Robert Anderson (Civil War)
Robert Anderson was a United States Army officer during the American Civil War. He was the Union commander in the first battle of the American Civil War at Fort Sumter in April 1861. Anderson was celebrated as a hero in the North and promoted to brigadier general and given command of Union forces in Kentucky, he was removed late in 1861 and reassigned to Rhode Island, before retiring from military service in 1863. Anderson was born at "Soldier's Retreat," the Anderson family estate near Kentucky, his father, Richard Clough Anderson Sr. served in the Continental Army as an aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War, was a charter member of the Society of the Cincinnati. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1825, received a commission as a second lieutenant in the 3rd Regiment of Artillery. A few months after graduation, he became private secretary to his older brother Richard Clough Anderson, Jr., serving as the US Minister to Gran Colombia.
He served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as a colonel of Illinois volunteers, where he had the distinction of twice mustering Abraham Lincoln in and once out of army service. He was in charge of transporting Black Hawk to Jefferson Barracks after his capture, assisted by Jefferson Davis. Returning to regular Army service as a first lieutenant in 1833, he served in the Second Seminole War as an assistant adjutant general on the staff of Winfield Scott, was promoted to captain in October 1841. In the Mexican–American War, he participated in the Siege of Vera Cruz, March 9–29, 1847, the Battle of Cerro Gordo, April 17–18, 1847, the Skirmish of Amazoque, May 14, 1847, Battle of Molino del Rey on September 8, 1847, he was wounded at Molino del Rey while assaulting enemy fortifications, for which he received a brevet promotion to major. Due to his wounds, Anderson was on sick leave of absence during 1847–48, he was in garrison at Fort Preble, Maine from 1848 to 1849. He served from 1849 to 1851 as a member of Board of Officers to devise "A Complete System of Instruction for Siege, Garrison and Mountain Artillery,", adopted on May 10, 1851.
He returned to garrison duty at Fort Preble from 1850 to 1853. From 1855 to 1859, in view of his precarious health and also due to his connections to General Winfield Scott, Anderson was assigned to the light duty of inspecting the iron beams produced in a mill in Trenton, New Jersey for Federal construction projects, he received a permanent promotion to major of the 1st Regiment of Artillery in the Regular Army on October 5, 1857. He was the author of Instruction for Field Artillery and Foot in 1839. In November 1860, Anderson was assigned to command of U. S. forces around Charleston, South Carolina. When South Carolina seceded in December 1860 Anderson remained loyal to the Union, despite being a native of Kentucky and a former slave owner, he moved his small garrison from Fort Moultrie, indefensible, to the more modern, more defensible, Fort Sumter in the middle of Charleston Harbor. In February 1861 the Confederate States of America took charge. Jefferson Davis, the Confederate President, ordered the fort be captured.
The artillery attack was commanded by Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, Anderson's student at West Point; the attack began April 12, 1861, continued until Anderson, badly outnumbered and outgunned, surrendered the fort on April 14. The battle began the American Civil War. No one was killed in the battle on either side, but one Union soldier was killed and one mortally wounded during a 50-gun salute. Robert Anderson's actions in defense of Fort Sumter made him an immediate national hero, he was promoted to brigadier general in the Regular Army, effective May 15. Anderson took the fort's 33-star flag with him to New York City, where he participated in a Union Square patriotic rally, the largest public gathering in North America up to that time; the modern meaning of the American flag, according to Harold Holzer in 2007 and Adam Goodheart in 2011, was forged by Anderson's stand at Fort Sumter. Holzer states that New York City: responded with a "feast of the American flag." Eyewitnesses estimated that as many as 100,000 flags went on display across the city.
To punctuate this feast of national colors, New York's graphic artists rushed out patriotic engravings and lithographs depicting avenging soldiers or gowned goddesses, bayonets upthrust, carrying "The Flag of Our Union" into future battles.... Composers dedicated songs like "Our Countries Flag" to President Lincoln, adorned their published sheet music with colorful images of resolute soldiers gripping the national banner. During the war the flag was used throughout the North to symbolize American nationalism and rejection of secessionism. Goodheart explains the flag was transformed into a sacred symbol of patriotism: Before that day, the flag had served as a military ensign or a convenient marking of American territory... and displayed on special occasions like the Fourth of July. But in the weeks after Major Anderson's surprising stand, it became something different; the Stars and Stripes flew... from houses, from storefronts, from churches. Hat old flag meant something new; the abstraction of the Union cause was transfigured into a physical thing: strips of cloth that millions of people would fight for, an
Ford's Theatre is a theater located in Washington, D. C. which opened in August 1863. It is famous for being the site of the assassination of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. After being shot, the fatally wounded 56-year old president was carried across the street to the Petersen House, where he died the next morning; the theater was used as a warehouse and office building, in 1893 part of it collapsed, causing 22 deaths. It was renovated and re-opened as a theater in 1968. During the 2000s, it was renovated again, opening on February 12, 2009, in commemoration of the bicentennial of Lincoln's birth. A related Center for Education and Leadership museum experience opened February 12, 2012 next to Petersen House; the Petersen House and the theater are preserved together as Ford's Theatre National Historic Site, administered by the National Park Service. The site was a house of worship, constructed in 1833 as the second meeting house of the First Baptist Church of Washington, with Obadiah Bruen Brown as the pastor.
In 1861, after the congregation moved to a newly built structure, John T. Ford renovated it into a theater, he first called it Ford's Athenaeum. It was destroyed by fire in 1862, was rebuilt. On April 14, 1865—just five days after General Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House—Lincoln and his wife attended a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre; the famous actor John Wilkes Booth, desperate to aid the dying Confederacy, made his way into the presidential box and shot Lincoln. Booth jumped down to the stage, escaped through a rear door. Following the assassination, the United States Government appropriated the theater, with Congress paying Ford $88,000 in compensation, an order was issued forever prohibiting its use as a place of public amusement. Between 1866 and 1887, the theater was taken over by the U. S. military and served as a facility for the War Department with records kept on the first floor, the Library of the Surgeon General's Office on the second floor, the Army Medical Museum on the third.
In 1887, the building became a clerk's office for the War Department, when the medical departments moved out. On June 9, 1893, the front part of the building collapsed, killing 22 clerks and injuring another 68; this led some people to believe that the former church turned storeroom was cursed. The building was repaired and used as a government warehouse until 1911, it languished unused until 1918. In 1928, the building was turned over from the War Department Office to the Office of Public Buildings and Parks of the National Capital. A Lincoln museum opened on the first floor of the theater building on February 12, 1932—Lincoln's 123rd birthday. In 1933, the building was transferred to the National Park Service; the restoration of Ford's Theatre was brought about by the two decade-long lobbying efforts of Democratic National Committeeman Melvin D. Hildreth and Republican North Dakota Representative Milton Young. Hildreth first suggested to Young the need for its restoration in 1945. Through extensive lobbying of Congress, a bill was passed in 1955 to prepare an engineering study for the reconstruction of the building.
In 1964, Congress approved funds for its restoration, which began that year and was completed in 1968. On January 21, 1968, Vice President Hubert Humphrey and 500 others dedicated the restored theater; the theater reopened on January 1968, with a gala performance. The presidential box is never occupied; the theater was again renovated during the 2000s. It has a current seating capacity of 665; the re-opening ceremony was on February 2009, which commemorated Lincoln's 200th birthday. The event featured remarks from President Barack Obama as well as appearances by Katie Couric, Kelsey Grammer, James Earl Jones, Ben Vereen, Jeffrey Wright, the President's Own Marine Band, Joshua Bell, Patrick Lundy and the Ministers of Music, Audra McDonald and Jessye Norman; the National Historic Site consisting of two contributing buildings, the theater and the Petersen House, was designated in 1932. The Ford's Theatre Museum beneath the theater contains portions of the Olroyd Collection of Lincolniana. Most renovated for a July 2009 reopening, the Museum is run through a partnership with the National Park Service and the private non-profit 501 Ford's Theatre Society.
The collection includes multiple items related to the assassination, including the Derringer pistol used to carry out the shooting, Booth's diary and the original door to Lincoln's theater box. In addition, a number of Lincoln's family items, his coat, some statues of Lincoln and several large portraits of the President are on display in the museum; the blood-stained pillow from the President's deathbed is in the Ford's Theatre Museum. In addition to covering the assassination conspiracy, the renovated museum focuses on Lincoln's arrival in Washington, his presidential cabinet, family life in the White House and his role as orator and emancipator; the museum features exhibits about Civil War milestones and generals and about the building's history as a theatrical venue. The rocking chair in which Lincoln was sitting is now on display at The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. After Lincoln was shot, doctors had soldiers carry him into the street in search of a house in which he would be more comfortable.
A man on the steps of the house of tailor William Petersen beckoned to them. They took Lincoln into the first-floor bedroom and laid him on the bed – diagonally because of his unusual height. Many people came to visit him throughout the night. Lincoln died the next morning at 7:22 a.m. The Petersen
Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War. It was one of a number of special forts planned after the War of 1812, combining high walls and heavy masonry, classified as Third System, as a grade of structural integrity. Work was incomplete by 1860, when South Carolina seceded from the Union; the First Battle of Fort Sumter began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery fired on the Union garrison. These were the first shots of the war and continued all day, watched by many civilians in a celebratory spirit; the fort surrendered the next day. The Second Battle of Fort Sumter was a failed attempt by the Union to retake the fort, dogged by a rivalry between army and navy commanders. Although the fort was reduced to rubble, it remained in Confederate hands until it was evacuated as General Sherman marched through South Carolina in February 1865. Fort Sumter is open for public tours as part of the Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie National Historical Park operated by the National Park Service.
Named after General Thomas Sumter, Revolutionary War hero, Fort Sumter was built after the War of 1812, as one of a series of fortifications on the southern U. S. coast to protect the harbors. Construction began in 1829, the structure was still unfinished in 1861, when the Civil War began. Seventy thousand tons of granite were transported from New England to build up a sand bar in the entrance to Charleston Harbor, which the site dominates; the fort was a five-sided brick structure, 170 to 190 feet long, with walls five feet thick, standing 50 feet over the low tide mark. It was designed to house 650 men and 135 guns in three tiers of gun emplacements, although it was never filled near its full capacity. On December 26, 1860, six days after South Carolina seceded from the Union, U. S. Army Major Robert Anderson abandoned the indefensible Fort Moultrie, spiking its large guns, burning its gun carriages, taking its smaller cannon with him to be trained on the city, he secretly relocated companies E and H of the 1st U.
S. Artillery to Fort Sumter on his own initiative, without orders from his superiors, he thought. The fort was not yet complete at the time and fewer than half of the cannons that should have been available were in place, due to military downsizing by President James Buchanan. In a letter delivered January 31, 1861, South Carolina Governor Pickens demanded of President Buchanan that he surrender Fort Sumter because "I regard that possession is not consistent with the dignity or safety of the State of South Carolina." Over the next few months repeated calls for evacuation of Fort Sumter from the government of South Carolina and from Confederate Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard were ignored. Union attempts to resupply and reinforce the garrison were repulsed on January 9, 1861 when the first shots of the war, fired by cadets from the Citadel, prevented the steamer Star of the West, hired to transport troops and supplies to Fort Sumter, from completing the task. After realizing that Anderson's command would run out of food by April 15, 1861, President Lincoln ordered a fleet of ships, under the command of Gustavus V. Fox, to attempt entry into Charleston Harbor and supply Fort Sumter.
The ships assigned were the steam sloops-of-war USS Pawnee and USS Powhatan, transporting motorized launches and about 300 sailors, armed screw steamer USS Pocahontas, Revenue Cutter USRC Harriet Lane, steamer Baltic transporting about 200 troops, composed of companies C and D of the 2nd U. S. Artillery, three hired tugboats with added protection against small arms fire to be used to tow troop and supply barges directly to Fort Sumter. By April 6, 1861, the first ships began to set sail for their rendezvous off the Charleston Bar; the first to arrive was Harriet Lane, the evening of April 11, 1861. On Thursday, April 11, 1861, Beauregard sent three aides, Colonel James Chesnut, Jr. Captain Stephen D. Lee, Lieutenant A. R. Chisolm to demand the surrender of the fort. Anderson declined, the aides returned to report to Beauregard. After Beauregard had consulted the Confederate Secretary of War, Leroy Walker, he sent the aides back to the fort and authorized Chesnut to decide whether the fort should be taken by force.
The aides waited for hours while Anderson played for time. At about 3:00 a.m. when Anderson announced his conditions, Colonel Chesnut, after conferring with the other aides, decided that they were "manifestly futile and not within the scope of the instructions verbally given to us." The aides left the fort and proceeded to the nearby Fort Johnson. There, Chesnut ordered the fort to open fire on Fort Sumter. On Friday, April 12, 1861, at 4:30 a.m. Confederate batteries opened fire, firing for 34 straight hours, on the fort. Edmund Ruffin, noted Virginian agronomist and secessionist, claimed that he fired the first shot on Fort Sumter, his story has been believed, but Lieutenant Henry S. Farley, commanding a battery of two 10 inch siege mortars on James Island fired the first shot at 4:30 a.m. No attempt was made to return the fire for more than two hours; the fort's supply of ammunition was not suited for the task. Only solid iron balls could be used against the Confederate batteries. At about 7:00 a.m.
Captain Abner Doubleday, the fort's second in command, was given the honor of firing the Union's first
Henry Ward Beecher
Henry Ward Beecher was an American Congregationalist clergyman, social reformer, speaker, known for his support of the abolition of slavery, his emphasis on God's love, his 1875 adultery trial. Henry Ward Beecher was the son of Lyman Beecher, a Calvinist minister who became one of the best-known evangelists of his era. Several of his brothers and sisters became well-known educators and activists, most notably Harriet Beecher Stowe, who achieved worldwide fame with her abolitionist novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. Henry Ward Beecher graduated from Amherst College in 1834 and Lane Theological Seminary in 1837 before serving as a minister in Indianapolis and Lawrenceburg, Indiana. In 1847, Beecher became the first pastor of the Plymouth Church in New York, he soon acquired fame on the lecture circuit for his novel oratorical style in which he employed humor and slang. Over the course of his ministry, he developed a theology emphasizing God's love above all else, he grew interested in social reform the abolitionist movement.
In the years leading up to the Civil War, he raised money to purchase slaves from captivity and to send rifles—nicknamed "Beecher's Bibles"—to abolitionists fighting in Kansas and Nebraska. He toured Europe during the Civil War speaking in support of the Union. After the war, Beecher supported social reform causes such as women's temperance, he championed Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, stating that it was not incompatible with Christian beliefs. He was rumored to be an adulterer, the Woodhull & Claflin's Weekly published a story about his affair with Elizabeth Tilton in 1872, the wife of his former associate Theodore Tilton. In 1874, Tilton filed adultery charges against him for the affair; the subsequent trial resulted in a hung jury and was one of the most reported trials of the century. Beecher's long career in the public spotlight led biographer Debby Applegate to call her biography of him The Most Famous Man in America. Beecher was born in Litchfield, the eighth of 13 children born to Lyman Beecher, a Presbyterian preacher from Boston.
His siblings included author Harriet Beecher Stowe, educators Catharine Beecher and Thomas K. Beecher, activists Charles Beecher and Isabella Beecher Hooker, his father became known as "the father of more brains than any man in America". Beecher's mother Roxana died when Henry was three, his father married Harriet Porter whom Henry described as "severe" and subject to bouts of depression. Beecher taught school for a time in Whitinsville, Massachusetts; the Beecher household was "the strangest and most interesting combination of fun and seriousness". The family was poor, Lyman Beecher assigned his children "a heavy schedule of prayer meetings and religious services" while banning the theater, most fiction, the celebration of birthdays or Christmas; the family's pastimes included listening to their father play the fiddle. Beecher had a childhood stammer and was considered slow-witted and one of the less promising of the brilliant Beecher children, his poor performance earned him punishments, such as being forced to sit for hours in the girls' corner wearing a dunce cap.
At 14, he began his oratorical training at Mount Pleasant Classical Institution, a boarding school in Amherst, Massachusetts where he met Constantine Fondolaik, a Smyrna Greek. They attended Amherst College together, where they signed a contract pledging lifelong friendship and brotherly love. Fondolaik died of cholera after returning to Greece in 1842, Beecher named his third son after him. During his years in Amherst, Beecher had his first taste of public speaking, he resolved to join the ministry, setting aside his early dream of going to sea, he met his future wife Eunice Bullard, the daughter of a well-known physician, they were engaged on January 2, 1832. He developed an interest in the pseudoscience of phrenology, an attempt to link personality traits with features of the human skull, he befriended Orson Squire Fowler who became the theory's best-known American proponent. Beecher graduated from Amherst College in 1834 and attended Lane Theological Seminary outside Cincinnati, Ohio. Lane was headed by Beecher's father, who had become "America's most famous preacher".
The student body was divided by the slavery question, whether to support a form of gradual emancipation, as Lyman Beecher did, or to demand immediate emancipation. Beecher stayed clear of the controversy, sympathetic to the radical students but unwilling to defy his father, he graduated in 1837. On August 3, 1837, Beecher married Eunice Bullard, the two proceeded to the small, impoverished town of Lawrenceburg, where Beecher had been offered a post as a minister of the First Presbyterian Church, he received his first national publicity when he became involved in the break between "New School" and "Old School" Presbyterianism, which were split over questions of original sin and the slavery issue. Because of Henry's adherence to the New School position, the Old School-dominated presbytery declined to install him as the pastor, the resulting controversy split the western Presbyterian Church into rival synods. Though Henry Beecher's Lawrenceburg church declared its independence from the Synod to retain him as its pastor, the poverty that followed the Panic of 1837 caused him to look for a new position.
Banker Samuel Merrill invited Beecher to visit Indianapolis in 1839, he was offered the ministry of the Second Presbyterian Church there on May 13, 1839. Unusually for a speaker of his era, Beecher would use humor and informal language including dialect and slang as he preached, his preaching was a major suc
History of the flags of the United States
This article describes the evolution of the flag of the United States of America, as well as other flags used within the country, such as the flags of governmental agencies. There are separate flags for embassies and boats. Since 1818, a star for each new state has been added to the flag on the Fourth of July following each state's admission. In years which multiple states were admitted, the number of stars on the flag jumped correspondingly; this change has been the only change made with each revision of the flag since 1777, with the exception of changes in 1795 and 1818, which increased the number of stripes to 15 and returned it to 13, respectively. As the exact pattern of stars was not specified prior to 1912, the exact colors not specified prior to 1934, many of the historical U. S. national flags shown below are typical rather than official designs. Many agencies and offices of the U. S. federal government have guidons, or standards. Following traditional American vexillology, these consist of the agency's departmental seal on a blank opaque background, but not always.
The flags of the U. S. states and federal district exhibit a variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as different styles and design principles. Nonetheless, the majority of the states' flags share the same design pattern consisting of the state seal superimposed on a monochrome background every different shade of blue; the most recent current state flag is that of Utah, while the most recent current territorial flag is that of the Northern Mariana Islands. Modern U. S. state flags date from the 1890s, when states wanted to have distinctive symbols at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. Most U. S. state flags were designed and adopted between 1893 and World War I. According to a 2001 survey by the North American Vexillological Association, New Mexico has the best-designed flag of any U. S. state, U. S. territory, or Canadian province, while Georgia's state flag was rated the worst design. Dates in parentheses denote; the U. S. national flag is the official flag for all islands and reefs composing the United States Minor Outlying Islands.
However, unofficial flags are in use on five of these nine insular areas: While the countries mentioned are recognized independent nations with UN seats, the U. S. maintains and exercises jurisdictional control over the countries in defense and funding grants. Since 1777, the national ensign of the United States has simultaneously served as its national flag; the current version is shown below. Flag Day in the United States Flag desecration in the United States Flags of cities of the United States Flags of counties of the United States Flags of the U. S. states North American Vexillological Association United States Flag Code The History of U. S. Flags History of the flags United States Minor Outlying Islands at Flags of the World
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Union Square, Manhattan
Union Square is a historic intersection and surrounding neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, located where Broadway and the former Bowery Road – now Fourth Avenue – came together in the early 19th century. The current Union Square Park is bounded by 14th Street on the south, Union Square West on the west side, 17th Street on the north, on the east Union Square East, which links together Broadway and Park Avenue South to Fourth Avenue and the continuation of Broadway; the park is under the aegis of the New York City Department of Recreation. Adjacent neighborhoods are the Flatiron District to the north, Chelsea to the west, Greenwich Village to the southwest, East Village to the southeast, Gramercy Park to the east. Many buildings of The New School are near the square, as are several dormitories of New York University; the eastern side of the square is dominated by the four Zeckendorf Towers, the Consolidated Edison Building, on the former site of the bargain-priced department store, S. Klein, the south side by the full-square block mixed-use One Union Square South.
It features digital clock expelling bursts of steam, titled Metronome. Among the heterogeneous assortment of buildings along the west side is the Decker Building. Union Square is noted for its impressive equestrian statue of U. S. President George Washington, modeled by Henry Kirke Brown and unveiled in 1856, the first public sculpture erected in New York City since the equestrian statue of George III in 1770, the first American equestrian sculpture cast in bronze. Other statues in the park include the Marquis de Lafayette, modeled by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated at the Centennial, July 4, 1876, Abraham Lincoln, modeled by Henry Kirke Brown, the James Fountain, a Temperance fountain with the figure of Charity who empties her jug of water, aided by a child. A statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the southwest corner of the park was added in 1986; the 14th Street – Union Square New York City Subway station, served by the 4, 5, 6, <6>, L, N, Q, R, W trains, is located under Union Square.
At the time that John Randel was surveying the island in preparation for the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the Bloomingdale Road angled away from the Bowery at an acute angle that would have been so awkward to build on, that the Commissioners decided to form a square at the union. In 1815, by act of the state legislature, this former potter's field became a public commons for the city, at first named Union Place. In 1832, at a time when the space was surrounded by empty lots, Samuel Ruggles, one of the founders of the Bank of Commerce and the developer of Gramercy Park to the northeast, convinced the city to rename the area as "Union Square" and enlarge the commons to 17th Street on the north and extend the axis of University Place to form the square's west side. Ruggles obtained a fifty-year lease on most of the surrounding lots from 15th to 19th Streets, where he built sidewalks and curbs. In 1834, he convinced the Board of Aldermen to enclose and grade the square sold most of his leases and in 1839 built a four-storey house facing the east side of the Square.
A fountain was built in the center of Union Square to receive water from the Croton Aqueduct, completed in 1842. In 1845, as the square began to fill with affluent houses, $116,000 was spent in paving the surrounding streets and planting the square, in part owing to the continued encouragement of Ruggles; the sole survivors of this early phase, though they have been much adapted and rebuilt, are a series of three- and four-story brick rowhouses, 862–866 Broadway, at the turn where Broadway exits the square at 17th Street. The Everett House on the corner of 17th Street and Fourth Avenue was for decades one of the city's most fashionable hotels. In the early years of the park a fence surrounded the square's central oval planted with radiating walks lined with trees. In 1872, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux were called in to replant the park, as an open glade with clumps of trees. At first the square, the last public space that functioned as the entrance to New York City, was residential – the Union League Club first occupied a house loaned for the purpose by Henry G. Marquand at the corner of 17th Street and Broadway – but after the Civil War the neighborhood became commercial, the square began to lose social cachet at the turn of the twentieth century.
Tiffany & Co. which had moved to the square from Broadway and Broome Street in 1870, left its premises on 15th Street to move uptown to 37th Street in 1905. The last of the neighborhood's free-standing private mansions, Peter Goelet's at the northeast corner of 19th Street, made way for a commercial building in 1897; the Rialto, New York City's first commercial theater district, was located in and around Union Square beginning in the 1870s. It was called the Rialto after the commercial district in Venice; the theater district re-located northward, into less expensive and undeveloped uptown neighborhoods, into the current Theater District. Before the Civil War, theatres in New York City were located along Broadway and the Bowery up to 14th Street, with those on Broadway appealing more to the middle and upper classes and the Bowery theatres attracting immigrant audiences and the working class. After the war, the