; the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 499 square miles, of which 483 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Prince George's County lies in the Atlantic coastal plain, its landscape is characterized by rolling hills and valleys. Along its western border with Montgomery County, Adelphi and West Laurel rise into the piedmont, exceeding 300 feet in elevation; the Patuxent River forms the county's eastern border with Howard, Anne Arundel, Calvert counties. County terrain and demographics differ by location within the county. There are five key regions to Prince George's County: North County, Central County, the Rural Tier, the Inner Beltway, South County; these regions are not formally defined and the terms used to describe each area can vary greatly. In the broadest terms, the county is divided into North County and South County with U. S. Route 50 serving as the dividing line. Northern Prince George's County includes Laurel, Adelphi, College Park and Greenbelt.
This area of the county is anchored by the Baltimore -- Washington Parkway. Laurel is experiencing a population boom with the construction of the Inter-County Connector; the key employers in this region are the University of Maryland, Belt
Foxhall (Washington, D.C.)
Foxhall known as Foxhall Village, is an affluent neighborhood in northwestern Washington, D. C. bordered by Reservoir Road on the north side, Foxhall Road on the west, Glover-Archbold Park on the east, P Street NW on the south. The first homes were constructed along Greenwich Park Way in the mid-1920s. By the end of December, 1927, some 150 homes had been erected, the community given the name of Foxhall Village. Foxhall is residential. Architecturally Foxhall is distinct, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. Foxhall Community Citizens Association