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Fort Miami (Ohio)

Fort Miami was a British fort built in spring 1794 on the Maumee River in what was at the time territory of the United States, designated by the federal government as the Northwest Territory. The fort was located at the eastern edge of present-day Maumee, southwest of Toledo; the British built the fort to forestall a putative assault on Fort Detroit by Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne's army advancing northward in southwestern Ohio Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War the region south of the Great Lakes and between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers was assigned to the United States. The British, refused to evacuate their troops from their forts in the region, claiming that the U. S. had not complied with portions of the treaty – pre-Revolution debts owed to British merchants and subjects had not been paid, confiscation of Loyalist properties continued. In the early 1790s, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, made an aggressive effort to aid the "Western Confederacy" of Native American tribes in the Maumee and Wabash River watersheds in their ongoing war with American settlers.

His ultimate goal was the establishment of an Indian barrier state in the region, as a way to protect Britain's North American fur trade ventures, to block anticipated American attacks upon their remaining North American possessions. In spring 1794 the British built Fort Miami to forestall U. S. Gen. Anthony Wayne's advance on Britain's Fort Detroit, to encourage the confederated tribes in their war of resistance; the fort was a log stockade, which had four bastions, each capable of mounting four cannon, a river battery, officers' quarters, supply buildings, various shops. A defensive ditch, 20 to 25 feet deep, ran along the land side of the fort. In July 1794 General Wayne and his troops marched northward toward Fort Miami from Fort Recovery. Just south of Fort Miami, encountering a barricade erected by the Native Americans and a small party of Canadian militia, he ordered a charge and dispersed his adversaries in the Battle of Fallen Timbers; the Native Americans fled to the fort. Beaten and disillusioned, the Native Americans dispersed and one year their tribal elders gathered at Fort Greenville to negotiate with Wayne.

The Treaty of Greenville opened most of the present State of Ohio and part of Indiana to United States settlement. In 1796, under the terms of the Jay Treaty, the British abandoned Fort Miami – along with their other forts on American soil. Wayne occupied and garrisoned it; the British again occupied the site during the War of 1812, which at the time was opposite the American Fort Meigs. During the War, the Shawnee chief, British officials maintained headquarters at the fort, from where they moved against Gen. William Henry Harrison at Fort Meigs. Abandoned again in 1814, the fort was demolished. Afterward, the site reverted to agricultural and public park use. Today, the site of Fort Miami sits as a small enclave within a residential development. Nothing remains of the original structure except parts of the earthworks. In 1942 several Ohio civic and patriotic organizations acquired a part of the fort site. In 1953 the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society conducted preliminary excavations, in 1957 the Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio placed a marker at the site, which remains undeveloped.

In 1975, the site of the fort was added to the National Register of Historic Places. The site of the fort was incorporated into Fallen Timbers Battlefield and Fort Miamis National Historic Site in 1999, under Public Law 106-164; the site is managed by the Metropolitan Park District of the Toledo Area, in partnership with the Ohio Historical Society, is an "affiliated unit" of the National Park System. A state memorial has been created at the site. Ft. Miami Elementary School of the Maumee City School District is two blocks away and named after the fort. Fallen Timbers Battlefield Today, Toledo Metroparks site for the Fallen Timbers Battlefield and Fort Miamis National Historic Site Fallen Timbers Battlefield and Fort Miamis National Historic Site, National Park Service site Historical Landmarks, information about Fort Miamis from the City of Maumee Fallen Timbers Battlefield and Fort Miamis National Historic Site, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings and Frontiersmen, National Park Service U.

S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Fort Miami

Lake Shore Electric Railway (museum)

The Lake Shore Electric Railway was an attempt to start an electric railway museum in Cleveland, Ohio. The former Trolleyville USA museum in Olmsted Township closed down in 2005. At that time, organizers sought to relocate the museum's collection of 31 trolley cars. In 2006, the collection was moved to Dock 32 of the Port of Cleveland, owned by the city and is located just north of Cleveland Browns Stadium and the Great Lakes Science Center as well as northwest of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at 41°30′32.65″N 81°41′59.53″W. The museum was renamed the Lake Shore Electric Railway to honor the interurban company from the early 20th century. In 2007, work towards constructing a new carbarn was started at the new location; the plans for a new museum never materialized, in May 2009 it was announced that the railcars would be auctioned off. On October 2, 2009, it was announced that auction resulted in the collection being dispersed to a consortium of 10 railway museums. There was no open bidding; the sale price was not disclosed.

One trolley, a 1914 Kuhlman streetcar that operated on Euclid Avenue, was slated to be restored and put on display in Cleveland's University Circle neighborhood. However, it was donated to the Illinois Railway Museum in 2013; the Gerald E. Brookins Collection of images was donated to the special collections of the Cleveland State University library. Trolleyville USA at the Wayback Machine Lake Shore Electric Railway at the Wayback Machine

Raja Dahir

Raja Dahir was the last Hindu ruler of Sindh in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent. In 711 CE, his kingdom was conquered by the Ummayad Caliphate led by General Muhammad bin Qasim, he was killed at the Battle of Aror near modern-day Nawabshah. Today his generations go by the “Dahri’s” and are scattered through Asia The Chach Nama is the oldest chronicles of the Arab conquest of Sindh, it was translated in Persian by an Arab Muhammad Ali bin Hamid bin Abu Bakr Kufi in 1216 CE from an earlier Arabic text believed to have been written by the Thaqafi family. Dahir's kingdom was invaded by King Ramal of Kannauj. "I am going to meet the Arabs in the open battle, fight them as best as I can. If I crush them, my kingdom will be put on a firm footing, but if I am killed honourably, the event will be recorded in the books of Arabia and India, will be talked about by great men. It will be heard by other kings in the world, it will be said that Raja Dahir of Sindh sacrificed his precious life for the sake of his country, in fighting with the enemy."

The primary reason cited in the Chach Nama for the expedition by the governor of Basra, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, against Raja Dahir, was a pirate raid off the coast of Debal resulting in gifts to the caliph from the king of Serendib being stolen. Meds known as Bawarij had pirated upon Sassanid shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch and Kathiawar. Hajaj's next campaign was launched under the aegis of Muhammad bin Qasim. In 711 bin Qasim attacked at Debal and, on orders of Al-Hajjaj, freed the earlier captives and prisoners from the previous campaign. Other than this instance, the policy was one of enlisting and co-opting support from defectors and defeated lords and forces. From Debal Hajaj moved on to Nerun for supplies. Qasim's armies captured Siwistan received allegiance from several tribal chiefs and secured the surrounding regions, his combined forces captured the fort at Sisam, secured the region west of the Indus River.

By enlisting the support of local tribes Meds and Buddhist rulers of Nerun, Kaka Kolak and Siwistan as infantry to his predominantly-mounted army, Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Dahir and captured his eastern territories for the Umayyad Caliphate. Sometime before the final battle, Dahar's vizier approached him and suggested that Dahar should take refuge with one of the friendly kings of India. "You should say to them, ` I am a wall between the Arab army. If I fall, nothing will stop your destruction at their hands.'" If that wasn't acceptable to Dahar, said the vizier he should at least send away his family to some safe point in India. Dahar refused to do either. "I cannot send away my family to security while the families of my thakurs and nobles remain here."Dahir tried to prevent Qasim from crossing the Indus River, moving his forces to its eastern banks. However, Qasim crossed and defeated forces at Jitor led by Jaisiah. Qasim fought Dahir at Raor in 712. After Dahar was killed in the Battle of Aror on the banks of the River Indus, his head was cut off from his body and sent to Hajjaj bin Yousuf.

The three women from Chāchnāmā, Surya Devi, Premala Devi and Jodha Devi were Raja Dāhir's daughters Cheema Chach Nama Rai Dynasty Raja Dahir's Wife Rani Bai fled to the fort of Rawar with 15,000 troops from where she challenged Muhammad Bin Qasim for the battle. Muhammad bin Qasim chased her to Rawar and ordered his miners to dig and demolish the walls of the fort until the bastions were thrown down. Rani Bai, finding herself encircled and burnt herself along with other ladies. Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg: The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. Translated by from the Persian by, Commissioners Press 1900 R. C. Majumdar, H. C. Roychandra and Kalikinkar Ditta: An Advanced History of India, Part II, Tareekh-Sind, By Mavlana Syed Abu Zafar Nadvi Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8

Maple Leaf (LV train)

The Maple Leaf was an international night train between New York City and Toronto, operated by the Lehigh Valley Railroad in coordination with the Canadian National Railway. It ran from Pennsylvania Station in New York City and it concluded at Toronto's Union Station, it began in 1937. The Maple Leaf and the John Wilkes were the last named passenger trains operated by the Lehigh Valley Railroad; the route was double tracked from New York City to Niagara Falls. In contrast to the LV's Black Diamond and Star, it bypassed Ithaca on the northbound trip. However, in the final years of the Maple Leaf, after the discontinuance of those trains, it did stop in Ithaca; the train had an alternate section operated with the Reading Railroad, which originated at Reading Terminal in Philadelphia and linked with the main part of the Maple Leaf train in Bethlehem. The train had its final departure on February 3, 1961

A Fable

A Fable is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner. He spent more than a decade and tremendous effort on it, aspired for it to be "the best work of my life and maybe of my time", it won the National Book Award. It can be seen as a precursor to Joseph Heller's Catch-22; the book takes place in France during World War I and stretches through the course of one week in 1918. Corporal Stephan, who represents the reincarnation of Jesus, orders 3,000 troops to disobey orders to attack in the brutally repetitive trench warfare. In return, the Germans do not attack, the war stops when soldiers realize that it takes two sides to fight a war; the Generalissimo, who represents leaders who use war to gain power, invites his German counterpart to discuss how to restart the war. He arrests and executes Stefan. Before Stefan's execution, the Generalissimo tries to convince the corporal that war can never be stopped because it is the essence of human nature. Following the execution of the Corporal, his body is returned to his wife and his sisters, he is buried in Vienne-la-pucelle.

However, after the conflict has resumed, the Corporal's grave is destroyed in a barrage of artillery. The spirit of the Corporal has transferred to a British message runner, who confronts the old Generalissimo. In his contemporary review of A Fable, Philip Blair Rice noted that the novel returned Faulkner in subject matter to the one general subject that engaged him besides Mississippi, the First World War. Dayton Kohler, in his contemporary analysis of the novel, discusses an approach to the novel through myth. Ernest Sandeen has elaborated in detail on the parallels between Jesus Christ. Julian Smith has noted similarities between A Humphrey Cobb's novel Paths of Glory. Frank Turaj has examined opposing themes in terms of the dialectic in the novel. Thomas E Connolly has discussed the relationship of the three main plots of the novel to each other. Richard H. King has interpreted A Fable as the one major attempt by Faulkner to depict political action in his novels, has characterised the novel as "Faulkner's failed political novel".

Robert W Hutten noted Faulkner's reworking of material from the story'Notes on a Horse Thief' into A Fable. William J Sowder has analysed in detail the character of the Generalissimo. 1955 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction 1955 National Book Award for Fiction

Karlova Studánka

Karlova Studánka is a spa village in Bruntál District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 226. Karlova Studánka lies in the valley of the mountain river Opava and is part of the Praděd nature reserve. Nowadays, it is obe of the places in the region with the cleanest air. All local springs have a high proportion of carbon dioxide through peat bogs, it is possible to taste and draw water from the healing springs, in the Drinking Pavilion where the Wilhelm spring is located, or in the house of Libuše. The town offers ideal hiking conditions, besides being the starting point of one of the most attractive natural areas with plenty of hiking trails like the route called Bilá Opava Waterfalls. Bilá Opava river rises on the southern slope of Mt. Praděd at an altitude of 1260 m above sea level; the larger waterfall is 8 m-high and the trail is accessed by wooden bridges and stairways. Thanks to its favourable climate and location in the picturesque countryside, the spa serves as a specialized sanatorium providing treatment to patients suffering from diseases of respiratory organs, in the treatment of which the unique pure mountain climate proves to be beneficial.

The spa buildings from the beginning of the 19th century are architectonically interesting. Official website