Tenleytown is a historic neighborhood in Northwest, Washington, D. C. In 1790, Washington locals began calling the neighborhood "Tennally's Town" after area tavern owner John Tennally. Over time, the spelling has evolved and by the 19th century the area was known by its current name, although the spelling Tennallytown continued to be used for some time in certain capacities, including streetcars through the 1920s; the area is the site of Fort Reno, one of the forts that formed a ring around Washington, D. C. during the American Civil War to protect the capital against invasions. It proved to be the crucial lookout point for preventing a siege of Washington, because it is the highest natural elevation point in the District of Columbia. Fort Reno was decommissioned with the surrender of the Confederate army; the last remains of Fort Reno were removed about 1900, when the land owned by the Dyer family was being prepared for a reservoir. Due to its elevation it is the site of the oldest home in Washington, D.
C. Charles Jones's home called "The Rest" was believed to be built around 1700 and majorly expanded around 1800; this home stayed in the Jones family until 1920. In 1974, the current family owning the home bought the house and still own it today. In the post-Civil War era, Fort Reno was a free black community; this community was entirely wiped out when the federal government decided to condemn most of its housing to build Deal Middle School, Wilson High School, a park, a water tower. The Jesse Lee Reno school building, which housed an African-American school during the Jim Crow era, is one of the few remaining traces of this history. Within the park boundaries lies the highest natural point in the District of Columbia, 409 feet above sea level. Fort Reno hosts community gardens, free rock concerts in the summer, sledding in the winter, tennis courts, playing fields, dog-walkers year round. Wilson HS baseball now uses the ball field for its home games. Tenleytown was transformed on October 2, 1941 when Sears Roebuck opened its department store on Wisconsin Avenue at Albemarle Street.
At the time the store was notable for its 300 car rooftop parking lot. In the 1990s, Sears abandoned its retail operation at the location and the building was used by Hechinger hardware until its demise in the late 1990s. In the 2000s, the building was converted to a mixed-use development complex called Cityline at Tenley, with luxury condominiums on the top levels, a Best Buy and The Container Store at street level, an Ace Hardware underground, located within the parking garage that serves the aforementioned stores; the west entrance to the Metro station is at the front of the building across from Whole Foods Market. In 2010, the Top of the Town: Tenleytown Heritage Trail opened; the path starts from the Tenleytown-AU metro station and passes by neighborhood landmarks such as American University, Fort Reno Park, the studios of WRC-TV, Washington's NBC affiliated station. The neighborhood is home to the highest point in Fort Reno Park. Due to the high altitude, the neighborhood is home to nearly all of the city's Radio masts and towers including the studios and/or towers for WRC-TV, WTTG, WUSA, WETA-TV, WHUT-TV, WDCA, WPXW-TV, WJLA-TV, radio stations WAMU and WTOP-FM.
American Tower started to build an higher tower, 756 feet tall, which could support 169 transmitters, but the District of Columbia government reversed its position, the incomplete tower was demolished in August 2006. Tenleytown and adjacent American University Park are served by the Tenleytown-AU stop on the Washington Metro Red Line. A free shuttle bus runs between American University's main campus; the station is located in the heart of the neighborhood at the intersection of Wisconsin Avenue and Albemarle Street. Metrobus routes 31, 32, 36, 33, 30S, 30N, 37, D32, H2, H3, H4, M4, W45, W47 serve the neighborhood, all making stops at the station; the neighborhood is defined by Tenley Circle which lies at the intersection of Nebraska Avenue, Wisconsin Avenue, Yuma Street. On Tenley Circle itself is St. Ann's Catholic Church, a large imposing stone church which serves area Catholics. On the opposite side of the circle is Wisconsin Avenue Baptist Church. American University's Washington College of Law, on the site of the former Immaculata School bounds the western edge of the circle.
The area is served by the District of Columbia Public Schools. Tenleytown is zoned to: Janney Elementary School Alice Deal Middle School Woodrow Wilson High SchoolTenleytown is the location of several independent schools, including National Presbyterian School and the high school campus of Georgetown Day School; the District of Columbia Public Library system operates the Tenley-Friendship Library. After seven years in an interim location, the library reopened in 2011 at the corner of Wisconsin Avenue and Albemarle Streets. Cultural Tourism entry for African-American landmarks When Did Tennallytown Become Tenleytown? - History blog post by local blog Ghosts of DC Tenleytown, Tennallytown, or Tenallytown? - History blog post by local blog Ghosts of DC
Fort Stevens (Washington, D.C.)
Fort Stevens named Fort Massachusetts, was part of the extensive fortifications built around Washington, D. C. during the American Civil War. The fort was constructed in 1861 as "Fort Massachusetts" and enlarged by the Union Army and renamed "Fort Stevens" after Brig. Gen. Isaac Ingalls Stevens, killed at the Battle of Chantilly, Virginia, on September 1, 1862. In 1861, it places for 10 cannon. In 1862, it was expanded to 19 guns, it guarded the northern approach to Washington, D. C. the Seventh Street Turnpike. By 1864 Fort Stevens was one part of a thirty-seven mile-long arrangement of fortifications, consisting of sixty-eight forts intended to defend the capital; the fort was constructed as a part of a defensive ring around Washington. Following the Union defeat at Bull Run, Congress voted to augment the city's defenses, which consisted of a single fort twelve miles to the south on the Potomac. In September 1861 Union troops took possession of a property owned by a free black family Elizabeth Proctor Thomas and her siblings at the Seventh Street Turnpike, seeing it as "an ideal and necessary location for a fort."
The soldiers destroyed her home, barn and garden to build what was named Fort Massachusetts. Elizabeth Thomas would often repeat the story that she was watching union soldiers with a baby in her arms weeping as they destroyed her house when "a tall, slender man dressed in black approached her and said,'It is hard, but you shall reap a great reward.'" Many listening to her story held. Thomas would have to fight for compensation for damage and loss of her property and was awarded $1,835 in 1916, a year before her death. After being delayed by the Battle of Monocacy, Maj. Gen. Jubal Early's Confederate forces advanced on Washington, D. C; the cavalry attacked Fort Stevens in the Battle of Fort Stevens on July 11 and July 12, 1864. They were delayed stealing horses in Damascus and staying overnight near Rockville, In response, Major General George Thomas ordered the District of Columbia Militia into the service of the Union army. On July 11, Confederate sharpshooters shot two of the fort's soldiers, but Union soldiers pushed the Confederate soldiers back to a point 300 yards from the fort.
The Confederate Army used the house of a nearby resident, Francis Preston Blair, as a headquarters and a makeshift hospital for their wounded. The livestock of several nearby farmers was captured by the Confederate Army. By the evening of July 11, pedestrians lined nearby Seventh Street to watch the fighting. Secretary of State William Seward watched from a carriage; the Union Army destroyed five nearby houses in order to prevent them being occupied by Confederate sharpshooters. Despite this, Confederate sharpshooters occupied another home, of Mr. Lay, just west of the fort, fired shots at Union soldiers from there. Union soldiers responded by firing at the cupola of the house, which caused the Confederate sharpshooters to retreat from it; the house was burned to the ground. Confederate sharpshooters fired from Morrison's orchard nearby. Overnight July 12, the Confederate soldiers retreated from the fort. Confederate soldiers were seen crossing the Potomac River from Maryland, to Virginia, they left including 11 officers.
The total number of Confederate casualties was unknown. According to many accounts, President Abraham Lincoln rode out to the fort on both days to observe the attack, was under enemy fire by sharpshooters. On July 12, he was brusquely ordered to take cover likely by Union Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright. A story has grown up apocryphal, that future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. an aide-de-camp to Wright, yelled at Lincoln, "Get down, you fool!" Another story attributes this quote to nearby resident Elizabeth Thomas. This is believed to have been only the second time in American history that a sitting president came under enemy fire during a war. An article published by The Evening Star on July 13 noted, that "President Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln passed along the line of the city defences in a carriage last night, were warmly greeted by the soldiers wherever they made their appearance amongst them." The article makes no mention of Lincoln coming under fire. The site was abandoned after the war.
Cass White formed the Fort Stevens Lincoln Memorial Association. A stone memorial was dedicated on November 7, 1911. In the late 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps restored a portion of the parapet and one magazine; the site, near Georgia Avenue at 13th Street and Quackenbos Street NW, is now maintained by the National Park Service. The remains of 41 Union soldiers who died in the Battle of Fort Stevens are buried on the grounds of nearby Battleground National Cemetery. Further up Georgia Ave, a monument to seventeen unknown Confederate Soldiers was erected in Grace Episcopal Church Cemetery, in Silver Spring, MD; the seventeen soldiers, who died at Fort Stevens, are buried in that cemetery. Civil War Defenses of Washington Washington, D. C. in the American Civil War Bibliography of the American Civil War Bibliography of Abraham Lincoln Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant Cooling III, Benjamin Franklin. Mr
The Ebright Azimuth is the point with the highest benchmark monument elevation in the U. S. state of Delaware. It has an elevation of 447.85 feet above sea level. The only state high-point with a lower elevation is Britton Hill in the state of Florida at 345 feet above sea level; the Ebright Azimuth is located about 6.5 miles north of downtown Wilmington, Delaware, in far northern New Castle County, within a few feet of the Pennsylvania state line. It is near Concord High School, to the north of Naamans Road, at the middle of the intersection of Ebright Road and Ramblewood Drive; this is an entrance to the Dartmouth Woods development. Surveying by Delaware Geological Survey personnel indicates that the mobile home park just west of Ebright Road is at least 2 feet higher than the benchmark."Ebright Azimuth" is not a person's first and last name. James and Grant Ebright owned the property. Since the schematic photograph was taken the blue and yellow monument sign has been moved across the street closer to the geodetic marker.
A curb extension has been installed and the area around the sign has been modestly landscaped. The self-supporting radio tower just south of the benchmark was constructed in 1947 by Western Union as part of an historic C-band microwave radio relay system that linked New York City and Washington, D. C; this site was assigned the name "Brandywine" in recognition of Brandywine Creek located several kilometers to the west and was licensed with the call sign KGB29. Western Union's engineers specified a heavy-duty prefabricated fire tower structure, which allowed the microwave transmitters and receivers to be installed inside the cab. "Dish" antennas, mounted behind the window openings, were aimed towards the adjacent relay stations at Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, 33.8 miles to the northeast, Elk Neck near Elkton, Maryland, 30.5 miles to the southwest. Like most of their early microwave relay sites, Western Union decommissioned the Brandywine installation near Ebright Azimuth as more-reliable broadband fiber systems were developed.
The structure now supports UHF land mobile radio antennas. Geography portal Delaware portal Mountains portal List of U. S. states by elevation "Historic Markers with Google Maps". State of Delaware. Retrieved 2008-12-17
Montgomery County, Maryland
Montgomery County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of Maryland, located adjacent to Washington, D. C; as of the 2010 census, the county's population was 971,777, increasing by 9.0% to an estimated 1,058,810 in 2017. The county seat and largest municipality is Rockville, although the census-designated place of Germantown is the most populous place. Montgomery County is included in the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn forms part of the Baltimore–Washington Combined Statistical Area. Most of the county's residents live in unincorporated locales, of which the most built up are Silver Spring and Bethesda, although the incorporated cities of Rockville and Gaithersburg are large population centers, as are many smaller but significant places; as one of the most affluent counties in the United States, Montgomery County has the highest percentage of residents over 25 years of age who hold post-graduate degrees. The county has been ranked as the one of the wealthiest in the United States.
Like other inner-suburban Washington, D. C. counties, Montgomery County contains many major U. S. government offices, scientific research and learning centers, business campuses, which provide a significant amount of revenue for the county. The Maryland state legislature named Montgomery County after Richard Montgomery. On September 6, 1776, Thomas Sprigg Wootton from Rockville, introduced legislation, while serving at the Maryland Constitutional Convention, to create lower Frederick County as Montgomery County; the name, Montgomery County, along with the founding of Washington County, after George Washington, was the first time in American history that counties and provinces in the thirteen colonies were not named after British referents. The name use of Montgomery and Washington County were seen as further defiance to Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War; the county's nickname of "MoCo" is derived from "Montgomery County". The county's motto, adopted in 1976, is "Gardez Bien", a phrase meaning "Watch Well".
The county's motto is the motto of its namesake's family. Before European immigration, the land now known as Montgomery County was covered in a vast swath of forest crossed by the creeks and small streams that feed the Potomac and Patuxent rivers. A few small villages of the Piscataway, members of the Algonquian people, were scattered across the southern portions of the county. North of the Great Falls of the Potomac, there were few permanent settlements, the Piscataway shared hunting camps and foot paths with members of rival peoples like the Susquehannocks and the Senecas. Captain John Smith of the English settlement at Jamestown was the first European to explore the area, during his travels along the Potomac River and throughout the Chesapeake region; these lands were claimed by Europeans for the first time when George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore was granted the charter for the colony of Maryland by Charles I of England. However, it was not until 1688 that the first tract of land in what is now Montgomery County was granted by the Calvert family to an individual colonist, a wealthy and prominent early Marylander named Henry Darnall.
He and other early claimants had no intention of settling their families. They were little more than speculators, securing grants from the colonial leadership and selling their lands in pieces to settlers. Thus, it was not until 1715 that the first British settlers began building farms and plantations in the area; these earliest settlers were English or Scottish immigrants from other portions of Maryland, German settlers moving down from Pennsylvania, or Quakers who came to settle on land granted to a convert named James Brooke in what is now Brookeville. Most of these early settlers were small farmers, growing wheat and a variety of other subsistence crops in addition to the region's main cash crop, tobacco. Many of the farmers owned slaves, they transported the tobacco. Sparsely settled, the area's farms and taverns were nonetheless of strategic importance as access to the interior. General Edward Braddock's army traveled through the county on the way to its disastrous defeat at Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War.
Like other regions of the American colonies, the region, now Montgomery County saw protests against British taxation in the years before the American Revolution. In 1774, local residents met at Hungerford's Tavern and agreed to break off commerce with Great Britain. Following the signing of the Declaration of Independence, representatives of the area helped to draft the new state constitution and began to build a Maryland free of proprietary control. By 1776, there was a growing movement to form a new, strong federal government, with each colony retaining the authority to govern its local affairs. Member of the Maryland Constitutional Convention Thomas S. Wootton thought that dividing large Frederick County into three counties, each governed by elected representatives, would result in greater self-government; when Wootton discussed his idea with the residents of southern Frederick County, the residents supported his idea for a different reason. At some point everyone had needed to traveling to the courthouse in Frederick Town, the travel cost and time was prohibitive.
The residents wanted a county courthouse to be located closer to the residents. On August 31, 1776, Wootton introduced a measure to form a new county from the southern portion of Frederick County. Resolved, That after the first day of October, such part of the said county of Frederick as is contained within the bounds and limits following, to wit: beginn
Index of Washington, D.C.–related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United States District of Columbia known as Washington, D. C..dc.us – Internet second-level domain for the District of Columbia 1 Observatory Circle 3 Sisters 23rd Amendment to the United States Constitution 51st state 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Adjacent states: Commonwealth of Virginia Maryland American University Anacostia Community Museum Aquaria in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Aquaria in Washington, D. C. Arboreta in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Arboreta in Washington, D. C. Architecture of Washington, D. C. Area codes in Washington, D. C. Ariel Rios Federal Building Art museums and galleries in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Washington, D. C. Aronson LLC Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Arts and Industries Building Association of the Oldest Inhabitants of the District of Columbia Astronomical observatories in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Astronomical observatories in Washington, D. C. Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception Benjamin Banneker Park and Memorial, Washington, D.
C. Botanical gardens in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Washington, D. C. Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia Bridges in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Bridges in Washington, D. C. Buildings and structures in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Washington, D. C. Capital Beltway Capitol Hill Capitol Power Plant Capitol Reflecting Pool Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Catholic University of America Census statistical areas of the District of Columbia Churches in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Churches in Washington, D. C. Circles in Washington, D. C. Climate of Washington, D. C. Colleges and universities in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Universities and colleges in Washington, D. C. Columbia Island Columbus School of Law Committee on the District of Columbia Communications in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Communications in Washington, D. C. Companies based in Washington, D. C. Congress of the United States of America Consumer Action Network Convention centers in Washington, D.
C. commons:Category:Convention centers in Washington, D. C. Corcoran College of Art and Design Council of the District of Columbia Crime in Washington, D. C. Cultural Tourism DC Culture of Washington, D. C. Category:Culture of Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Culture of Washington, D. C. David A. Clarke School of Law DC – United States Postal Service postal code for the District of Columbia Demographics of Washington, D. C. Diplomatic missions in Washington, D. C. District of Columbia website Government of the District of Columbia Category:Government of the District of Columbia commons:Category:Government of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Air National Guard District of Columbia Alcoholic Beverage Control Board District of Columbia Army National Guard District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics District of Columbia City Hall District of Columbia Court of Appeals District of Columbia Democratic State Committee District of Columbia Financial Control Board District of Columbia home rule District of Columbia Home Rule Act District of Columbia National Guard District of Columbia Office of Campaign Finance District of Columbia Olympic Committee District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 District of Columbia Protective Services Police Department District of Columbia Public Library District of Columbia Public Schools District of Columbia Public Service Commission District of Columbia Republican Committee District of Columbia retrocession District of Columbia Route 4 District of Columbia Route 295 District of Columbia statehood movement District of Columbia Urban Debate League District of Columbia voting rights District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment District of Columbia War Memorial District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority District of Columbia's At-large congressional district East Potomac Park Economy of Washington, D.
C. Category:Economy of Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Economy of Washington, D. C. Education in Washington, D. C. Washington D. C. School Reform Act of 1995 Category:Education in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Education in Washington, D. C. Elections in District of Columbia Category:Washington, D. C. elections commons:Category:Washington, D. C. elections Emancipation Day commons:Category:Embassies in Washington, D. C. Environment of Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Environment of Washington, D. C. Federation of Citizens Associations of the District of Columbia Festivals in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Festivals in Washington, D. C. Flag of the District of Columbia Freedom Plaza Forts in Washington, D. C. Category:Forts in the District of Columbia commons:Category:Forts in the District of Columbia Frederick Douglass National Historic Site Freer Gallery of Art Gallaudet University Gardens in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Gardens in Washington, D. C. Geography of Washington, D. C. Category:Geography of Washington, D.
C. commons:Category:Geography of Washington, D. C. Geology of Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Geology of Washington, D. C. George Washington University George Washington University Law School Georgetown University Georgetown University Law Center Government of the District of Columbia website Category:Government of the District of Columbia commons:Category:Government of the District of Columbia Harry S. Truman Building Healthcare in Washington, D. C. Herbert C. Hoover Building High schools in the District of Columbia Higher education in Washington, D. C. Highway routes in Washington, D. C. Hiking trails in Washington, D. C. commons:Category:Hiking trails in Washington, D. C. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden History of Washington, D. C. Historical outline of the District of Columbia Category:Histor
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department