Scotia is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located on the Eel River along U. S. Route 101, 8.5 miles south-east of Fortuna and 244 miles north of San Francisco. Scotia has a population of 850. Scotia is a company town founded by the Pacific Lumber Company known as Forestville until 1888, to house workers for the lumber industry; the town was owned by PALCO until 2008, following the corporation's declaration of bankruptcy. While it is home to hundreds of past or present lumber mill employees and their dependents, a process is underway to divide the homes into lots for sale. Scotia was founded in 1863 as Forestville by the Pacific Lumber Company to house workers for its lumber industry operations in the area; the town was formed following the winter flood of 1861-1862. The Eel River crested at a gauge height of 72 feet on 23 December 1964. Eighteen-million board feet of redwood logs and 23-million board feet of lumber were washed out of the Scotia sawmill and scattered along the lower river and Pacific coast to the mouth of the Columbia River.
The Humboldt Bay and Eel River Railroad connected the town to Humboldt Bay in 1885. This railway became part of Atchison and Santa Fe Railway subsidiary San Francisco and Northwestern Railway in 1903, was linked to the national rail network by completion of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad in 1914. Forestville was renamed 25 years in 1888 to prevent confusion with Forestville, another community in California with the same name, it is said that the new name was chosen because it was populated by many residents originated from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, that the name Scotia was chosen by a coin toss, with the alternative being Brunswick. The first post office in the town opened the same year. During the mid-to-late 19th Century, Scotia was one of numerous company towns established across the Pacific Northwest, many of which closed down during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Scotia was one of the handful of company towns to survive this period and further into the 2-yj Century, most of the existing houses were built between the 1920s and 1950s.
The 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes caused widespread damage in Humboldt County, including Scotia, when three major earthquakes in less than a 24-hour span. The first was a magnitude 7.2 quake at 11:06 a.m. on April 25, causing mill damage that took months to repair. The second quake at 12:41 a.m. on April 26, caused the most damage. A fire started in the Hoby's Market shopping center exploded, with firefighters trying to extinguish the fire the rest of the night, but the entire shopping center was destroyed; the earthquake caused extensive damage to the North Court area of Scotia, with numerous homes damaged and gas leakages from a damaged gas line. Pacific Gas & Electric responded to repair the gas line in North Court while all the residents were gathered on a grassy hill for the entire night; the third quake at 4:26 a.m. on April 26, measuring 6.7, compounded damage from the previous two quakes. Scotia was temporarily without water and electricity, PALCO rebuilt the shopping center, destroyed.
PALCO announced in 2006 a desire to sell commercial property. The company suggested that Scotia become part of Rio Dell, a small neighboring town located directly across the Eel River. Additionally, the need for employees had fallen from over 1,000 to around 300, in part due to a lack of logs and from automation. On January 18, 2007, PALCO filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code. On July 8, 2008, the court issued its judgment and order confirming the Plan of Reorganization submitted by secured creditor Marathon Structured Finance Fund, joined by Mendocino Redwood Company. Pursuant to that plan, most of the Town of Scotia’s real and personal assets transferred to a reorganized entity wholly owned by Marathon, Town of Scotia Company, LLC. Under the plan, the active Scotia sawmill facilities and other ancillary office buildings will transfer to a second reorganized entity, Humboldt Redwood Company in which Marathon and MRC both have interests The Town of Scotia LLC has pursued a General Plan Amendment/ Zone Reclassification and Final Map Subdivision application.
Subdivision requires fulfillment of conditions of approval which include formation of a community services district or other public entity to manage utilities. Service district formation requires approval by the Humboldt County Local Agency Formation Commission, which has a pending application; the purpose of the subdivision is to create individual parcels for existing residential and commercial properties, public facilities. The proposed subdivision would allow for the sale of residential and commercial lots to individual property owners. Offerings includes the following: a movie theater, a museum and a hotel with the town's only bar and restaurant, a new shopping center, a school through eighth grade, a community recreation center, a baseball field and two churches. PALCO operates the town on a one million dollar annual budget. Available housing consists of 274 two-to-four-bedroom wood frame cottages; the 28 person volunteer fire department is funded by PALCO. The 2010 United States Census reported that Scotia had a population of 850.
The population density was 1,010.0 people per square mile. The r
Shelter Cove, California
Shelter Cove is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It lies at an elevation of 138 feet. Shelter Cove is on California's Lost Coast. A nine-hole golf course surrounds the one-runway Shelter Cove Airport at the center of Shelter Cove's commercial district. Utilities are provided by the Humboldt County Resort Improvement District #1 and boating access to the sea is managed by the Humboldt Bay Harbor, Recreation & Conservation District; the population was 693 at the 2010 census. Shelter Cove shares a ZIP code with the hamlet of Whitethorn, located to the southeast; the community is inside area code 707. Sinkyone Wilderness State Park is about 6 miles south of Shelter Cove on the coast. There are parks such as Black Sands Beach, Mal Coombs Park, Seal Rock Picnic Area and Abalone Point. Much of the land around Shelter Cove is in the King Range National Conservation Area, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Cove amenities include hiking trails, a community center, coffee shop, multiple inns, a general store, several gift shops.
Other amenities in Shelter Cove include a small aircraft airstrip, a boat launch, RV parking. Some services not available in Shelter Cove are in the towns of Redway and Garberville on the U. S. 101 corridor, about 20 miles of winding county road to the east. The area around Shelter Cove was home to Native Americans known as the Sinkyone people. Near Shelter Cove on July 21, 1907, the coastal passenger steamer Columbia collided with the steam schooner San Pedro amidst dense fog; the Columbia subsequently sank. Although badly damaged, San Pedro helped to rescue Columbia's survivors; because of the steep terrain on the coastal areas surrounding Shelter Cove, the highway builders constructing State Route 1 decided it was too difficult to build the coastal highway along a long stretch of what is now the Lost Coast. As a result, the small fishing village of Shelter Cove remained secluded from the rest of the populous state, despite being only 230 miles north of San Francisco, is accessible by boat, via small mountain road, or by the small Shelter Cove Airport.
As a result of its seclusion, the Shelter Cove area has become a popular spot for those seeking quiet vacation respite or retirement area. Popular activities in the area include fishing, whale watching, diving for abalone, other outdoor activities; the Cape Mendocino Light, a lighthouse from Cape Mendocino, was moved by helicopter to Mal Coombs Park in 1998. A post office operated at Shelter Cove from 1892 to 1933, moving in 1898; the 2010 United States Census reported that Shelter Cove had a population of 693. The population density was 118.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Shelter Cove was 630 White, 3 African American, 5 Native American, 7 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 13 from other races, 34 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47 persons; the Census reported that 693 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 348 households, out of which 76 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 127 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 28 had a female householder with no husband present, 26 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 47 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 132 households were made up of individuals and 32 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99. There were 181 families; the population was spread out with 118 people under the age of 18, 25 people aged 18 to 24, 214 people aged 25 to 44, 234 people aged 45 to 64, 102 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.6 males. There were 631 housing units at an average density of 108.2 per square mile, of which 348 were occupied, of which 248 were owner-occupied, 100 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 10.6%. 499 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 194 people lived in rental housing units. In the state legislature, Shelter Cove is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood.
Federally, Shelter Cove is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Shelter Cove has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate typical of the North Coast, characterized by warm dry summers, mild to chilly rainy and/or snowy winters. In Shelter Cove's case the climate is moderated by the proximity to the Pacific Ocean with small temperature variations on average throughout the year, which results in mild year-round temperatures, although some winter months can get quite cool at times. Average high temperatures range from 57 °F in January to 69 °F in September. Shelter Cove on average has wet winters and dry summers representative for the region. Temperatures of above 32 °C are rare, happening on average 1-2 times per season, but temperatures approaching 34 °C or above have still been measured over such a wide time period as from April to October. For being a coastal community north of the Bay Area, Shelter Cove
Eel River (California)
The Eel River is a major river, about 196 miles long, of northwestern California. The river and its tributaries form the third largest watershed in California, draining a rugged area of 3,684 square miles in five counties; the river flows northward through the Coast Ranges west of the Sacramento Valley, emptying into the Pacific Ocean about 10 miles downstream from Fortuna and just south of Humboldt Bay. The river provides groundwater recharge and industrial, agricultural and municipal water supply; the Eel River system is among the most dynamic in California because of the region's unstable geology and the influence of major Pacific storms. The discharge is variable; the river carries the highest suspended sediment load of any river of its size in the United States, in part due to the frequent landslides in the region. However, the river basin supports abundant forests – including some of the world's largest trees in Sequoia sempervirens groves – and one of California's major salmon and steelhead trout runs.
The river basin was populated by Native Americans before, for decades after the European settlement of California. The region remained little traveled until 1850, when Josiah Gregg and his exploring party arrived in search of land for settlement; the river was named after they traded a frying pan to a group of Wiyot fishermen in exchange for a large number of Pacific lampreys, which the explorers thought were eels. Explorers' reports of the fertile and timbered region attracted settlers to Humboldt Bay and the Eel River Valley. Starting in the late 19th century the Eel River supported a large salmon canning industry which began to decline by the 1920s due to overfishing; the Eel River basin has been a significant source of timber since the days of early settlement and continues to support a major logging sector. The river valley was a major rail transport corridor throughout the 20th century and forms part of the route of Redwood Highway. Since the early 20th century, the Eel River has been dammed in its headwaters to provide water, via interbasin transfer, to parts of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties.
During the 1950s and 1960s, there was great interest in building much larger dams in the Eel River system, in order to provide water for the State Water Project. Although the damming would have relieved pressure on California's overburdened water systems, it stirred up decades of controversy, as some of the proposals made little economic sense and would have been detrimental to an ailing salmon run; the Eel was granted federal Wild and Scenic River status in 1981, formally making it off limits to new dams. Logging, road-building and other human activities continue to affect the watershed's ecology; the Eel River originates on the southern flank of 6,740-foot Bald Mountain, in the Upper Lake Ranger District of the Mendocino National Forest in Mendocino County. The river flows south through a narrow canyon in Lake County before entering Lake Pillsbury, the reservoir created by Scott Dam. Below the dam the river flows west. At the small Cape Horn Dam about 15 miles east of Willits, water is diverted from the Eel River basin through a 1-mile tunnel to the Russian River, in a scheme known as the Potter Valley Project.
Below the dam the river turns north, flowing through a long isolated valley, receiving Outlet Creek from the west and the Middle Fork Eel River from the east at Dos Rios. About 20 miles downstream, the North Fork Eel River – draining one of the most rugged and remote portions of the watershed – joins from the east. Between the North and Middle Forks the Round Valley Indian Reservation lies east of the Eel River. After this confluence the Eel flows through southwestern Trinity County, past Island Mountain, before entering Humboldt County near Alderpoint; the river cuts in a northwesterly direction across Humboldt County, past a number of small mountain communities including Fort Seward. The South Fork Eel River joins from the west, near Humboldt Redwoods State Park and the town of Weott. Below the South Fork the Eel flows through a wider agricultural valley, past Scotia and Rio Dell, before receiving the Van Duzen River from the east. At Fortuna, the river turns west across the coastal plain and enters the Pacific via a large estuary in central Humboldt County, about 15 miles south of Eureka.
The Northwestern Pacific Railroad tracks follow the Eel River from Outlet Creek, about 7 miles above Dos Rios, to Fortuna. The railroad has been out of service since 1998 due to concerns of flooding damage. U. S. Route 101 runs along the South Fork Eel River and the lower Eel River below the South Fork. Average flow of the Eel River varies due to its location, which places it more or less directly in the path of Pineapple Express-type winter storms. Wet season flows can be enormous, while the summer and early autumn provide only minimal precipitation, if any, allowing the sometimes mighty river to slow to a trickle. At the mouth, the Eel River produces an estimated annual runoff of 6.9 million acre feet per year, or about 9,500 cu ft/s. The Eel's maximum recorded flow of 936,000 cu ft/s on December 23, 1964 was the largest peak discharge of any California river in recorded history, one of the largest peaks recorded in the world relative to the size of its drainage basin. In contrast, during the dry months of July through September, the river achieves nearly zero flow.
The lowermost United States Geological Survey
Ferndale is a city in Humboldt County, United States. Its population was 1,371 at the 2010 census, down from 1,382 at the 2000 census; the city contains dozens of homes. Ferndale is the northern gateway to California's Lost Coast and the city, sited on the edge of a wide plain near the mouth of the Eel River, is located near the extensive preserves of Coast Redwood forests. Before American settlement, Ferndale was a glade of giant ferns reaching more than six feet, surrounded by alder, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, coast redwood, swampy land and windswept prairies; the area was populated by the southern Wiyot people, centered along the Eel River where they caught lamprey eels and sturgeon in iris leaf fish nets, collected shellfish along the river and at its mouth, while cultivating only a California species of tobacco. The town was established in 1852 from settlement by Willard Allard, Seth Louis Shaw and his brother Stephen W. Shaw. In August 1852, Allard and the Shaw brothers borrowed a canoe from the Wiyots in the Table Bluff area and rowed it across the Eel and up Francis Creek to arrive with their supplies to the approximate vicinity of Main and Shaw streets.
In September 1852 they cleared a five-acre area of ferns and began building a cabin near the base of the Wildcat Road though Allard was sick with the ague. By January 1853, twelve men were living in the Shaws' cabin including Seth Kinman, who provided the group with meat, Joe Russ, whose holdings included the Fern Cottage Historic District. About this time, Stephen Shaw painted the portrait of Wiyot elder Kiwelattah and kept a detailed journal of two years of trying to grow plants in cold coastal fog. Seth Shaw settled in the area now marked by Main and Lewis streets where he began construction of the now-historic Shaw House on his property in 1854; the Shaw House served as the area's first polling place in 1854, post office in 1860 and courthouse in 1863. Seth Shaw was justice of the peace and postmaster, his home served for many gatherings although it was not finished until 1866. After having been away from the area for two years, Stephen Shaw sold his holdings in 1856 to Welsh-born Francis Francis who established the city's water system through pipes laid in 1875.
Other small towns were established around Ferndale, including Centerville, Port Kenyon, Grizzly Bluff and Arlynda Corners. Produce from Ferndale was shipped out via Centerville and transferred to ships at anchor offshore prior to the opening of docks at Port Kenyon in 1876. In 1865 the first shipment of coal oil from the Union Mattole Oil Company was shipped through Ferndale to San Francisco. While the earliest settlers were English speaking from England, New England, Canada or Ireland, waves of immigrants arrived in Ferndale from Denmark, Germany, Italy and China. Danish settlers founded and built Our Savior's Lutheran Church in 1899 and dedicated Danish Hall, built as a warehouse by Arnold Berding in the late 1880s, on October 10, 1929; the Swiss who settled in Ferndale from Italian- and German-speaking families included the Oeschgers who moved to Ferndale in time for Joe Oeschger to play baseball at Ferndale High School before going to a career in Major League Baseball. A influx of Romansh Swiss included the ancestors of College Football Hall of Fame coach Len Casanova.
Sausage, salami-making and wine-making can be traced to Italians who arrived than the Danish and Swiss, beginning around 1897. The Germans arrived early, the first was businessman Arnold Berding in 1857. Most Germans worked on ranches or were dairymen, but at least one owned the Milwaukee Brewery Depot Saloon. Congressman Don Clausen is descended from German settlers of Ferndale. German settlers organized St. Mark's Lutheran Church in 1906. Except for three Portuguese brothers who arrived in the 1870s and a few from mainland Portugal, most came from the Azores islands between 1900 and 1915. Ferndale Portuguese have celebrated their traditional Festival of the Holy Ghost since 1924. Chinese arrived in California in the earliest gold-rush days, were settled in all parts of Humboldt County as soon as English-speaking whites, they worked in gold mining on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, before settling in Eureka, with a few in outlying towns like Ferndale where two Chinese owned clothes washing businesses.
Chinese laborers built parts of the Wildcat Road between Ferndale and Petrolia, dug out the water reservoirs for the Francis Water Company and worked at two fish canneries on the Eel River, although - as in the rest of California - they were not welcome. In 1885, after a city councilman of Eureka was shot dead in the crossfire from two warring Chinese tong gangs, 480 Chinese residents were rounded up in two days and forced to relocate to San Francisco. A year the Cutting Packing Company brought in a crew of Chinese for the season. Following a heated meeting at Roberts Hall in Ferndale between local residents and an upset delegation from Eureka, the company guaranteed the workers would come nowhere near town and they were allowed to stay until the fishing season was over in December. Chinese crews were used again at the same cannery in 1887 and 1889. In 1906 Eureka and Fortuna citizens were again up in arms at Ferndale's violation of the unwritten law of the county when the Starbuck-Talent Canning Company of Port Kenyon brought in 23 Chinese and four Japanese to work at the cannery.
After threats of mass action, the Chinese were taken to an old cookhouse on Indian Island from which all whites were barred and where they were held until they left by sea. The Japanese were permitted to keep working for Starbuck-Talent. Ferndale was incorporate
Arcata Union Town or Union, is a city adjacent to the Arcata Bay portion of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, United States. At the 2010 census, Arcata's population was 17,231. Arcata, located 280 miles north of San Francisco, is home to Humboldt State University. Arcata is the location of the Arcata Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Land Management, responsible for the administration of natural resources and mineral programs, including the Headwaters Forest, on 200,000 acres of public land in Northwestern California. Arcata has been notably progressive in its political makeup, was the first city in the United States to elect a majority of its city council members from the Green Party; as a result of the progressive majority, Arcata capped the number of chain restaurants allowed in the city. Arcata was the first municipality to ban the growth of any type of Genetically Modified Organism within city limits, with exceptions for research and educational purposes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.0 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water.
Arcata contains major shopping areas within the city. They include: the Downtown/Plaza Area and Valley West. There are additional named neighborhoods encompassed by the city: They include: Aldergrove, Arcata Bottoms, portions of Bayside, California Heights, the Creamery District, Fickle Hill, the Marsh District, Redwood Park, Sunny Brae and Westwood. Arcata has the Arcata Marsh, a preserve located on the City's bay shore. Arcata has a cool summer mediterranean climate, dominated by marine influences associated with Humboldt Bay and the Pacific Ocean. On average, Arcata experiences 40 to 50 inches of rain per year, though there is a short but pronounced dry season from June to September. Northerly winds keep the spring cool and create a coastal upwelling of deep, cold ocean water; this upwelling in turn results in foggy conditions throughout the summer, with high temperatures in the 50s and low 60s. Yet just a few miles inland the temperatures may fall. Winter high temperatures average in the low 40s with lows in the mid-30s to lower 40s.
Temperatures infrequently dip below 30 °F in the winter, nearly as infrequently climb above 72 °F in the summer and fall. Changing populations have happened in timber and mining towns in the American West as a result of boom and bust economic cycles; some towns decrease in population following a bust, while some, like Arcata, experience a change in demographics. In the case of Arcata, the peak and the bust were close due to Arcata's late entry into the timber industry, its domination by mechanization; the population of the city of Arcata was 3,729 during its peak 1950, when lumber was exported throughout the country and abroad. For the County of Humboldt, the age distribution for urban residents, which would include Arcata, had 23.7% of the population under the age of 15. Those that would be considered young workers made up 14% of the population. “Normal” aged workers made up 23.9% of the population. Older working age made up 19.4% of the population. Pre-retirement aged made up 9.7% of the population.
Those of retirement age made up 9.1% of the population. For Arcata those age 65 and older were 8.3% of the population in 1950, the median age was 29.4 years. After the bust, in 1955, the population of Arcata in 1960 was 5,235. In Arcata the population under the age of 15 was 28.1%. Those age 15–24 made up 22.8% of Arcata's population. Those age 25–39 made up 19.4% of the population. Those age 40–54 made up 16% of Arcata's population; those age 55–64 made up 6.7% of Arcata's population. Those age 65 and over made up 6.9% of Arcata's population. Overall, census data reflects a lowering in the age of the Arcata population, due to an influx of young workers, due to there not being enough time after the bust for older workers to leave, in the decade between 1950 and 1960, during which the timber industry peaked and busted; the 2010 United States Census reported that Arcata had a population of 17,231. The population density was 1,567.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcata was: 14,094 White, 2,000+ Hispanic or Latino, 1,135 from two or more races, 769 from other races, 454 Asian, 393 Native American, 351 African American, 35 Pacific Islander,The Census reported that 15,486 people lived in households, 1,745 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 7,381 households, out of which 1,275 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,651 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 649 had a female householder with no husband present, 325 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 764 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 75 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,730 households were made up of individuals and 524 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10. There were 2,625 families; the population dispersal was wit
William H. Seward
William Henry Seward was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years, was praised for his work on behalf of the Union as Secretary of State during the American Civil War. Seward was owned slaves, he was moved to the Central New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. Four years he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party. Though he was not successful in that race, Seward was elected governor in 1838 and won a second two-year term in 1840. During this period, he signed several laws that advanced the rights and opportunities for black residents, as well as guaranteeing fugitive slaves jury trials in the state; the legislation protected abolitionists, he used his position to intervene in cases of freed black people who were enslaved in the South.
After many years of practicing law in Auburn, he was elected by the state legislature to the U. S. Senate in 1849. Seward's strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought, he was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election approached, he was regarded as the leading candidate for the Republican nomination. Several factors, including attitudes to his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, worked against him and Abraham Lincoln secured the presidential nomination. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, elected and appointed him Secretary of State. Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding, his firm stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter the United Kingdom and France from entering the conflict and gaining the independence of the Confederate States.
He was one of the targets of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, was wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, during which he negotiated the Alaska Purchase in 1867 and supported Johnson during his impeachment, his contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as "one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints." Seward was born in on May 1801, in the small community of Florida, New York, in Orange County. He was the fourth son of his wife Mary Seward. Samuel Seward was a wealthy slaveholder in New York State. Florida was located some 60 miles north of New York City, west of the Hudson River, was a small rural village of a dozen homes. Young Seward attended school there, in the nearby county seat of Goshen, he was a bright student. In years, one of the former family slaves would relate that instead of running away from school to go home, Seward would run away from home to go to school.
At the age of 15, Henry—he was known by his middle name as a boy—was sent to Union College in Schenectady, New York. Admitted to the sophomore class, Seward was an outstanding student and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Seward's fellow students included Richard M. Blatchford, who became a lifelong legal and political associate. Samuel Seward kept his son short on cash, in December 1818—during the middle of Henry's final year at Union—the two quarreled about money; the younger Seward returned to Schenectady, but soon left school in company with a fellow student, Alvah Wilson. The two took a ship from New York to Georgia, where Wilson had been offered a job as rector, or principal, of a new academy in rural Putnam County. En route, Wilson took a job at another school, leaving Seward to continue on to Eatonton in Putnam County; the trustees interviewed the 17-year-old Seward, found his qualifications acceptable. Seward enjoyed his time in Georgia, where he was accepted as an adult for the first time in his life.
He was treated hospitably, but witnessed the ill-treatment of slaves. Seward was persuaded to return to New York by his family, did so in June 1819; as it was too late for him to graduate with his class, he studied law at an attorney's office in Goshen before returning to Union College, securing his degree with highest honors in June 1820. After graduation, Seward spent much of the following two years studying law in Goshen and New York City with attorneys John Duer, John Anthon and Ogden Hoffman, he passed the bar examination in late 1822. He could have practiced in Goshen, but he disliked the town and sought a practice in growing Western New York. Seward decided upon Auburn in Cayuga County, about 150 miles west of Albany and 200 miles northwest of Goshen, he joined the practice of retired judge Elijah Miller, whose daughter Frances Adeline Miller was a classmate of his sister Cornelia at Emma Willard's Troy Female Seminary. Seward married Frances Miller on October 20, 1824. In 1824, Seward was journeying with his wife to Niagara Falls when one of the wheels on his carriage was damaged while they passed through Rochester.
Among those who came to their aid was local newspaper publisher Thurlow Weed. Seward and Weed would become closer in the years ahead as they found they shared a belief that governm
Trinidad Yurok: Chuerey is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is one of California's smallest incorporated cities by population. Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to both local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay; the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy, their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9, 1775.
On 11 June, Trinity Sunday, a formal act of possession was conducted. At the place where a wooden cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain. The area was named "la Santisima Trinidad". Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, renamed Warnersville in honor of R. V. Warner, one of the settlers; the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the original county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851, of Klamath County, one of California's original counties, from 1851 to 1854. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, with its county seat in Eureka. Klamath County was dissolved in 1874. During the American Civil War, from July to October 1863, California volunteers fighting the local Indians in the Bald Hills War were stationed in the town, in Trinidad Camp, to protect it and the coast road from Indian raids, until they were moved four miles north to Camp Gilmore.
Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a first sergeant with the 5th Marines in World War II. Part of the auto wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has an oceanic climate and is temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from 40 °F to 60 °F. Winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime. Spring and fall cold fronts form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast. In summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood. Protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinidad had a population of 367. The population density was 547.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Trinidad was 331 White, 2 African American, 15 Native American, 2 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 15 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11 persons; the Census reported that 366 people lived in households, 1 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 187 households, out of which 35 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 64 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 21 had a female householder with no husband present, 3 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 20 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 73 households were made up of individuals and 28 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96. There were 88 families; the population dispersal was 60 people under the age of 18, 25 people aged 18 to 24, 91 people aged 25 to 44, 120 people aged 45 to 64, 71 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. There were 252 housing units at an average density of 375.7 per square mile, of which 187 were occupied, of which 113 were owner-occupied, 74 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 212 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 154 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 311 people, 168 households, 73 families residing in the city; the population density was 643.0 people per square mile. There were 228 housing units at an average density of 471.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.86% White, 1.61% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There wer