The Seven Ranges was a land tract in eastern Ohio, the first tract to be surveyed in what became the Public Land Survey System. The tract is 42 miles across the northern edge, 91 miles on the western edge, with the south and east sides along the Ohio River, it consists of all of Monroe, Harrison and Jefferson, portions of Carroll, Tuscarawas, Guernsey and Washington County. Acquired by Great Britain from France following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, the Ohio Country had been closed to white settlement by the Proclamation of 1763; the United States claimed the region after the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War. In spite of the prohibition on settlement, a number of squatters moved into the land north of the Ohio River making settlements in Tiltonsville, Martins Ferry and other places, who were removed by force by the federal government; the Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 as a formal means of surveying and settling the land and raising revenue. Land was to be systematically surveyed into square "townships", six miles on a side created by lines running north-south intersected by east-west lines.
Townships were to be arranged in north-south rows called ranges. These townships were sub-divided into thirty-six "sections" of 640 acres; these ranges and sections were to be systematically numbered. The first north-south line, Eastern Ohio Meridian, was to be the western boundary of Pennsylvania, sometimes called Ellicott's Line after Andrew Ellicott, in charge of surveying it, the first east-west line was to begin where the Pennsylvania boundary touched the north bank of the Ohio River, the Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey 40°38′33″N 80°31′10″W; the Geographer's Line was to extend westward through "the whole territory" which at that time was meant to include lands lying between the Ohio River and Lake Erie. The Geographer of the United States, Thomas Hutchins, was to make a return of the survey after each seven ranges had been completed, at which time the Secretary of War was to choose by lot one seventh of the land to compensate veterans of the Continental army; the rest of the lots were to be sold at auction in New York the nation's capital.
A section was the smallest unit for sale, some townships were to be sold in their entirety. The minimum price was one dollar per acre to be paid in cash or in land warrants of equivalent value. No land would be sold on credit; the 1785 act called for one surveyor to be appointed by Congress from each state: New Hampshire - Nathaniel Adams, who resigned, was replaced by Winthrop Sargent. After passage of the act, on May 27, 1785, Hutchins was made arrangements, he arrived in Pittsburgh on September 3, wrote a letter to the President of Congress noting that the requirement of the act for equal square townships could not be met on a nearly spherical planet. Hutchins began the survey of the Geographer's Line on September 30. On October 8, word was received of an Indian attack on the Tuscarawas River, he and his men were scared, returned to Pittsburgh after only a few miles of the Geographers Line had been completed. Hutchins returned to New York that autumn. On May 9, 1786, Congress instructed him to continue his survey only south of the Geographers line, because the position of the 41st line of latitude, the northern boundary of the Congress Lands, north of, the Connecticut Western Reserve, was unsettled.
Hutchins arrived in Pittsburgh July 25, 1786. He and his men resumed their survey on August 5, by September, 1786, they placed a stone completing the Geographer's Line at a place near Magnolia called the Seven Ranges Terminus 40°39′07″N 81°19′05″W. Under protection from Indians by troops housed at the newly constructed Fort Steuben, the group completed four ranges, forty two miles of the west side of the fifth range that autumn; the first and second ranges had been surveyed into townships by Captain Martin, the third and fourth ranges by General Tupper, Colonel Sproat, Colonel Sherman, Mr. Simpson. Hutchins submitted a plat of the first four ranges to Congress spring, 1787. In June 1787, Hutchins asked a leave of absence, granted, the surveyors of the previous year continued the survey. Israel Ludlow completed the seventh range, with the southwest corner 39°20′33″N 81°21′52″W a few miles up the Ohio river from Marietta, followed by James Simpson in the sixth range and Absalom Martin in the fifth.
Those three returned to New York, with Hutchins, they completed their report. Hutchins submitted the general plan, concluding notes, plats to the board of treasury on July 26, 1788. In 1788, Hutchins began surveying additional lands on September 2, but fell ill and returned to Pittsburgh, where he died April 28, 1789, his survey incomplete; the original survey set stones at one mile intervals along the four sides of each township, did not venture to the interior. The individual sections were not surveyed until 1806; the sections of each survey township are numbered according to the plan of the Land Ordinance of 1785. The Ranges are numbered starting from Ellicott's Line working westward. Townships are numbere
The Muskingum River is a tributary of the Ohio River 111 miles long, in southeastern Ohio in the United States. An important commercial route in the 19th century, it flows southward through the eastern hill country of Ohio. Via the Ohio, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed; the river is navigable for much of its length through a series of dams. The Muskingum is formed at Coshocton in east-central Ohio by the confluence of the Walhonding and Tuscarawas rivers, it flows in a meandering course southward past Conesville and Dresden to Zanesville, southeastward past South Zanesville, Gaysport, Malta, McConnelsville, Lowell and Devola. It joins the Ohio at Marietta. Along its course the Muskingum collects Wills Creek near Conesville; the name Muskingum derives from the Shawnee word mshkikwam'swampy ground', taken to mean'elk's eye' in Lenape by folk etymology, as if < mus'elk' + wəshkinkw'its eye'. It was the name of a large Wyandot town along the river; as part of an expedition to assert French dominance throughout the entire Ohio valley, on August 15, 1749, a leaden plate claiming the region for France was buried at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers by Pierre Joseph Céloron Noted frontier explorer, Christopher Gist, reached the Big Sandy Creek tributary of the river on December 4, 1751.
Traveling downriver, he recorded arriving on December 14 at the western Wyandot town of Muskingum, at present-day Coshocton. There he remained for the following month. Marietta was founded in 1788 as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory, at the mouth of the Muskingum River on the Ohio River; the Big Bottom Massacre occurred along its banks in 1791. Zanesville was settled by European Americans in 1799 at the site where Zane's Trace crossed the Muskingum at the mouth of the Licking River. In the mid-19th century the Muskingum was an important commercial shipping route, with dams and locks controlling the water level to allow boats to travel up and down the river. With the decrease in use of water-based transportation in Ohio by the 1920s, the locks fell into disrepair. Since the 1960s, the locks have been repaired to enable pleasure craft to travel the entire navigable length of the river; the Muskingum waterway is one of the few remaining systems in the US to use hand-operated river locks.
The navigation system has been designated a national Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. In 2006, it was designated "An Ohio Water Trail. Located north of the Mason–Dixon line, from around 1812 to 1861 the Muskingum River was a major Underground Railroad route used by fugitive slaves escaping from the South on their journey north to Lake Erie and Canada; the Friends of the Lower Muskingum River is a 501 nonprofit land trust based in Marietta, concerned with protection of the Muskingum River and adjacent lands. In addition, the Muskingum River Conservation District is a quasi-governmental entity concerned with flood control on the river. According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Muskingum River has been known as: Big Muskingum River Elk River Mouskindom River Mushkingum River Muskingham River Riviere Chiagnez List of rivers of Ohio Muskingum River Power Plant Y-Bridge A history-travel guide on the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Marietta is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, United States. During 1788, pioneers to the Ohio Country established Marietta as the first permanent settlement of the new United States in the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. Marietta is located in southeastern Ohio at the mouth of the Muskingum River at its confluence with the Ohio River; the population was 14,085 at the 2010 census. It is the second-largest city in the WV-OH Combined Statistical Area; the private, nonsectarian liberal arts Marietta College is located here. It was a station on the Underground Railroad before the Civil War. Marietta is the site of the prehistoric Marietta Earthworks, a Hopewell complex more than 1500 years old, whose Great Mound and other major monuments were preserved by the earliest settlers in parks such as the Mound Cemetery. Marietta is located at 39°25′15″N 81°27′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.75 square miles, of which 8.43 square miles is land and 0.32 square miles is water.
The Muskingum River and Duck Creek flow into the Ohio River at Marietta. The area is part of the Appalachian Plateau; the Appalachian Plateau consists of steep hills and valleys and is the most rugged area in the state. The area is within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau; this portion of the state has some of Ohio's most abundant mineral deposits. The climate in this area is characterized by humid summers, cold winters, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Marietta has a Humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfa" on climate maps. Succeeding Indian cultures lived along the Ohio River and its tributaries for thousands of years. Among them were more than one culture who built earthwork mounds, monuments which expressed their cosmology with links to astronomical events. Between 100 BC and AD 500, the Hopewell culture built the multi-earthwork complex on the terrace east of the Muskingum River near its mouth with the Ohio.
It is now known as the Marietta Earthworks. Developed over many years, it had a large enclosed square, within which were four platform mounds, used for ceremonial purposes and elite residential. A walled, graded path led to the river's edge. By the time of the historic tribes, such as the Shawnee, the purposes and makers of the monuments were no longer known. French explorers entered this area in the 18th century, in 1749 buried numerous leaden plates to mark their claim to the Ohio Country They ceded their territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain after the French and Indian War. Two of their plates were discovered in the Marietta area in 1798, one was replicated for what is known as the French monument, erected in the 20th century. In 1770, the future U. S. president George Washington a surveyor, began exploring large tracts of land west of his native Virginia. During the Revolutionary War, Washington told his friend General Rufus Putnam of the beauty he had seen in his travels through the Ohio Valley and of his ideas for settling the territory.
After the American Revolutionary War, the United States sold or granted large tracts of land to stimulate development in this area. Marietta was founded by settlers from New England who were investors in the Ohio Company of Associates, it was the first of numerous New England settlements in what was the Northwest Territory. These New Englanders, or "Yankees" as they were called, were descended from the Puritan English colonists who had settled New England in the 1600s and were Congregationalists; the first church constructed in Marietta was a Congregationalist church, founded around 1786. Before the mid-1790s services were held at the fort or in Munsell's Hall at nearby Point Harmar. In 1798 the Muskingum Academy was built on the site of the 19th century Marietta Congregationalist Church; the academy building served for both religious purposes. In the summer of 1781, John Carpenter built Carpenter's Fort, or Carpenter's Station as it was sometimes called, a fortified house above the mouth of Short Creek on the Ohio side of the Ohio River, near present-day Marietta.
After the war, the newly formed United States had little cash but plenty of land. Eager to develop additional lands, the new government decided to pay veterans of the Revolution with warrants for land in the Northwest Territory, organized under federal authority in 1787 by the Northwest Ordinance. Competing states had agreed to end their claims to the lands. Arthur St. Clair was appointed by the president as governor of the new territory; the Ohio Company of Associates had supported provisions in the ordinance to allow veterans to use their warrants to purchase the land. They bought 1.5 million acres of land from Congress. On April 7, 1788, 48 men of the Ohio Company of Associates, led by General Putnam, arrived at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers; the site was on the east side of the Muskingum River, across from Fort Harmar, a military outpost built three years prior. Bringing with them the first government sanctioned by the US for this area, they established the first permanent United States settlement in the Northwest Territory.
(Older European settlements in the Northwest Territory region include Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, 1668.
Land Ordinance of 1785
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress of the Confederation on May 20, 1785. It set up a standardized system whereby settlers could purchase title to farmland in the undeveloped west. Congress at the time did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation, so land sales provided an important revenue stream; the Ordinance set up a survey system that covered over 3/4 of the area of the continental United States. The earlier Ordinance of 1784 was a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson calling for Congress to take action; the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River was to be divided into ten separate states. However, the 1784 resolution did not define the mechanism by which the land would become states, or how the territories would be governed or settled before they became states; the Ordinance of 1785 put the 1784 resolution in operation by providing a mechanism for selling and settling the land, while the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 addressed political needs.
The 1785 ordinance laid the foundations of land policy until passage of the Homestead Act in 1862. The Land Ordinance established the basis for the Public Land Survey System; the initial surveying was performed by Thomas Hutchins. After he died in 1789, responsibility for surveying was transferred to the Surveyor General. Land was to be systematically surveyed into square townships, 6 mi on a side, each divided into thirty-six sections of 1 sq mi or 640 acres; these sections could be subdivided for re-sale by settlers and land speculators. The ordinance was significant for establishing a mechanism for funding public education. Section 16 in each township was reserved for the maintenance of public schools. Many schools today are still located in section sixteen of their respective townships, although a great many of the school sections were sold to raise money for public education. In States, section 36 of each township was designated as a "school section"; the Point of Beginning for the 1785 survey was where Ohio and Virginia met, on the north shore of the Ohio River near East Liverpool, Ohio.
There is a historical marker just north of the site, at the state line where Ohio State Route 39 becomes Pennsylvania Route 68. The Confederation Congress appointed a committee consisting of the following men: Thomas Jefferson Hugh Williamson David Howell Elbridge Gerry Jacob Read On May 7, 1784, the committee reported "An ordinance for ascertaining the mode of locating and disposing of lands in the western territories, for other purposes therein mentioned." The ordinance required the land be divided into "hundreds of ten geographical miles square, each mile containing 6086 and 4-10ths of a foot" and "sub-divided into lots of one mile square each, or 850 and 4-10ths of an acre", numbered starting in the northwest corner, proceeding from west to east, east to west, consecutively. After debate and amendment, the ordinance was reported to Congress April 26, 1785, it required surveyors "to divide the said territory into townships seven miles square, by lines running due north and south, others crossing these at right angles.
— The plats of the townships shall be marked into sections of one mile square, or 640 acres." This is the first recorded use of the terms "township" and "section."On May 3, 1785, William Grayson of Virginia made a motion seconded by James Monroe to change "seven miles square" to "six miles square." The ordinance was passed on May 20, 1785. The sections were to be numbered starting at 1 in the southeast and running south to north in each tier to 36 in the northwest; the surveys were to be performed under the direction of the Geographer of the United States. The Seven Ranges, the surveyed Symmes Purchase, with some modification, the surveyed Ohio Company of Associates, all of the Ohio Lands were the surveys completed with this section numbering; the Act of May 18, 1796, provided for the appointment of a surveyor-general to replace the office of Geographer of the United States, that "sections shall be numbered beginning with number one in the northeast section, proceeding west and east alternately, through the township, with progressive numbers till the thirty-sixth be completed."
All subsequent surveys were completed with this boustrophedonical section numbering system, except the United States Military District of the Ohio Lands which had five mile square townships as provided by the Act of June 1, 1796, amended by the Act of March 1, 1800. Howe and others give Thomas Hutchins credit for conceiving the rectangular system of lots of one square mile in 1764 while a captain in the Sixtieth, or, Royal American and engineer to the expedition under Col. Henry Bouquet to the forks of the Muskingum, in what is now Coshocton County, Ohio, it formed part of his plan as a protection against Indians. The law of 1785 embraced most of the new system. Treat, on the other hand, notes that tiers of townships were familiar in New England, insisted on by the New England legislators. Public Education reservations of the Land Ordinance of 1785 Background:*The Land Ordinance of 1785, adopted May 20, 1785 by the Continental Congress, set the stage for an organized and community-based westward expansion in the United States in the years after the American Revolution.
Under the 1785 act, section 16 of each township was set aside for school purposes, as such was called the school section. Section 36 was subsequently added as a school section in western sta
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and an American military officer. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, he is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills and disciplines. He wrote Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812, he served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war. Baron von Steuben was born in the fortress town of Magdeburg, Germany, on September 17, 1730, the son of Royal Prussian Engineer Capt. Baron Wilhelm von Steuben and his wife, Elizabeth von Jagvodin; when his father entered the service of Empress Anna of Russia, young Friedrich went with him to Crimea and to Kronstadt, staying until the Russian war against the Turks under General Burkhard Christoph von Münnich.
In 1740, Steuben's father returned to Prussia and Friedrich was educated in the garrison towns Neisse and Breslau by Jesuits. Despite his military education by a Catholic order, von Steuben remained critical of Roman Catholicism. Von Steuben's family were Protestants in the Kingdom of Prussia, after his emigration to America he became a member of the Reformed German Church, a Reformed congregation in New York, it is said that at age 14 he served as a volunteer with his father in one of the campaigns of the War of the Austrian Succession. Baron von Steuben joined the Prussian Army at age 17, he served as a second lieutenant during the Seven Years' War in 1756, was wounded at the 1757 Battle of Prague. He served as adjutant to the free battalion of General Johann von Mayr and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1759. In August 1759 he was wounded a second time at the Battle of Kunersdorf. In the same year, he was appointed deputy quartermaster at the general headquarters. In 1761 he became adjutant of the Major General Von Knobloch upon being taken prisoner by the Russians at Treptow.
He subsequently attained the rank of captain, served as aide-de-camp to Frederick the Great. Upon the reduction of the army at the end of the war, in 1763, Steuben was one of many officers who found themselves unemployed. Towards the end of his life, Steuben indicated in a letter that "an inconsiderate step and an implacable personal enemy" led to his leaving the Prussian army. In 1764 Steuben became Hofmarschall to Fürst Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, a post he held until 1777. In 1769 the Duchess of Wurttemberg, niece of Frederick the Great, presented him with the Cross of the Order of De la Fidelite. In 1771 he began to use the title baron; that same year he accompanied the prince to France. Failing to find funds, they returned to Germany in 1775 in debt. In 1763 Steuben had been formally introduced to the future French Minister of War, Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain, in Hamburg, they met again in Paris in 1777. The Count realizing the potential of an officer with Prussian general staff training, introduced him to Benjamin Franklin.
Franklin, was unable to offer Steuben a rank or pay in the American army. The Continental Congress had grown tired of foreign mercenaries coming to America and demanding a high rank and pay. Promoting these men over qualified American officers caused discontent in the ranks. Von Steuben would have to go to America as a volunteer, present himself to Congress. Steuben returned to Prussia. Steuben found waiting for him allegations that he engaged in homosexual relationships with young men while in the service of Prince Josef Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen; the allegations were never proven, but Steuben knew they would stymie his chances at an officer's position in Europe. Threatened with prosecution for his alleged homosexuality, Steuben returned to Paris. Rumors followed him from Prussia to America that he was homosexual, but there never was an investigation of von Steuben and he received a congressional pension after the war. Upon the Count's recommendation, Steuben was introduced to future president George Washington by means of a letter from Franklin as a "Lieutenant General in the King of Prussia's service", an exaggeration of his actual credentials that appears to be based on a mistranslation of his service record.
He was advanced travel funds and left Europe from Marseilles on Friday, September 26, 1777, on board the frigate Flamand. The Baron, his Italian Greyhound Azor, his young aide-de-camp Louis de Pontière, his military secretary, Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, two other companions, reached Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on December 1, 1777, where they were arrested for being British because Steuben had mistakenly outfitted them in red uniforms, they were extravagantly entertained in Boston. On February 5, 1778, Steuben and his party arrived in York, where the Continental Congress had relocated after being ousted from Philadelphia by the British advance. Arrangements were made for Steuben to be paid following the successful completion of the war according to his contributions, he arrived at Valley Forge on February 23, 1778, reported for duty as a volunteer. One soldier's first impression of the Baron was "of the ancient fabled God of War... he seemed to me a perfect personification of Mars. The t