Clark County, Washington
Clark County is a county in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Washington, the southernmost county in Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 425,363, making it Washington's fifth-most populous county, its county seat and largest city is Vancouver. It was the first county in Washington, named after William Clark of the Clark Expedition, it was created by the provisional government of Oregon Territory on August 20, 1845, at that time covered the entire present-day state. Clark County is the third most populous county in the Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is located across the Columbia River from Portland. Clark County began as the District of Vancouver on July 27, 1844, it included all the land north of the Columbia River, west of the Rocky Mountains, south of Alaska. In 1845 the provisional government changed its name to Vancouver County. At that time it stretched from the Columbia River to 54 degrees 40 minutes North Latitude in what is now British Columbia.
On June 15, 1846 the United States Senate approved the present boundary between the U. S. and Canada at the 49th Parallel. On August 13, 1848, President James K. Polk signed an act creating the entire region as the Oregon Territory. On September 3, 1849, the Oregon Territorial Legislature modified the borders again and changed its name to Clarke County in honor of explorer William Clark. At this time it included all of present-day Washington and continued to be divided and subdivided until reaching its present area in 1880, it was not until 1925. In September 1902 the Yacolt Burn, the largest fire in state history, began in neighboring Skamania County and swept west along a 12-mile front to Yacolt, nearly engulfing the town. Salvaging the remaining timber was a lucrative industry for a time. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 656 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water, it is the fifth-smallest county in Washington by land area.
Clark County is surrounded on two sides by the Columbia River and on the north by the North Fork of the Lewis River. The East Fork of the Lewis River and the Washougal River cut across the county; the largest stream arising within the county is Salmon Creek, which terminates at Vancouver Lake before flowing into the Columbia River. Like most of Oregon and Washington south of Puget Sound into the Willamette Valley the landscape and climate of Clark County are determined by its placement between the volcanic Pacific Coast and Cascade Ranges, where glaciation helped form a U-shaped valley which meets the river valley of the Columbia River as it leaves the Columbia River Gorge. Volcanic andisol soils are common, with fertile mollisols in the lower areas; the central and southwest areas of the county are flat floodplains, sculpted by torrents of prehistoric Lake Missoula. A series of dramatic floods known as the Missoula Floods took place 15,000 - 13,000 years ago, as several ice dams melted, forming a series of low steps such as the "Heights", "Mill Plain", "Fourth Plain" and "Fifth Plain".
Clark County's Köppen climate classification is "Csb." Many lakes border the river including Vancouver Lake. Eastern and northern Clark County contain forested foothills of the Cascade Mountains, rising to an elevation of 4,000 feet on the border with Skamania County. Larch Mountain is the county's highest free-standing peak. Flora and fauna of the region include the normal ecological succession from lowland big leaf maple and western red cedar through Garry oak on up through fire-dependent species such as lodgepole pine and Douglas fir, as well as grand fir, silver fir and other species common to Gifford Pinchot National Forest. In addition to a wide variety of birds including great blue heron, raptors such as barred owl, red-tailed hawk and bald eagle and others, the native streams are home to various species of salmon and the Vancouver Trout Hatchery. Larger mammals include black-tailed deer, raccoon and invasive opossum. Common foods used by the indigenous people such as the Klickitat tribe and Chinook included salmon and Camassia quamash.
Mount Hood, Mount Saint Helens and Mount Adams are all visible from Clark County, cold winter winds through the Columbia River Gorge bring freezing rain and a coating of glaze ice or clear ice known locally as a "silver thaw," in southeastern areas of the county closest to the gorge. The counterpart to this are warm winds from the southwest known locally as the "Pineapple Express". Spring thaws can swell county waterways, with two of the more destructive floods being those of the Columbia River in June 1894 and May, 1948; the 1948 Memorial Day flood topped the Interstate Bridge's support piers and destroyed nearby Vanport, Oregon. Construction of The Dalles Dam and destruction of Celilo Falls are credited with a decrease in such floods. Significant windstorms in Clark County include the Columbus Day windstorm of October 12, 1962, an April 6, 1972 tornado which rated F3 on the Fujita scale, striking a local school. A "Friday the 13th" storm in November 1981 brought winds up to 70 miles per hour, with other storms including the inauguration day storm of January 20, 1993, the Guadalupe Day storm of December 12, 1995 and small tornado on January 10, 2008, which destroyed a boath
The Dynix Automated Library System was a popular integrated library system, with a heyday from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s. It was used by libraries to replace the paper-based card catalog, track lending of materials from the library to patrons. First developed in 1983, it became the most popular library automation software released, was once near-ubiquitous in libraries boasting an electronic card catalog, peaking at over 5,000 installations worldwide in the late 1990s, with a market share of nearly 80%, including the United States' Library of Congress. Typical of 1980s software technology, Dynix had a character-based user interface, involving no graphics except ASCII art/ANSI art boxes; the first installation, in 1983, was at a public library in South Carolina. The library contracted for the system before the software was written. In the words of Paul Sybrowsky, founder of Dynix: "There was no software, no product. Undaunted, we pitched our plan to create an automated library system to a public library in South Carolina.
We didn't have a product, but we said'You need a system and we'd like to bid on it,' and showed them our business plan."The original Dynix library system was based on software developed at CTI, a development project of Brigham Young University, presided over by Gary Carlson. The initial search engine tools: FSELECT and FSORT were written for the PICK operating system under contract for CTI by Walter Nicholes as part of a bid for a research support systems for AT&T laboratories. Paul Sybrowsky was an employee of CTI. Both library systems were based on these PICK based search engine tools. Dynix use grew in the early-and-mid 1990s. In October 1989, Dynix had just 292 installations. Fifteen months in January 1991, it was up 71% to 500 installations. A year-and-a-half in June 1993, Dynix had doubled its installed base, signing its 1,000th contract. At its peak in the late 1990s, Dynix had over 5,000 libraries using its system, amounting to an 80% market share; the customer base for Dynix did not begin decreasing until 2000, at which point it started being replaced by Internet-based interfaces.
In 2003, it was reported that Dynix was being phased out by its manufacturer, approaching "end-of-life" status in terms of functionality and support. By 2004, its market share was down to 62%, still a comfortable majority. Phase-outs were constant in the late 2000s, by the second decade of the 21st century, it was obsolete and remained in few libraries. By mid-2013, only 88 libraries were on record as having Dynix installed; the majority of phase-outs took place between 2002 and 2007. At one point, Dynix was benchmarked supporting 1,600 terminals on a single system; this stability would come in handy. Several specialized versions were released, all nearly identical to the mainstream version. For academic libraries K-12, there was Dynix Scholar. For small libraries, with only one or two terminals, there was Dynix Elite; the original Dynix system, as used in regular public libraries, was renamed Dynix Classic in its lifespan to distinguish it from other Dynix products. Based around a relational database, Dynix was written in Pick/BASIC, run on the PICK operating system.
In 1990, it was ported to VMark's uniVerse BASIC programming language, run on Unix-based servers, with uniVerse acting as a PICK emulation layer between the software and the operating system. In the late 1990s, Dynix was once again re-ported, this time for Windows NT-based servers, it should be noted that Pick/BASIC and uniVerse BASIC are the same programming language, so porting Dynix did not require re-writing the source code. In the words of one Dynix developer, " was programmed in Pick/BASIC... however, as it matured, it was written in uniVerse BASIC... It was never re-written; that type of BASIC isn't easy to move to any other language. None other handles data as well. It's a fast-compiled and -interpreted language, frankly nothing matches it or now. It's too bad that it was so good, because it didn't make the transition to object-oriented Web-based technology in time to stay afloat." The software was written on computers made by The Ultimate Corp. of East Hanover, New Jersey, which ran Ultimate's proprietary implementation of the PICK operating system.
Dynix moved to IBM RISC/6000-based computers running AIX throughout the company, except in Training, which used SCO Unix. While most libraries purchased the same type of servers as Dynix was using, there were installations done on platforms such as DEC and MIPS, Sequoia, HP's Unix servers, etc; the Dynix corp. could do software-only installs to any compliant Unix because of uniVerse's scalability and adaptability. Dynix was developed around the ADDS Viewpoint A2 terminal's escape sequences, because ADDS terminals were the de facto standard on the PICK-based mainframes on which Dynix was created. Shortly after Dynix started being deployed to libraries around the country, requests started coming back that alternate terminals be provided for patron use.
The Kaiser Shipyards were seven major shipbuilding yards located on the United States west coast during World War II. Kaiser ranked 20th among U. S. corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. The shipyards were owned by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Company, a creation of American industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, who established the shipbuilding company around 1939 in order to help meet the construction goals set by the United States Maritime Commission for merchant shipping. Four of the Kaiser Shipyards were located in Richmond and were called the Richmond Shipyards. Together, these four Kaiser Shipyards produced 747 ships, including many of the famous Liberty ships and Victory ships— for carrying general cargo and military munitions and supplies, more than any other complex in the United States. Only one of these ships, the SS Red Oak Victory, survives. Two other Liberty ships built in other American yards exist as working museum exhibits: the SS Jeremiah O'Brien moored in San Francisco and the SS John W. Brown in Baltimore.
An additional Victory cargo ship survives: the SS Lane Victory. Kaiser produced the Casablanca-class escort aircraft carriers. Three other shipyards were located in the Pacific Northwest along the Columbia and Willamette rivers: the Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation and the Swan Island Shipyard in Portland and the Vancouver Shipyard in Vancouver, Washington. Henry Kaiser was known for developing new methods of ship building, which allowed his yards to outproduce other similar facilities and build 1,490 ships, 27 percent of the total Maritime Commission construction. Kaiser's ships were completed in two-thirds the time and a quarter the cost of the average of all other shipyards. Liberty ships were assembled in a little over two weeks, one in less than five days. Kaiser Shipyards shut down at the end of the war; the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park was dedicated October 25, 2000 on the site of one of the shipyards in Richmond. Henry Kaiser had been building cargo ships for the Maritime Commission in the 1930s, partnering with Todd Pacific Shipyards and the Bath Iron Works.
When orders for ships from the British government at war with Germany, allowed for growth, Kaiser established his first Richmond shipyard begun in December 1940. In April 1941 the Maritime Commission requested an additional Kaiser yard, to be used for Liberty ship construction, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Kaiser started third and fourth yards, building troop transports and tank landing ships, respectively, his son, Edgar Kaiser, Sr, was appointed General Manager of the shipyards. Kaiser set several records: The Liberty ship SS Robert E. Peary was assembled in less than five days as a part of a special competition among shipyards. At the Oregon Shipbuilding Yard on the Columbia River, near Portland, the Victory ship SS Joseph N. Teal was built in ten days in fall 1942; the Oregon Shipbuilding Yards were responsible for 455 ships. Kaiser recruited from across the United States to work in hiring women and minorities. Fields Point in Providence, Rhode Island, had a shipyard temporarily run by Kaiser-Walsh when the former management ran into difficulties.
The shipyard was closed and sold after the war to a Swedish shipowner who dismantled the shipyard and erected it in the city of Uddevalla on the west coast of Sweden. Kaiser Permanente, an HMO founded by Henry J. Kaiser Marinship Shipyard Railway, which transported workers to the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, California Vanport, Oregon Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4 Johnson, Marilynn S.. The Second Gold Rush. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08191-9. Lee, Warren F.. A selective history of the Codornices-University Village, the city of Albany & environs: with special attention given to the Richmond Shipyard Railway and the Albany Hill and shoreline. Albuquerque, NM: Belvidere Delaware Railroad Co. Enterprises. ISBN 0-9675646-0-3. History.com Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Kaiser Vancouver & Portland Yards NPS article on Bay Area shipbuilding Rosie the Riveter Trust A guide to the Permanente Metals Corporation photograph album, 1941-1945
Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U. S. state of Washington, the largest suburb of Portland, Oregon. Incorporated in 1857, it is the fourth largest city in the state, with a population of 161,791 as of April 1, 2010 census. Vancouver is the county seat of Clark County and forms part of the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area, the 23rd largest metropolitan area in the United States. Established in 1825 around Fort Vancouver, a fur-trading outpost, the city is located on the Washington/Oregon border along the Columbia River, directly north of Portland. In 2005, Money magazine named it No. 91 on its list of best places in America to live. In 2016, WalletHub ranks Vancouver the 89th best place in the US for families to live. Vancouver shares its name with the larger city of Vancouver in southern British Columbia, Canada 300 mi to the north. Both cities were named after sea captain George Vancouver. Vancouver, British Columbia was incorporated 29 years after the incorporation of Vancouver and more than 60 years after the name Vancouver was first used in reference to the historic Fort Vancouver trading post on the Columbia River.
City officials have periodically suggested changing the U. S. city's name to Fort Vancouver to reduce confusion with its larger and better-known northern neighbor. Many Pacific Northwest residents distinguish between the two cities by referring to the Canadian city as "Vancouver, B. C." and the United States city as "Vancouver, Washington," or "Vancouver, USA." Local nicknames include "Vantucky" and "The'Couv". In 2013, the nickname "Vansterdam" surfaced as a result of the legalization of marijuana in the state of Washington; the Vancouver area was inhabited by a variety of Native American tribes, most the Chinook and Klickitat nations, with permanent settlements of timber longhouses. The Chinookan and Klickitat names for the area were Skit-so-to-ho and Ala-si-kas meaning "land of the mud-turtles." First European contact was made in 1775, with half of the indigenous population dead from smallpox before the Lewis and Clark expedition camped in the area in 1806. Within another fifty years, other actions and diseases such as measles and influenza had reduced the Chinookan population from an estimated 80,000 "to a few dozen refugees, landless and swindled out of a treaty."Meriwether Lewis wrote that the Vancouver area was "the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains."
The first permanent European settlement did not occur until 1824, when Fort Vancouver was established as a fur trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company. From that time on, the area was settled by both the US and Britain under a "joint occupation" agreement. Joint occupation led to the Oregon boundary dispute and ended on June 15, 1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, which gave the United States full control of the area. Before 1845, American Henry Williamson laid out a large claim west of the Hudson's Bay Company, called Vancouver City and properly registered his claim at the U. S. courthouse before leaving for California. In 1850, Amos Short named the town Columbia City, it changed to Vancouver in 1855. The City of Vancouver was incorporated on January 23, 1857. Based on an act in the 1859–60 legislature, Vancouver was the capital of Washington Territory, before capital status was returned to Olympia, Washington by a 2–1 ruling of the territory's supreme court, in accordance with Isaac Stevens' preference and concern that proximity to the border with Oregon might give some of the state's influence away to Oregon.
U. S. Army Captain Ulysses S. Grant was quartermaster at what was known as Columbia Barracks for 15 months beginning in September 1852. Soon after leaving Vancouver, he resigned from the army and did not serve again until the outbreak of the American Civil War. Other notable generals to have served in Vancouver include George B. McClellan, Philip Sheridan, Oliver O. Howard and 1953 Nobel Peace Prize recipient George Marshall. Army presence in Vancouver was strong, as the Department of the Columbia built and moved to Vancouver Barracks, the military reservation for which stretched from the river to what is Fourth Plain Boulevard and was the largest Army base in the region until surpassed by Fort Lewis, 120 miles to the north. Built on the old company gardens and skirmish range, Pearson Army Field was a key facility, at one point the US Army Signal Corps operated the largest spruce cut-up plant in the world to provide much-needed wood for airplanes. Vancouver became the end point for two ultra-long flights from USSR over the North Pole.
The first of these flights was performed by Valery Chkalov in 1937 on a Tupolev ANT-25RD airplane. Chkalov was scheduled to land at an airstrip in nearby Portland, but redirected at the last minute to Vancouver's Pearson Airfield. Today there is a street named for him in Vancouver. In 1975 an obelisk was erected at Pearson Field commemorating this event. Separated from Oregon until 1917, when the Interstate Bridge began to replace ferries, Vancouver had three shipyards just downstream which produced ships for World War I before World War II brought an enormous economic boom. An Alcoa aluminum plant opened on September 2, 1940, using inexpensive power from the nearby New Deal hydropower turbines at Bonneville Dam. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Henry Kaiser opened a shipyard next to the U. S. Army base, whi
Klickitat County, Washington
Klickitat County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,318; the county seat and largest city is Goldendale. The county is named after the Klickitat tribe of the Yakama Native Americans. Klickitat County was created out of Walla Walla County on December 20, 1859. Samuel Hill was an early promoter of the area, promoting better roads and building local landmarks such as a war memorial replica of Stonehenge and a mansion that would become the Maryhill Museum of Art; the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge across the Columbia River is named after him. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,904 square miles, of which 1,871 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Cascade Mountains Columbia River U. S. Route 97 State Route 14 State Route 142 Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge Gifford Pinchot National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,161 people, 7,473 households, 5,305 families residing in the county.
The population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 8,633 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.56% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 3.47% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 5.02% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. 7.81 % of the population were Latinos of any race. 17.7% were of German, 14.0% United States or American, 11.1% English and 9.6% Irish ancestry. 90.3% spoke English and 7.8% Spanish as their first language. There were 7,473 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.99. The age distribution was 27.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 27.00% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,267, the median income for a family was $40,414. Males had a median income of $36,067 versus $21,922 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,502. About 12.60% of families and 17.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.50% of those under age 18 and 15.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,318 people, 8,327 households, 5,626 families residing in the county; the population density was 10.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,786 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.7% white, 2.4% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.6% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 10.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry,Of the 8,327 households, 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 45.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,398 and the median income for a family was $46,012. Males had a median income of $43,588 versus $31,114 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,553. About 13.7% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over. Bingen Goldendale White Salmon Appleton BZ Corner Husum Wahkiacus Klickitat is located in Washington's 3rd congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+2 and has been represented by Republican Jaime Herrera Beutler since 2011.
In state government the county is part of the fourteenth district so is represented by representative Gina McCabe and Norm Johnson in the Washington House of Representatives and Curtis King in the Washington State Senate. In Presidential elections Klickitat is something of a "swing county." In 1988 Michael Dukakis narrowly won the county with 49.15% of the vote. Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush all won the county twice. In 2008 Democrat Barack Obama won Klickitat County over Republican John McCain by only 21 votes or percentage wise 48.85% to 48.64%. In 2012 Republican candidate Mitt Romney won the county by a greater margin than in the previous election, with 51.74% of the vote compared to President Obamas 44.75%, Donald Trump doubled Romney’s margin in 2016. National Register of Historic Places listings in Klickitat County, Washington Official County website Klickitat County, Washington at HistoryLink.org
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States, parts of Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany; the company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay referred to as The Bay. Other divisions include Home Outfitters, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue. HBC's head office is located in Brampton, Ontario; the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "HBC". After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender. During its peak, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English- and British-controlled North America. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a mercantile business selling a wide variety of products from furs to fine homeware in a small number of sales shops across Canada.
These shops were the first step towards the department stores. In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor. From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson's Bay Trading Company, dissolved in early 2012. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters, in addition to the operations of Lord & Taylor in the United States; the Hudson's Bay Company bought Saks, Inc. in 2013, German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof in 2015, online shopping site Gilt Groupe in 2015, 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites in the Netherlands in 2015. Gilt Groupe was sold to online fashion store Rue La La in 2018. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France. Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, to reduce the cost of moving furs overland. According to Peter C. Newman, "concerned that exploration of the Hudson Bay route might shift the focus of the fur trade away from the St. Lawrence River, the French governor", Marquis d'Argenson, "refused to grant the coureurs de bois permission to scout the distant territory". Despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year they returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, their furs were confiscated by the government. Determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of English colonial businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations; the Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait.
Boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing. Radisson and Groseilliers arrived in London in 1665 at the height of the Great Plague; the two met and gained the sponsorship of Prince Rupert. Prince Rupert introduced the two to his cousin, King Charles II. In 1668 the English expedition acquired two ships, the Nonsuch and the Eaglet, to explore possible trade into Hudson Bay. Groseilliers sailed on the Nonsuch, commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On 5 June 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland; the Nonsuch continued to James Bay, the southern portion of Hudson Bay, where its explorers founded, in 1668, the first fort on Hudson Bay, Charles Fort at the mouth of the Rupert River. Both the fort and the river were named after the sponsor of the expedition, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, one of the major investors and soon to be the new company's first governor.
After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–69, Nonsuch returned to England on 9 October 1669 with the first cargo of fur resulting from trade in Hudson Bay. The bulk of the fur – worth £1,233 – was sold to Thomas Glover, one of London's most prominent furriers; this and subsequent purchases by Glover made. The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on 2 May 1670, with a royal charter from King Charles II; the charter granted the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay in northern Canada. The area was named "Rupert's Land" after Prince Rupert, the first governor of the company appointed by the King; this drainage basin of Hudson Bay constitutes 1.5 million square miles, comprising over one-third of the area of modern-day Canada and stretches into the present-day north-central United States. The specific boundaries were unknown at the time. Rupert's Land would become Canada's largest land "purchase" in the 19th century.
The HBC established six posts between 1668 and 171