Denton is a city in and the county seat of Denton County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 113,383, making it the 27th-most populous city in Texas, the 200th-most populous city in the United States, the 12th-most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. A Texas land grant led to the formation of Denton County in 1846, the city was incorporated in 1866. Both were named after pioneer and Texas militia captain John B. Denton; the arrival of a railroad line in the city in 1881 spurred population, the establishment of the University of North Texas in 1890 and Texas Woman's University in 1901 distinguished the city from neighboring regions. After the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport finished in 1974, the city had more rapid growth. Located on the far north end of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in North Texas on Interstate 35, Denton is known for its active music life; the city experiences hot, humid summers and few extreme weather events.
Its diverse citizenry is represented by a nonpartisan city council, numerous county and state departments have offices in the city. With over 45,000 students enrolled at the two universities located within its city limits, Denton is characterized as a college town; as a result of the universities' growth, educational services play a large role in the city's economy. Residents are served by the Denton County Transportation Authority, which provides commuter rail and bus service to the area; the formation of Denton is tied with that of Denton County. White settlement of the area began in the middle of the 1800s when William S. Peters of Kentucky obtained a land grant from the Texas Congress and named it Peters Colony. After initial settlement in the southeast part of the county in 1843, the Texas Legislature voted to form Denton County in 1846. Both the county and the town were named for John B. Denton, a preacher and lawyer, killed in 1841 during a skirmish with Kichai people in what is now Tarrant County.
Pickneyville and Alton were selected as the county seat before Denton was named for that position in 1857. That year, a commission named the first streets. Denton incorporated in 1866. B. Sawyer; as the city expanded beyond its original boundaries, it became an agricultural trade center for the mill and cottage industries. The arrival of the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881 gave Denton its first rail connection and brought an influx of people to the area. North Texas Normal College, now the University of North Texas, was established in 1890, the Girls' Industrial College, now Texas Woman's University, was founded in 1903; as the universities increased in size, their impact on Denton's economy and culture increased. Denton grew from a population of 26,844 in 1960 to 48,063 in 1980, its connection to the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex via I-35E and I-35W played a major role in the growth, the opening of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in 1974 led to an increase in population. In the 1980s, heavy manufacturing companies like Victor Equipment Company and Peterbilt joined older manufacturing firms such as Moore Business Forms and Morrison Milling Company in Denton.
The population jumped from 66,270 in 1990 to 80,537 in 2000. In May 2006, Houston-based real estate company United Equities purchased the 100-block of Fry Street and announced that several of the historic buildings would be demolished to accommodate a new mixed-use commercial center; the proposal drew opposition from some residents, who sought to preserve the area as a historic and cultural icon for the city. The Denton City Council approved a new proposal for the area from Dinerstein Cos in 2010. Denton is located on the northern edge of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area; these three cities form the area known as the "Golden Triangle of North Texas." According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.316 square miles, of which 87.952 square miles is land and 1.364 square miles is covered by water. The city lies in the northeast edge of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin, characterized by flat terrain. Elevation ranges from 500 to 900 feet. Part of the city is located atop the Barnett Shale, a geological formation believed to contain large quantities of natural gas.
Lewisville Lake, a man-made reservoir, is located 15 miles south of the city. With its hot, humid summers and cool winters, Denton's climate is characterized as humid subtropical and is within USDA hardiness zone 8a; the city's all-time high temperature is 113 °F, recorded in 1954. Dry winds affect the area in the summer and can bring temperatures of over 100 °F, although the average summer temperature highs range from 91 to 96 °F between June and August; the all-time recorded low is −3 °F, the coolest month is January, with daily low temperatures averaging 33 °F. Denton lies on the southern end of what is referred to as "Tornado Alley"; the city receives about 37.7 inches of rain per year. Flash floods and severe thunderstorms are frequent occurrences during spring. Average snowfall in Denton is similar to the Dallas–Fort Worth average of 2.4 inches per year. Denton is home to several annual artistic and cultural events that cater to residents and tou
Red River Station, Texas
Red River Station is a ghost town south of the Red River at Salt Creek in northwestern Montague County, United States. Native Americans long used the fertile areas near the Red River for hunting. In 1859-1860, Anglo-Americans began settling the area as the population of Native Americans dwindled. During the American Civil War, Confederate troops were stationed near Red River Station and patrolled along the south side of the Red River, the border between Texas and Indian Territory. In December 1863, a destructive Indian raid occurred which spread from Indian Territory, across the Red River at Red River Station, through Montague County and into Cooke County, Texas; the Indians were between 200 and 300 strong, massacred a number of settler families. They were chased by the Confederate military before disappearing back into Indian Territory. After the Civil War, cattle drives began moving from south and central Texas to Kansas, Red River Station was the last stop in Texas on the Chisolm Trail. All cattle driven along the Chisolm Trail crossed at Red River Station.
The town grew and citizens applied for a post office in 1873 naming it Salt Creek. In 1884, the post office's name changed to Red River Station, but the post office and the community were short-lived; when the Gainesville and Western Railway crossed northern Montague County, its right-of-way crossed south of Red River Station, through present-day Nocona and Belcherville. As towns sprang up along the new rail line and with the end to the cattle drives, Red River Station faced extinction. A tornado struck in the late 1880s, destroying much of the community. Rather than rebuild, citizens moved south to the communities along the new rail line and Red River Station again became farm land. In 1887, the post office closed and the community ceased to exist. Today, nothing remains of the former community except the cemetery. Red River Station is served by the Prairie Valley Independent School District. Red River Station received a historic marker in 1963 commemorating the settlement established on the Red River.
In 2009, a marker was unveiled for the Chisholm Trail. Red River Station cemetery is located west of Salt Creek and due south of the Red River
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
National Register of Historic Places listings in Armstrong County, Texas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Armstrong County, Texas. This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Armstrong County, Texas; the locations of National Register properties and districts may be seen in a map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates". There are 4 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 29, 2019. National Register of Historic Places listings in Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Armstrong County
Fort Belknap (Texas)
Fort Belknap, located near Newcastle, was established in November 1851 by brevet Brigadier William G. Belknap to protect the Texas frontier against raids by the Kiowa and Comanche, it was the northernmost fort in a line from the Rio Grande to the Red River. The fort functioned as a base of operations rather than as a fortified point, it became the center of a substantial network of roads, including the Butterfield Overland Mail; the fort was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, in recognition of its key role in securing the Texas frontier in the 1850s and 1860s. Other forts in the frontier fort system were Forts Griffin, Richardson, Stockton, Bliss, McKavett, Clark, McIntosh and Phantom Hill in Texas, Sill in Oklahoma. Subposts or intermediate stations were used, including Bothwick's Station on Salt Creek between Fort Richardson and Fort Belknap, Camp Wichita near Buffalo Springs between Fort Richardson and Red River Station, Mountain Pass between Fort Concho and Fort Griffin; some notable officers who were stationed at Fort Belknap include Captain Randolph B.
Marcy and Lieutenant George B. McClellan. Together, the officers found the headwaters of the Red River; the Second Cavalry was headquartered here in 1858. Prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War, the post was abandoned as a pullback of federal troops to the north, due to the fort's unreliable water supply. "Northern indians fell upon the hapless Texas frontier with such violence that a whole tier of frontier counties was disbanded..." Families remaining in Young County "huddled in the abandoned buildings of Fort Belknap" and "during snow storms sought shelter in the abandoned buildings."The fort was reoccupied in 1867 abandoned for the last time. The fort was dismantled for building materials, so that by 1936, only the magazine and part of the cornhouse remained. Beginning with the Texas Centennial, portions of the fort were rebuilt and restored on their original foundations; the fort is home to the Fort Belknap Archives. List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Young County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Young County Texas Forts Trail Forts of Texas
The Brazos River, called the Río de los Brazos de Dios by early Spanish explorers, is the 11th-longest river in the United States at 1,280 miles from its headwater source at the head of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico with a 45,000-square-mile drainage basin. Being one of Texas' largest rivers, it is sometimes used to mark the boundary between East Texas and West Texas; the river is associated with Texas history the Austin settlement and Texas Revolution eras. Today major Texas institutions like Texas A&M University and Baylor University are located close to the river, as are parts of metropolitan Houston; the Brazos proper begins at the confluence of the Salt Fork and Double Mountain Fork, two tributaries of the Upper Brazos that rise on the high plains of the Llano Estacado, flowing 840 miles southeast through the center of Texas. Another major tributary of the Upper Brazos is the Clear Fork Brazos River, which passes by Abilene and joins the main river near Graham.
Important tributaries of the Lower Brazos include the Paluxy River, the Bosque River, the Little River, Yegua Creek, the Nolan River, the Leon River, the San Gabriel River, the Lampasas River, the Navasota River. Running east towards Dallas-Fort Worth, the Brazos turns south, passing through Waco and the Baylor University campus, further south to near Calvert, Texas past Bryan and College Station through Richmond, Texas in Fort Bend County, empties into the Gulf of Mexico in the marshes just south of Freeport; the main stem of the Brazos is dammed in three places, all north of Waco, forming Possum Kingdom Lake, Lake Granbury, Lake Whitney. Of these three, Granbury was the last to be completed, in 1969; when its construction was proposed in the mid-1950s, John Graves wrote the book Goodbye to a River. The Whitney Dam, located on the upper Brazos, provides hydroelectric power, flood control, irrigation to enable efficient cotton growth in the river valley. A small municipal dam is near the downstream city limit of Waco at the end of the Baylor campus.
This impoundment of the Brazos through Waco is locally called Lake Brazos. A total of nineteen major reservoirs are located along the Brazos. In 1822, the lower river valley of the Brazos River became one of the major Anglo-American settlement sites in Texas; this was one of the first English-speaking colonies along the Brazos and was founded by Stephen F. Austin at San Felipe de Austin. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, a settlement in now Washington County, known as "the birthplace of Texas". Brazos River was the scene of a battle between the Texas Navy and Mexican Navy during the Texas Revolution. Texas Navy ship, it is unclear when it was first named by European explorers, since it was confused with the Colorado River not far to the south, but it was seen by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Spanish accounts call it Los Brazos de Dios, for which name there were several different explanations, all involving it being the first water to be found by thirsty parties.
In 1842, Indian commissioner of Texas, Ethan Stroud established a trading post on this river. The river was important for navigation before and after the American Civil War, steam boats sailed as far up the river as Washington-on-the-Brazos. While attempts to improve commercial navigation on the river continued, railroads proved more reliable; the Brazos River flooded seriously, on a regular basis before a piecemeal levee system was replaced, notably in 1913 when a massive flood affected the course of the river. The river is important today as a source of water for power and recreation; the water is administered by the Brazos River Authority. The 2000 book and Sternwheelers: Steam Navigation on the Brazos by Pamela A. Puryear and Nath Winfield, Jr. with introduction by J. Milton Nance, examines the early vessels that attempted to navigate the Brazos. On June 2, 2016, the rising of the river required evacuations for portions of Brazoria County; the Brazos River watershed covers a total area of 119,174 square kilometers.
Within the watershed lie 42 lakes and rivers which have a combined storage capacity of 2.5 million acre-feet. The Brazos watershed has an estimated ground water availability of 119,275 acre-feet per year. 31% of the land use within the watershed is cropland. 61% is grassland shrubland and forest while urban use only makes up 4.6%. The population density within the watershed is 19.5 people per square kilometer. The main water quality issues within the Brazos Watershed are high nutrient loads, high bacterial and salinity levels and low dissolved oxygen; these water quality issues can be attributed to livestock and chemical run off. Sources of run off are croplands and industrial sites among others. Fracking is cause for concern regarding water quality within the Brazos Watershed; the Barnett Shale lies within the watershed, the second largest source of natural gas in the US. Studies have shown that the watershed receiving the most toxic pollution is the lower Brazos river which received 33.4 million pounds of toxic waste in 2012.
Canoeing is a popular recreational activity on the Brazos River with many locations favorable for launching and recovery. The best paddling can be found below Possum Kingdom Lake and Lake Granbury. Sandbar Camping is permitted since the entire streambed of t
Fort Concho is a former United States Army installation located in San Angelo, seat of Tom Green County, Texas. It was established in November 1867 at the confluence of the Concho Rivers near no fewer than five major trails such as the Butterfield Overland Mail Route and Goodnight–Loving Trail. At its height, Fort Concho consisted of 40 buildings on 40 acres of land leased by the US Army; the fort fell into civilian hands. Over the next twenty years, its buildings were used as residences or recycled for their material in the nearby town of San Angelo. Beginning in the late 1920s, a serious effort has been made to preserve and restore Fort Concho by its eponymous museum organization, founded in 1929; the property has been owned and operated by the city of San Angelo since 1935. It was named a National Historic Landmark on 4 July 1961. Fort Concho is one of the best preserved examples of the military installations built by the US Army in the state of Texas during the American Indian Wars. Over its 22-year long career as a US Army base, Fort Concho housed elements of fifteen US Cavalry and Infantry regiments, most prominently the "Buffalo Soldiers" of the 9th and 10th Cavalry and 24th and 25th Infantry regiments.
From its establishment in 1867 until 1875, Fort Concho was the principal base of the 4th Cavalry and of the 10th Cavalry from 1875 to 1882. The fort was of crucial importance during the late American Indian Wars in Texas. Conflict in the Texas region between Native American tribes and white settlers spanned over 300 years, beginning in the early 16th century with Spanish missionaries and soldiers and ending with the cessation of organized resistance to the government of the United States of America in the 1870s. In the area, now Concho Valley, the Jumano people established a village on the North Concho River sometime before 1534, when Cabeza de Vaca stayed there. Franciscan friars established a mission in their village from 1629 to 1632 and were joined in the 1650s by traders from Santa Fe. In the 1690s, the Jumanos were driven out of the region by the Apache, who themselves were pushed southwest by the Comanche in the mid-18th century. With America's victory over Mexico in the Mexican–American War and the 1849 discovery of gold in California, American colonists began crossing Comancheria.
The native Comanche and Kickapoo peoples fiercely resisted them. To protect its citizens, the United States Army's Department of Texas surveyed the frontier by 1851 and built a string of forts along its principal routes of travel. In March 1852, American troops established a camp on the North Concho, abandoned with the establishment, in October 1852, of Fort Chadbourne on a tributary of the nearby Colorado River. Patrols launched from the fort still covered the Concho valley and the Butterfield Overland Mail route, established in 1858; this phase of frontier history ended just three years with the beginning of the American Civil War. Fort Chadbourne, like the other Texas forts, was abandoned by Federal troops until the surrender of the Confederacy. During this time, the frontier receded to the east and the Comanche were emboldened into increased raiding. With the establishment in 1866 of the Goodnight-Loving Trail, which followed the Middle Concho west, there came a need to protect cattlemen and settlers traveling around the Concho valley.
To this end, the 4th Cavalry, commanded by Major John P. Hatch, reoccupied Fort Chadbourne in May 1867; this was soon followed up by plans to locate an outpost on the Concho. There, for US citizens would have a reliable and inexhaustible supply of water. A fort on the Concho would deny its usage to hostile Native Americans. In the summer of 1867, Hatch ordered Lieutenant Peter M. Boehm to establish a camp on the Middle Concho, fifty miles south of Fort Chadbourne. Captain Michael J. Kelly and 50 troops established this camp that same summer, but on the North Concho, remained there for the duration of the summer. A committee of officers including Hatch surveyed the North and Middle Concho rivers in September 1867 and chose a plateau at the junction of the three Conchos for its grazing grounds, abundance of nearby limestone, inexhaustible supply of fresh water. On 28 November 1867, the 4th Cavalry's H Company departed from Fort Chadbourne for the site to establish the planned permanent outpost.
H Company's commander, Captain George G. Huntt, named the site "Camp Hatch", but changed it to "Camp Kelly" in January 1868 at Hatch's request to honor Kelly, who had died of typhoid fever on 13 August 1867. Fort Concho under construction north of Camp Kelly, received its name in March 1868 from Edward M. Stanton, Secretary of War for the United States; the land Fort Concho was built on leased. Construction of Fort Concho was assigned on 10 December 1867 to Captain David W. Porter, assistant quartermaster of the Department of Texas, he brought in civilian stonemasons and carpenters to construct first temporary storehouses and a permanent commissary in January 1868. Porter responsible for constructing Forts Griffin and Richardson, was replaced by Major George C. Cram, built a temporary guardhouse. Construction was slow, as direction had been poor under Cram and his predecessor, at Fort Concho. By Spring 1868, the only permanent building on-site was a sutler's store, constructed from pickets and pecan rafters.
The soldiers lived in tents heated in timber huts. As at other forts, they built temporary timber frame or picket buildings lin