Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171, it is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, the largest that functions as a town. The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England, it is 40 to 50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005; the town is named after a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom. The town of Greenwich was settled in 1640. One of the founders was Elizabeth Fones Winthrop, daughter-in-law of John Winthrop and Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. What is now called Greenwich Point was known for much of the area's early history as "Elizabeth's Neck" in recognition of Elizabeth Fones and their 1640 purchase of the Point and much of the area now known as Old Greenwich.
Greenwich was declared a township by the General Assembly in Hartford on May 11, 1665. During the American Revolution, General Israel Putnam made a daring escape from the British on February 26, 1779. Although British forces pillaged the town, Putnam was able to warn Stamford. In 1974, Gulliver's Restaurant and Bar, on the border of Greenwich and Port Chester, killing 24 young people. In 1983, the Mianus River Bridge, which carries traffic on Interstate 95 over an estuary, resulting in the death of three people. For many years, Greenwich Point, was open only to their guests. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there; the lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches in 2001. These beaches include Greenwich Point Park, Island Beach, Great Captain Island, Byram Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 67.2 square miles, of which 47.8 square miles is land and 19.4 square miles, or 28.88%, is water.
In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound. If you travel far enough east from Greenwich, you hit Long Island at its extremity. Therefore, Greenwich is in a geographically exceptional position, being in a sense surrounded by New York; the Census Bureau recognizes seven CDPs within the town: Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside, a "Greenwich" CDP covering a portion of town. The USPS lists separate zip codes for Greenwich, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside. Additionally, Greenwich is further divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. Longtime residents have a fierce loyalty and superior opinion of their particular neighborhood; the Hispanic population is concentrated in the southwestern corner of the town. In 2011, numerous neighborhoods were voted by the Business Insider as being the richest neighborhoods in America.
Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside each have their own ZIP Codes and with the exception of Byram, each has a Metro North station. American Lane is separated by Interstate 684 from the entire rest of Connecticut and can be reached only from New York State. Round Hill, with an elevation of more than 550 feet, was a lookout point for the Continental Army during the American Revolution; the Manhattan skyline is visible from the top of the hill. Bush-Holley House Putnam Cottage Calf Island, a 29-acre island about 3,000 feet from the Byram shore in Greenwich, is open for visitors, although as of the summer of 2006 it was getting few of them. More than half of the island is a bird sanctuary off-limits to members of the public without permission to visit; the island is available for overnight stays for those with permits, otherwise the east side is open from dawn till dusk. Great Captain Island is off the coast of Greenwich, is the southernmost point in Connecticut. There is a Coast Guard lighthouse on this island, as well as a designated area as a bird sanctuary.
The lighthouse is a Skeletal Tower. Island Beach or "Little Captain Island" once was the venue for the town's annual Island Beach Day. Ventriloquist Paul Winchell and his dummy, Jerry Mahoney, once came for a show, on another occasion the National Guard let adults and children fire machine guns into the water, according to an article in the Greenwich Time. Island Beach has changed over the decades; the bathhouse once on the island's eastern shore is gone, erosion is eating away at the beaches themselves. Greenwich experiences a humid continental climate. During winter storms, it is common for the area north of the Merritt Parkway to receive heavier snowfall than the area closer to the coast, due to the moderating influence of Long Island Sound; as of the census of 2000, there were 61,101 people, 23,230 households, 16,237 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,277.6 people per square mile. There were 24,511 housing units at an average density of 512.5 per square mile. As of the census of 2013, the racial makeup of the town was 80.90%
Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. Built in 1638 and named after Queen Christina of Sweden, it was located 1 mi east of the present downtown Wilmington, Delaware, at the confluence of the Brandywine River and the Christina River 2 mi upstream from the mouth of the Christina on the Delaware River. Following plans by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to establish a Swedish colony in North America, the Swedes arrived in Delaware Bay on March 29, 1638, aboard the ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip under the command of Peter Minuit, the former director of the New Netherland colony, they landed at a spot along the Christina River at a stone outcropping which formed a natural wharf, known as "The Rocks." Minuit selected the site on the Christina River near the Delaware as being optimal for trade in beaver pelts with the local Lenape. He considered the site defensible, he ordered the construction of an earthwork fort around the Rocks.
At the time, the Dutch had claimed the area south to the Delaware. The Swedes claimed an area for the Realm of Sweden on the south side of the Delaware that encompassed much of the present-day U. S. state of Delaware including parts of present-day southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey on the north side of the river. The fort's earthworks were strengthened in 1640 by Governor Peter Hollander Ridder to help defend against the possibility of Dutch or Native American attacks; as additional colonists arrived from Sweden in the years following the landing and farms began to be built outside of the confines of the fort. The fort was rebuilt in 1647; the colony of New Sweden remained in constant friction with the Dutch. In 1651, the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant established Fort Casimir at present-day New Castle, only 7 mi south of Fort Christina, in order to menace the Swedish settlement. In 1654, the Swedes captured Fort Casimir under the orders of Governor Johan Risingh. Risingh, fearing reprisals, strengthened the defenses of Fort Christina by adding a wooden palisade around the earthworks.
In 1655, the Dutch under Stuyvesant laid siege to Fort Christina. The fort's surrender after ten days ended the official Swedish colonial presence in North America, though most of the colonists remained and were allowed to continue their linguistic and religious practices by the Dutch. Stuyvesant renamed Fort Christina as Fort Altena; the land remained as part of New Netherland until it became part of the English possessions when an English fleet invaded the area in 1664. Under English rule, the original Swedish fortifications around the Rocks fell into disrepair and vanished entirely. New fortifications were built by the Americans on the same site during the Revolutionary period, they established Fort Union here during the War of 1812. Men involved in the defense of the fort included Caesar Augustus Rodney and James A. Bayard, Sr.. In 1938, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Swedish colonization of the area, the state of Delaware created a park which contained the Rocks and the site of the former forts.
The dedication was attended by U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, Crown Princess Louise, Prince Bertil; the Prince presented a gift from their homeland: a monument, topped by a replica of the Kalmar Nyckel, designed by Swedish sculptor Carl Milles. During the ceremony, the Prince spoke of the site's significance to both countries: The monument to be unveiled today is a gift from the people of Sweden to the people of the United States; the funds were raised through public subscription, wherein several hundred thousands of our citizens took part. I believe that amongst these subscribers, many had across the Atlantic brothers and sisters and children. In contributing, they must have felt the links, which connect them and all of us with your great country, where so many of the citizens are either of Swedish birth or purely or of Swedish descent. Near this spot, the Fort Christina State Park, was the first permanent settlement in the Delaware Valley; the Swedes, who landed here 300 years ago, were few of poor means.
Yet thus began the relations between our two Nations. Indeed, it is fitting that, together, we should commemorate that event, the inauguration of an unbroken period of international friendship. We shall be reminded of these facts by the monument, cut by our famous sculptor, Carl Milles, in the black granite of Sweden. What memories are summoned forth at a moment like this, it is with pride we recall the memory of those legendary pioneers who braved the Atlantic in their little vessel, the Kalmar Nyckel, who came to found the colony of New Sweden. That little band of gallant men and women have inscribed their names on the pages of history, their deeds have been considered important enough for the President and Congress of the United States to extend an official invitation to Sweden to take part in the commemorative celebration of this historic event. We of Sweden are moved by this mark of your esteem, it meets with our high appreciation and we offer you our most sincere thanks. In our common acclaim of a historic event of 300 years ago, we stand united, as in our admiration of those early settlers from Sweden who were such worthy and resourceful people.
Their love of freedom and their integrity they carried with them as a heritage from the land of their birth. We are happy to feel that in some measure they, as well as their successors during the intervening three centuries, were able to contribute to the development into greatness of your country, the country of their adoption. We are proud to thi
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
The Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, sometimes referred to as the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, is a document written by the Dutch West India Company in an effort to settle its colony of New Netherland in North America through the establishment of feudal patroonships purchased and supplied by members of the West India Company. Its 31 articles establish ground rules and expectations of the patroons and inhabitants of the new colonies, it was ratified by the Dutch States-General on June 7, 1629. The economic situation of the colony of New Netherland in the late 1620s could be considered a good showing for a colony only newly started in a wilderness; the first settlement was built in 1613 out of necessity, but soon after, forts were built. At the time of the charter, the oldest settlement was only 16 years old, but this slow success was hardly sufficient to create much excitement among the directors of the West India Company. The principal objective of this organization was to go after the spoils of war, which promised rich harvests in the captured fleets of the Spanish, with colonization being only a secondary consideration.
Noting that the capture of the silver fleet in 1628 left the company proceeds of $115,000,000, that the next year sundry privateers brought in a bounty of over $18,000,000, it was hardly surprising that so little attention was paid to the settlements in the Hudson River Valley. Those were "get rich quick" days for large corporations, the slow and tedious procedure of colonizing and cultivating new countries found little favor in the eyes of the men at the helm; the realization that greater inducements had to be offered to increase the development of the colony led the West India Company to the creation of the so-called "patroon system". In 1629, the West India Company issued its charter of "Freedoms and Exemptions" by which it was declared that any member of the Company who could bring to and settle 50 persons over the age of 15 in New Netherland, should receive a liberal grant of land to hold as patroon, or lord, with the exception, per Article III, of the island of Manhattan; this land could have a frontage of 16 miles if on one side of a river, or 8 miles if situated on both sides.
The patroon would be chief magistrate on his land, but disputes of more than 50 guilders could be appealed to the Director and his Council in New Amsterdam. The tenants would be free from all taxation for 10 years, but during this period they would not be allowed to change from one estate to another nor to move from the country to the town. At least one quarter of the 50 inhabitants would have to be settled within the first year of the land grant, with the rest being settled within three years following that; the patroons would have full liberty to purchase goods in New Netherland, New England, New France, with the exception of furs. But the trader would have to pay an export tax of five per cent in New Amsterdam before goods could be shipped to Europe; the fur trade remained a monopoly of the Company. The weaving of cloth was prohibited in order to supply the looms in Holland with their needed raw supplies; the patroon would be responsible for the expenses in erecting barns and other structures and preparing land for farming in addition to supplying the initial farming tools and livestock.
However, each tenant would be due to pay a stipulated rent in addition to a percentage of that which they produced. Additionally, no farmer could sell any good without first offering it to patroon; the patroon bore responsibility of hiring a minister and schoolmaster, as well as financing the respective structures when they became needed. Once the patroonship became a profitable enterprise, the patroon was expected to share net profits with the tenants. There are some notable aspects of the charter, while aiming to make the West India Company wealthy and successful, offered great incentives to the patroons and respect to the indigenous peoples. For example, Article XXVI states that the patroon "must satisfy the Indians of that place for the land" implying that the land must be bought from the local Indians, not just taken. Article VI states that the patroon "shall forever own and possess and hold from the Company as a perpetual fief of inheritance, all the land lying within the aforesaid limits", which made the patroonship a fiefdom.
It shall be seen that one patroonship would last well into the 19th century. Additionally, the Company agreed to protect the patroonships from attack, supply the patroonship—for free—"with as many blacks as it can... for longer time than it shall see fit". The earliest venture to explore New Netherland for future colonization by a potential patroon was upon notification to the Directors on January 13, 1629 that Samuel Godyn, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Samuel Blommaert had sent Gillis Houset and Jacob Jansz Cuyper to determine satisfactory locations for settlement; this took place before the Charter was ratified, but was done in agreement with a draft of the Charter from March 28, 1628. Upon ratification of the charter on June 7, 1629, Michael Pauw informed the Directors of his intention to settle along the "Sickenames River", a stream east of the Connecticut River. On June 19, Samuel Godyn declared his intention to settle "the bay of the South River", the current day Delaware Bay, naming the settlement Zwaanendael.
After the settlement had been in existence for only a short while, the colonists—32 in number—were murdered by the local Indians. Godyn sold his holdings back to the West India Company. Patroonships were not limited to the area of the northeastern United States. On October 15, Michael Pauw made his intention known to settle the islands of Fer
History of Harlem
Founded in the 17th century as a Dutch outpost, Harlem developed into a farming village, a revolutionary battlefield, a resort town, a commuter town, a ghetto, a center of African-American culture. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. The first European settlement in the area was by siblings Hendrick and Rachel de Forest, Franco-Dutch immigrants in 1637. In 1639 Jochem Pietersen Kuyter established the homestead named Zedendaal, or Blessed Valley, stretched along the Harlem River from about the present 127th Street to 140th Street. Early European settlers were forced to flee to New Amsterdam in lower Manhattan whenever hostilities with the natives heated up, the native population decreased amidst conflict with the Dutch; the settlement was named Nieuw Haarlem, after the Dutch city of Haarlem, was formally incorporated in 1660 under leadership of Peter Stuyvesant.
The Indian trail to Harlem's lush bottomland meadows was rebuilt by black slaves of the Dutch West India Company, developed into the Boston Post Road. In 1664, the English took control of the New Netherland colony, English colonial Governor Richard Nicolls established the "Harlem Line" as the southern border patent line of the village of Nieuw Haarlem running northward between near modern East 74th Street, at the East River, West 129th Street, on the Hudson River; the British tried to change the name of the community to "Lancaster", but the name never stuck, settled down to the Anglicized Harlem. The Dutch took control of the area again for one year in 1673; the village grew slowly until the middle 18th century, it became a resort of sorts for the rich of New York City. Only the Morris-Jumel Mansion survives from this period. Harlem played an important role in the American Revolution; the British had established their base of operations in lower Manhattan, George Washington fortified the area around Harlem to oppose them.
From Harlem, he could control the land routes to the north, as well as traffic on the Harlem River. The New York Provincial Congress met in White Plains, as did the convention drafting the constitution for New York State. On September 16, 1776, the Battle of Harlem Heights, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Harlem or Battle of Harlem Plain, was fought in western Harlem around the Hollow Way, with conflicts on Morningside Heights to the south and Harlem Heights to the north; the American troops were outnumbered, 5000 to 2000, were ill-equipped compared to their opponents, but outflanked the British and forced them to retreat to the area around what is now West 106th Street. It was Washington's first American victory; that year, the British would avenge this defeat by chasing Washington and his troops north turning back and burning Harlem to the ground. Rebuilding took decades, infrastructure was improved much more than was happening in New York City proper; the village remained rural through the early 19th century and, though the "grid system" of streets, designed downtown, was formally extended to Harlem in 1811, it does not seem that anybody expected it would mean much.
The 1811 report that accompanied the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 noted that it was "improbable that the grounds north of the Harlem Flat will be covered with houses."Though undeveloped, the area was not poor. Harlem was "a synonym for elegant living through a good part of the nineteenth century." The village remained farmland estates, such as Van Keulen's Hook, orig. Otterspoor, bordered north of the Mill Creek, which flowed into Harlem Lake, to the farm of Morris Randall, northwest on the Harlem River, westward to the Peter Benson, or Mill Farm; this former bowery was subdivided into twenty-two equal plots, of about 6 to 8 acres each, of which portions owned by Abraham Storm, including thirty-one acres were sold by Storm's widow Catherine in 1795 to James Roosevelt. This branch of the Roosevelt family subsequently moved to the town of Hyde Park, but several of Roosevelt's children remain interred in Harlem; as late as 1820, the community had dwindled to 91 families, a church, a school, a library.
Wealthy farmers, known as "patroons", maintained these country estates on the heights overlooking the Hudson River. Service connecting the outlays of Harlem with the rest of the City of New York was done via steamboat on the East River, an hour-and-a-half passage, sometimes interrupted when the river froze in winter, or else by stagecoach along the Boston Post Road, which descended from McGown's Pass and skirted the salt marshes around 110th Street, to pass through Harlem; the New York and Harlem Railroad was incorporated in 1831 to better link the city with Harlem and Westchester County, starting at a depot at East 23rd Street, extending 127 miles north to a railroad junction in Columbia County at Chatham, New York by 1851. Charles Henry Hall, a wealthy lawyer and land speculator, recognized the changes that this railroad would make possible in Harlem and began a successful program of infrastructure development, building out streets, gas lines, sewer lines, other facilities needed for urban life.
Piers were built, enabling
Bushwick is a working-class neighborhood in the northern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded by the neighborhood of Queens, to the northeast; the town was first founded by Europeans during the Dutch colonization of the Americas in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the neighborhood became a community of Germanic immigrants and their descendants. Brooklyn's 18th Ward, the neighborhood was once an independent town and has undergone various territorial changes throughout its history. Bushwick is part of Brooklyn Community District 4 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11206, 11207, 11221, 11237, it is patrolled by the 83rd Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 34th and 37th Districts. Bushwick's borders overlap those of Brooklyn Community Board 4, delineated by Flushing Avenue on the north, Broadway on the southwest, the border with Queens to the northeast, the Cemetery of the Evergreens on the southeast.
The industrial area north of Flushing Avenue, east of Bushwick Avenue, south of Grand Street is considered part of East Williamsburg. However, it is commonly included in Bushwick with the modifier "Industrial Bushwick"; the town of Bushwick—which, along with Breukelen and Bedford, became incorporated as the city of Brooklyn on January 1, 1854—included present-day Williamsburg and Greenpoint. Prior to the merger, in the early 19th century, residential development in the area had begun when the new district of Williamsburg was laid out in western Bushwick. Williamsburg was incorporated in 1827 and severed from Bushwick in 1839. Present-day East Williamsburg, not part of the city of Williamsburg, was organized as Brooklyn's 18th Ward from the annexation of Bushwick. Now part of Brooklyn Community District 1, the area of East Williamsburg is considered by some to be part of Bushwick; the centroid, or geographic center, of New York City is in Bushwick "on Stockholm Street between Wyckoff Avenue and St. Nicholas Avenue".
In 1638, the Dutch West India Company secured a deed from the local Lenape people for the Bushwick area, Peter Stuyvesant chartered the area in 1661, naming it Boswijck, meaning "neighbourhood in the woods" in 17th-century Dutch. Its area included the modern-day communities of Bushwick and Greenpoint. Bushwick was the last of the original six Dutch towns of Brooklyn to be established within New Netherland; the community was settled, though unchartered, on February 16, 1660, on a plot of land between the Bushwick and Newtown Creeks by fourteen French and Huguenot settlers, a Dutch translator named Peter Jan De Witt, one of the original eleven slaves brought to New Netherland, Franciscus the Negro, who had worked his way to freedom. The group centered their settlement on a church located near today's Bushwick and Metropolitan Avenues; the major thoroughfare was Woodpoint Road, which allowed farmers to bring their goods to the town dock. This original settlement came to be known as Het Dorp by the Dutch, Bushwick Green by the British.
The English would take over the six towns three years and unite them under Kings County in 1683. Many of Bushwick's Dutch records were lost after its annexation by Brooklyn in 1854. Contemporary reports differ on the reason: T. W. Field writes that "a nice functionary of the City Hall... contemptuously thrust them into his waste-paper sacks", while Eugene Armbruster claims that the movable bookcase containing the records "was coveted by some municipal officer, who turned its contents upon the floor". At the turn of the 19th century, Bushwick consisted of four villages: Green Point, Bushwick Shore, Bushwick Green, Bushwick Crossroads. Bushwick's first major expansion occurred after it annexed the New Lots of Bushwick, a hilly upland claimed by Native Americans in the first treaties they signed with European colonists granting the settlers rights to the lowland on the water. After the second war between the natives and the settlers broke out, the natives fled, leaving the area to be divided among the six towns in Kings County.
Bushwick had the prime location to absorb its new tract of land in a contiguous fashion. New Bushwick Lane, a former Native American trail, was a key thoroughfare for accessing this new tract, suitable for potato and cabbage agriculture; this area is bounded by Flushing Avenue to the north and Evergreen Cemetery to the south. In the 1850s, the New Lots of Bushwick area began to develop. References to the town of Bowronville, a new neighborhood contained within the area south of Lafayette Avenue and Stanhope Street, began to appear in the 1850s; the area known as Bushwick Shore was so called for about 140 years. Bushwick residents called Bushwick Shore "the Strand", another term for "beach". Bushwick Creek, in the north, Cripplebush, a region of thick, boggy shrubland extending from Wallabout Creek to Newtown Creek, in the south and east, cut Bushwick Shore off from the other villages in Bushwick. Farmers and gardeners from the other Bushwick villages sent their goods to Bushwick Shore to be ferried to New York City for sale at a market located at the present-day Grand Street.
Bushwick Shore's favorable location close to New York City led to the creation of several farming developments. A 13-acre development with
Vriessendael, New Netherland
Vriessendael was a patroonship on the west bank of the Hudson River in New Netherland, the seventeenth century North American colonial province of the Dutch Empire. The homestead or plantation was located on a tract of about 500 acres about an hour's walk north of Communipaw at today's Edgewater, it has been known as Tappan, which referred to the wider region of the New Jersey Palisades, rising above the river on both sides of the New York/New Jersey state line, to the indigenous people who lived there and were part of wider group known as Lenape. It was established in 1640 by David Pietersen de Vries, a Dutch sea captain and trader who had established settlements at the Zwaanendael Colony and on Staten Island; the name can be translated as De Vries' Valley. De Vries owned flatlands along the Hackensack River, in the area named by the Dutch settlers Achter Col. Parts of Vriessendael were destroyed in 1643 in reprisal for the slaughter of Tappan and Wecquaesgeek Native Americans who had taken refuge at Pavonia and Corlears Hook.
The patroon's good relations with the Lenape prevented the murder of the plantation's residents, who were able to seek sanctuary in the main house, flee to New Amsterdam. The incident was one of the first of many to take place during Kieft's War, a series of bloody conflicts with bands of Lenape, who had united in face of attacks ordered by the Director of New Netherland. Achter Col English Neighborhood Communipaw Bergen, New Netherland Hackensack Indians Haverstraw Indian Harsimus Maryn Adriansen Patroon Pavonia Rensselaerswyck Zwaanendael Vriessendael Marker details