American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
William Elliott White House
William Elliott White House known as Elliott White Springs House, is a historic home located near Fort Mill, York County, South Carolina. It was built in 1831, is a two-story brick house with Federal design elements, it features an elegant portico. The east wing was added in 1922, the west wing in 1936, the greenhouse/pool in 1955; the house is one of the sites of what is believed to have been the last full meeting of the Cabinet of the Confederate States of America. It was the home of Elliott White Springs, South Carolina textile magnate and writer of short stories in the 1920s and 1930s, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987
Unity Presbyterian Church Complex
Unity Presbyterian Church Complex is a historic church in Fort Mill, South Carolina. It was built in 1881 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992
A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, water playgrounds, lazy rivers, as well as areas for bathing and other barefoot environments. Modern water parks may be equipped with some type of artificial surfing or bodyboarding environment, such as a wave pool or flowrider. Water parks have grown in popularity since their introduction in early 1950s; the United States has the largest and most concentrated water park market, with over 1,000 water parks and dozens of new parks opening each year. Major organizations are the IAAPA and WWA, the industry trade association. Water parks which emerge from spas tend to more resemble mountain resorts, as they become year-round destinations. For example, Splash Universe Water Park Resort is themed to match the community in which it is located; the theme is intended to enhance the community's destination appeal. Therefore, the amusement and leisure-time industry is becoming more concentrated, as winter sports are becoming common themes in summertime water recreation.
A process of concentration can be observed in the hybrid versions of theme-, amusement-, water parks. Some water parks are more spa-oriented. For example, SchwabenQuellen has no water. In the 2000s, an effort was made to reduce long waiting lines by introducing conveyor belts to lift passengers or use water jets. An unusual feature at a water park is ice skating. Deep River Water Park in northwestern Indiana features ice skating, made possible by cooling pipes installed under their massive plaza; the first-ever indoor water park was built in Edmonton, Canada, in 1985 at the West Edmonton Mall as part of the $12.2-billion-dollar Phase III expansion. World Waterpark is the world's largest indoor water park, at over 655,550 sq ft in size, it includes the world's largest indoor wave pool, water slides of varying degrees, tube rides, bungee jumping, hot tubs. Tropical Islands Resort, with an area of 510,000 sq ft, is the second largest indoor water park in the world. With five indoor water parks, Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin is recognized as the "Water Park Capital of the World".
It showcases several of America's largest indoor and outdoor water parks, such as Noah's Ark Water Park. Indoor water parks in Wisconsin Dells debuted in 1994 after the Polynesian Resort Hotel built the first one in the U. S. Success in extending the tourist season and turning water park resorts into vacation destinations has resulted in tremendous industry growth. Resort hotels featuring massive indoor water parks have been reserved for overnight guests. Companies like Great Wolf Resorts/Great Wolf Lodge and Kalahari Resorts have branched out from their origin in Wisconsin Dells to open new locations around the country. Mt. Olympus Theme and Water Park is another huge water park in the Dells; the largest indoor water park in the UK is Sandcastle Water Park in Blackpool, which opened in 1986. There are many water parks in southern Europe. For example, in Portugal's Algarve, there are three main parks: Aqualand and Slide n' Splash; the growth of indoor water parks have encouraged leisure centres across the world to begin implementing features of waterparks into their facilities, including slides and lazy rivers.
Water play areas are similar to water parks and include urban beaches, splash pads, smaller collections of water slides in many hotels and public swimming pools. For example, the Chelsea Hotel in Toronto features. Indoor water park List of water parks O'Niell, Karen. "The International Politics of National Parks". 24. Young, Terrance. "Modern Urban Parks". 85: 535–551. JSTOR 215924
Interstate 77 is a north–south Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. It traverses diverse terrain, from the mountainous state of West Virginia to the rolling farmlands of North Carolina and Ohio, it supplants the old U. S. Route 21 between Cleveland and Columbia, South Carolina, as an important north–south corridor through the middle Appalachians; the southern terminus of Interstate 77 is in Columbia at the junction with Interstate 26. The northern terminus is in Cleveland at the junction with Interstate 90; the major cities that I-77 connects to include Charlotte, North Carolina, Charleston, West Virginia. The East River Mountain Tunnel, connecting Virginia and West Virginia, is one of only two instances in the United States where a mountain road tunnel crosses a state line; the other is the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, connecting Kentucky. I-77 is a snowbird route to the southern United States for those traveling from the Great Lakes region. I-77 begins as an eight-lane highway at I-26 in the far southeastern part of the Columbia metropolitan area.
The Columbia skyline is visible from this interchange. In the Columbia area, I-77 offers easy access to Fort Jackson before meeting I-20 in the northeastern part of the city; this segment of I-77, combined with I-20 and I-26, form a beltway around Columbia, though it is not designated as such. In the Columbia area, the control city for northbound traffic is Charlotte, N. C. while the control city for southbound traffic is Charleston, S. C. and Spartanburg, S. C. from Exit 9 to I-26. After leaving the northern Columbia suburb of Blythewood, I-77 narrows to four lanes until it widens to eight lanes at Rock Hill from Exit 77 to the North Carolina state line at I-485; the final South Carolina exit, takes motorists to Carowinds, a thrill theme park, built along the North and South Carolina state line. Much of the Interstate's path through Fairfield and Chester County is uphill; this marks the changing terrain from the Midlands to the Piedmont. The final section of the entire length of Interstate 77 was completed in Columbia in 1995.
Interstate 77 through North Carolina begins at the South Carolina state line at Pineville where the Carowinds theme park is visible. It narrows to 6 lanes on the NC side south of Charlotte and widens to 8 and 10 lanes through downtown before entering the North Carolina Piedmont. In Charlotte it intersects Interstate 85 as well as intersecting each of the loops of Interstate 485 and Interstate 277. North of Charlotte, it skirts Lake Norman where it narrows again to 4 lanes before passing through Huntersville, Cornelius and Mooresville. Forty miles north of Interstate 85, at Statesville it intersects Interstate 40 and U. S. Highway 70. Next, it crosses over U. S. Route continues on through Elkin; the final intersection in the state is with a discontinuous section of Interstate 74 near Mount Airy within sight of the Southern Blue Ridge that Interstate 77 will climb shortly after leaving the state of North Carolina. Interstate 77 in Charlotte, North Carolina, is known as the "Bill Lee Freeway". A 6-mile portion south of the city is called the "General Younts Expressway".
When I-77 crosses over I-85, the northbound lanes are to the west of the southbound lanes. North Carolina completed its section of Interstate 77 in 1975. Interstate 77 through Virginia passes through two tunnels; the Big Walker Mountain Tunnel and the East River Mountain Tunnel provide quick interstate access with minimal environmental disruption. For eight miles, Interstates 77 and 81 overlap near Wytheville; this is a wrong-way concurrency, where two roads run concurrent with each other but are designated in opposite directions. The highway passes through "Virginia's Technology Corridor" despite its rural and isolated settings. Outside of Wytheville, there is little in the way of development. On Easter Sunday in 2013, there was a nearly 100-car pileup on I-77 near Fancy Gap. Interstate 77 enters West Virginia through the East River Mountain Tunnel. At milepost 9, Interstate 77 becomes co-signed with the West Virginia Turnpike for the next 88 miles, a toll road between Princeton and Charleston.
It is concurrent with Interstate 64 to Charleston at Beckley. The speed limit is 70 mph for most of the length, with a 60 mph limit for the section between Marmet and the toll plaza near Pax, it enters Charleston via the Yeager Bridge and passes by the state capitol complex before splitting off at a four-level junction with Interstate 64 in the downtown. Two miles north of the city center, it junctions with Interstate 79 before proceeding northward towards Ripley and Parkersburg, it leaves the state at Williamstown for Ohio. North of Charleston, Interstate 77 is known as the "Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway". Within the city limits of Charleston, it is labeled as the "Nurse Veterans Memorial Highway" although not signed or mentioned as such; the toll-free section south of Princeton to Virginia is known as the "Hugh Ike Shott Memorial Highway" although no signage exists to identify it as such. In practice, none of these terms are used by the general public. Entering from West Virginia at Marietta, Interstate 77 passes through rolling Appalachian terrain.
The interchange with I-70 at Cambridge is thought to be the largest inte
The Catawba known as Issa, Essa or Iswä but most Iswa, are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeastern United States, on the Catawba River at the border of North Carolina, near the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina, they were once considered one of the most powerful Southeastern Siouan-speaking tribes in the Carolina Piedmont, as well as one of the most powerful tribes in the South as a whole. The Catawba were among the East Coast tribes who made selective alliances with some of the early European colonists, when these colonists agreed to help them in their ongoing conflicts with other tribes in the region; these were the tribes of different language families: the Iroquois, who ranged south from the Great Lakes area and New York. During the American Revolutionary War the Catawba supported the American colonists against the British. Decimated by colonial smallpox epidemics and cultural disruption, the Catawba declined markedly in number in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Some Catawba continued to live in their homelands in South Carolina, while others joined the Choctaw or Cherokee, at least temporarily. Terminated as a tribe by the federal government in 1959, the Catawba Indian Nation had to reorganize to reassert their sovereignty and treaty rights. In 1973 they established their tribal enrollment and began the process of regaining federal recognition. In 1993 their federal recognition was re-established, along with a $50 million settlement by the federal government and state of South Carolina tor their longstanding land claims; the tribe was officially recognized by the state of South Carolina in 1993. Their headquarters are at South Carolina; as of 2006, the population of the Catawba Nation has increased to about 2600, most in South Carolina, with smaller groups in Oklahoma, Colorado and elsewhere. The Catawba Reservation, located in two disjoint sections in York County, South Carolina east of Rock Hill, reported a 2010 census population of 841 inhabitants.
The Catawban language, being revived, is part of the Siouan family. From the earliest period, the Catawba have been known as Esaw, or Issa, from their residence on the principal stream of the region, they called both Wateree rivers Iswa. The Iroquois included them under the general term Totiri, or Toderichroone known as Tutelo; the Iroquois collectively used this term to apply to all the southern Siouan-speaking tribes. Albert Gallatin classified the Catawba as a distinct group among Siouan tribes; when the linguist Albert Samuel Gatschet visited them in 1881 and obtained a large vocabulary showing numerous correspondences with Siouan, linguists classified them with the Siouan-speaking peoples. Further investigations by Horatio Hale, James Mooney, James Owen Dorsey proved that several tribes of the same region were of Siouan stock. In the late nineteenth century, the ethnographer Henry Rowe Schoolcraft wrote that the Catawba had lived in Canada until driven out by the Iroquois, that they had migrated to Kentucky and to Botetourt County, Virginia.
He asserted that by 1660 they had migrated south to the Catawba River, contesting it with the Cherokee in the area. But, 20th-century anthropologist James Mooney dismissed most elements of Schoolcraft's record as "absurd, the invention and surmise of the would-be historian who records the tradition." He pointed out that, aside from the French never having been known to help the Iroquois, the Catawba had been recorded by 1567 in the same area of the Catawba River as their territory. Mooney accepted the tradition that the Catawba and Cherokee had made the Broad River their mutual boundary, following a protracted struggle; the Catawba were long in a state of conflict with several northern tribes the Iroquois Seneca, the Algonquian-speaking Lenape. The Catawba chased Lenape raiding parties back to the north in the 1720s and 1730s, going across the Potomac River. At one point, a party of Catawba is said to have followed a party of Lenape who attacked them, to have overtaken them near Leesburg, Virginia.
There they fought a pitched battle. Similar encounters in these longstanding conflicts were reported to have occurred at present-day Franklin, West Virginia, Hanging Rocks and the mouth of the Potomac South Branch in West Virginia, near the mouths of Antietam Creek and Conococheague Creek in Maryland. Mooney asserted that the name of Catawba Creek in Botetourt came from an encounter in these battles with the northern tribes, not from the Catawba having lived there; the colonial governments of Virginia and New York held a council at Albany, New York in 1721, attended by delegates from the Six Nations and the Catawba. The colonists asked for peace between the Confederacy and the Catawba, however the Six Nations reserved the land west of the Blue Ridge mountains for themselves, including the Indian Road or Great Warriors' Path through the Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Georgia backcountry; this traveled path, used until 1744 by Seneca war parties, went through the Shenandoah Valley to the South.
In 1738, a smallpox epidemic broke out in South Carolina. It caused many deaths, not only among the Anglo-Americans, but among the Catawba and other tribes, such as the Sissipahaw, they had no natural immunity to the disease, which had