The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington. It was created from the portion of the Oregon Territory north of the lower Columbia River and north of the 46th parallel east of the Columbia. At its largest extent, it included the entirety of modern Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming, before attaining its final boundaries in 1863. Agitation in favor of self-government developed in the regions of the Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River in 1851–1852. A group of prominent settlers from the Cowlitz and Puget Sound regions met on November 25, 1852, at the "Monticello Convention" in present-day Longview, to draft a petition to the United States Congress calling for a separate territory north of the Columbia River. After gaining approval from the Oregon territorial government, the proposal was sent to the federal government.
The bill to establish the territory, H. R. 348, was reported in the U. S. House of Representatives by Representative Charles E. Stuart on January 25, 1853. Representative Richard H. Stanton argued that the proposed name—the "Territory of Columbia"—might be confused for the District of Columbia, suggested a name honoring George Washington instead; the bill was thus amended with the name "Washington", though not without some debate, passed in the House on February 10, passed in the Senate on March 2, signed by President Millard Fillmore on the same day. The argument against naming the territory Washington came from senator Alexander Evans of Maryland. Evans felt, he stated it would be more appropriate to give the territory "some beautiful Indian name". The decision was contrary to the wishes of residents, local papers reported mixed feeling from citizens, though the general reception of the renaming was positive Isaac Stevens, appointed the territory's first governor, declared Olympia to be the territorial capital.
Stevens was integral in the drafting and negotiation of treaties with native bands in the Washington Territory. A territorial legislature was elected and first met in February 1854, the territorial supreme court issued its first decision in the year. Columbia Lancaster was elected as the first delegate to U. S. Congress; the original boundaries of the territory included all of the present day State of Washington, as well as northern Idaho and Montana west of the continental divide. On the admission of the State of Oregon to the union in 1859, the eastern portions of the Oregon Territory, including southern Idaho, portions of Wyoming west of the continental divide, a small portion of present-day Ravalli County, Montana were annexed to the Washington Territory; the southeastern tip of the territory was sent to Nebraska Territory on March 2, 1861. In 1863, the area of Washington Territory east of the Snake River and the 117th meridian was reorganized as part of the newly created Idaho Territory, leaving the territory within the current boundaries of Washington State, admitted to the Union on November 11, 1889 as the 42nd US state.
Prior to statehood, multiple settlements in the territory were contending for the title of capital. Among the top contenders for the title, besides Olympia, were Steilacoom and Port Townsend. After Olympia was chosen as the capital, contention never ended until the completion of the capitol. Washington Territory's At-large congressional district Historic regions of the United States History of Washington Oregon Treaty, 1846 Territorial evolution of the United States International territory that would become part of the Territory of Washington: Oregon Country, 1818–1846 U. S. territory that would become part of the Territory of Washington: Provisional Government of Oregon, 1843–1849 Territory of Oregon, 1848–1859 State of Deseret, 1849–1850 U. S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Washington: Territory of Jefferson, 1859–1861 Territory of Nebraska, 1854–1867 Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 Territory of Idaho, 1863–1890 Territory of Montana, 1864–1889 Territory of Wyoming, 1868–1890 US states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Washington: State of Montana, 1889 State of Washington, 1889 State of Idaho, 1890 State of Wyoming, 1890 Historical Timeline of Events Leading to the formation of Washington State, from Washington State University Early Washington Maps, more than 925 maps hosted by WSU "The Long Wait for Statehood, Why it took Washington 36 years and Idaho 26 years to achieve their goals", Columbia: Fall 1988.
Oregon, Washington Territory, western Nebraska Territory, southern British Columbia, in 1860. Showing political divisions and Emigrant Trail. General Map of the North Pacific States and Territories Belonging to the United States and of British Columbia, Extending from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean, 1865, David Rumsey Collection Hawes, J. W.. "Washington, a territory of the United States". The American Cyclopædia
North American fur trade
The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade and sale of animal furs in North America. Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Native Americans in the United States of different regions traded among themselves in the pre–Columbian Era, but Europeans participated in the trade beginning from the time of their arrival in the New World and extended its reach to Europe; the French started trading in the 16th century, the English established trading posts on Hudson Bay in present-day Canada in the 17th century, the Dutch had trade by the same time in New Netherland. The 19th-century North American fur trade, when the industry was at its peak of economic importance, involved the development of elaborate trade networks; the fur trade became one of the main economic ventures in North America attracting competition among the French, Dutch and Russians. Indeed, in the early history of the United States, capitalizing on this trade, removing the British stranglehold over it, was seen as a major economic objective.
Many Native American societies across the continent came to depend on the fur trade as their primary source of income. By the mid-1800s changing fashions in Europe brought about a collapse in fur prices; the American Fur Company and some other companies failed. Many Native communities were plunged into long-term poverty and lost much of the political influence they once had. French explorer Jacques Cartier in his three voyages into the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the 1530s and 1540s conducted some of the earliest fur trading between European and First Nations peoples associated with sixteenth century and explorations in North America. Cartier attempted limited fur trading with the First Nations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and along the St. Lawrence River, he concentrated on trading for furs used as adornment. He overlooked the fur that would become the driving force of the fur trade in the north, the beaver pelt, which would become fashionable in Europe; the earliest European trading for beaver pelts dated to the growing cod fishing industry that spread to the Grand Banks of the North Atlantic in the 16th century.
The new preservation technique of drying fish allowed the Basque fishermen to fish near the Newfoundland coast and transport fish back to Europe for sale. The fisherman sought suitable harbors with ample lumber to dry large quantities of cod; this generated their earliest contact with local Aboriginal peoples, with whom the fisherman began simple trading. The fishermen traded metal items for beaver robes made of sewn-together, native-tanned, beaver pelts, they used the robes to keep warm on the cold return voyages across the Atlantic. These castor gras in French became prized by European hat makers in the second half of the 16th century, as they converted the pelts to fur felt; the discovery of the superior felting qualities of beaver fur, along with the increasing popularity of beaver felt hats in fashion, transformed the incidental trading of fishermen in the sixteenth century into a growing trade in the French and English territories in the next century. The transition from a seasonal coastal trade into a permanent interior fur trade was formally marked with the foundation of Quebec on the St. Lawrence River in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain.
This settlement marked the beginning of the westward movement of French traders from the first permanent settlement of Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay River on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, up the St. Lawrence River and into the pays d'en haut around the Great Lakes. What followed in the first half of the 17th century were strategic moves by both the French and the indigenous groups to further their own economic and geopolitical ambitions. Samuel de Champlain led the expansion while centralizing the French efforts; as native peoples had the primary role of suppliers in the fur trade, Champlain created alliances with the Algonquin and most the Huron to the west. The latter, an Iroquoian-speaking people, served as middlemen between the French on the St. Lawrence and nations in the pays d'en haut. Champlain supported the northern groups in their preexisting military struggle with the Iroquois Confederacy to the south, he secured the Ottawa River route to Georgian Bay expanding the trade. Champlain sent young French men to live and work among the natives, most notably Étienne Brûlé, to learn the land and customs, as well as to promote trade.
Champlain reformed the business of the trade, creating the first informal trust in 1613 in response to increasing losses due to competition. The trust was formalized with a royal charter, leading to a series of trade monopolies during the term of New France; the most notable monopoly was the Company of One Hundred Associates, with occasional concessions, such as to habitants in the 1640s and 1650s, permitting them limited trading. While the monopolies dominated the trade, their charters required payment of annual returns to the national government, military expenditures, expectations that they would encourage settlement for the sparsely populated New France; the vast wealth in the fur trade created enforcement problems for the monopoly. Unlicensed independent traders, known as coureurs des bois, began to do business in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Over time, many Métis were drawn to the independent trade; the increasing use of currency, as well as the importance of personal contacts and experience in the fur trade, gave an edge to independent traders over the more bureaucratic monopolies.
The newly established English colonies to
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
The Nanaimo Bastion is a historical octagon shaped fortification located at 98 Front Street in Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada. The Hudson's Bay Company, which held a royal lease on all of what was the Colony of Vancouver Island, built it between 1853 and 1855 to defend its coal mining operations in Nanaimo, it has been called "Nanaimo's premier landmark", because of its shape and its high visibility from both land and sea. The Bastion was constructed using the pièce-sur-pièce method; this entailed laying timbers across each other horizontally, with tenons cut into the ends. These tenons would be inserted into vertical posts; this method was used due to the expensive cost of nails. The logs were squared using only basic hand tools: a crosscut saw, adze and pit saw; the wooden structure was three stories tall. It is the only remaining freestanding tower structure built by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1891, the Bastion faced demolition threats; the city, recognizing the historic value of the building, paid a sum of $175 for the building and moved it across the street from its original location.
It was moved a second time in 1979. On December 12, 1985, the city of Nanaimo designated it a local heritage site. During the summer of 2010, the Bastion was torn apart to renew rotting boards and add stabilizing steel beams; the director of the event said that they were "making a historic movement". The Bastion is managed by the Nanaimo Museum and is open to visitors during the summer from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, it functions as a tourist information center on behalf of Tourism Nanaimo, holds exhibits on the history of the building. The Nanaimo Museum hosts a daily cannon firing at noon during the summer months, just a few feet away from the Bastion; the Bastion is the main image on HMCS Nanaimo's ships crest. HMCS Nanaimo is a Kingston-class Coastal Defence vessel, serving in the Royal Canadian Navy since 1997. Snuneymuxw chief Che-wich-i-kcan was the gateway to the coal industry in Nanaimo, it was in 1849 that he mentioned the presence of burnable black rocks near his village to a blacksmith in Victoria.
The Hudson's Bay Company got word of the conversation, asked Che-wich-i-kcan for verification. The Hudson's Bay Company at the time was going through a transition period, they were more interested in the natural resources of Vancouver Island, rather than the fur trade; when they did verify the presence of coal in the Nanaimo region, they abandoned their previous coal pursuits in Fort Rupert and moved down island. Upon the confirmation of coal in Nanaimo, Joseph William McKay was sent as a company clerk on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company, he oversaw the construction of the Bastion, used its first floor as his office to conduct the day-to-day operations. These operations would have included overseeing the management of the local mines and settlement, ordering supplies, storing/distributing trade goods. Part of the managerial duties included maintaining correspondence with Fort Victoria, Locally and people were carried via small "express canoes" between Victoria and Fort Langley, while supplies would have been carried on larger vessels such as the Beaver and the Otter.
In some cases, supplies had to be ordered from England, could take up to two years to be delivered. The first floor of the Bastion has historic information on the trade industry of Nanaimo, gives more insight on McKay's role in the coal industry in Nanaimo; the Bastion's second floor was home to Nanaimo's arsenal. On this floor, two four-pound and two six-pound carronades were held; the cannons were brought over by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1853, when the Bastion was being constructed. Guns and additional firing supplies were stored here. While the purpose of the Bastion and cannons were for defense, there was never an instance where they had to be used for that purpose. Instead, the cannons were only fired in welcoming ceremonies when dignitaries were sailing into the harbour; the second floor now holds information and exhibits on the guns of Nanaimo, as well as a timeline highlighting the building's history and construction. James Dougla
Naval artillery in the Age of Sail
Naval artillery in the Age of Sail encompasses the period of 1571–1862: when large, sail-powered wooden naval warships dominated the high seas, mounting a bewildering variety of different types and sizes of cannon as their main armament. By modern standards, these cannon were inefficient, difficult to load, short ranged; these characteristics, along with the handling and seamanship of the ships that mounted them, defined the environment in which the naval tactics in the Age of Sail developed. Firing a naval cannon required a great amount of labour and manpower; the propellant was gunpowder, whose bulk had to be kept in the magazine, a special storage area below deck for safety. Powder boys 10–14 years old, were enlisted to run powder from the magazine up to the gun decks of a vessel as required. A typical firing procedure follows. A wet swab was used to mop out the interior of the barrel, extinguishing any embers from a previous firing which might set off the next charge of gunpowder prematurely.
Gunpowder was placed in the barrel, either loose or in a cloth or parchment cartridge pierced by a metal'pricker' through the touch hole, followed by a cloth wad rammed home with a rammer. Next the shot was rammed in, followed by another wad to prevent the cannonball from rolling out of the barrel if the muzzle was depressed; the gun in its carriage was then'run out'. This took the majority of the gun crew manpower, as the weight of a large cannon in its carriage could total over two tons, the ship would be rolling; the touch hole in the rear of the cannon was primed with finer gunpowder or from a quill pre-filled with priming powder ignited. The earlier method of firing a cannon was to apply a linstock—a wooden staff holding a length of smoldering match at the end—to the touch-hole of the gun; this was dangerous and made accurate shooting difficult from a moving ship, as the gun had to be fired from the side to avoid its recoil, there was a noticeable delay between the application of the linstock and the gun firing.
In 1745, the British began using gunlocks. The gunlock, by contrast, was lanyard; the gun-captain could stand behind the gun, safely beyond its range of recoil, sight along the barrel, firing when the roll of the ship lined the gun up with the enemy, so reduce the chance of the shot hitting the sea or flying high over the enemy's deck. Despite their advantages, gunlocks spread as they could not be retrofitted to older guns; the British adopted them faster than the French, who had still not adopted them by the time of the Battle of Trafalgar, placing them at a disadvantage, as the new technology was in general use by the Royal Navy at this time. After the introduction of gunlocks, linstocks were only as a backup means of firing; the linstock slow match or the spark from the flintlock ignited the priming powder, which in turn set off the main charge, which propelled the shot out of the barrel. When the gun discharged, the recoil sent it backwards until it was stopped by the breech rope, a sturdy rope made fast to ring bolts let into the bulwarks, with a turn taken about the gun's cascabel.
A typical broadside of a Royal Navy ship of the late 18th century could be fired 2–3 times in 5 minutes, depending on the training of the crew, a well trained one being essential to the simple yet detailed process of preparing to fire. The British Admiralty did not see fit to provide additional powder to captains to train their crews only allowing 1⁄3 of the powder loaded onto the ship to be fired in the first six months of a typical voyage, barring hostile action. Instead of live fire practice, most captains exercised their crews by "running" the guns in and out, performing all the steps associated with firing but without the actual discharge; some wealthy captains, those who had made money capturing prizes or who came from wealthy families, were known to purchase powder with their own funds to enable their crews to fire real discharges at real targets. A complete and accurate listing of the types of naval guns requires analysis both by nation and by time period; the types used by different nations at the same time were different if they were labelled similarly.
The types used by a given nation would shift over time, as technology and current weapon fashions changed. Some types include: Demi-cannon Culverin Demi-culverin Carronade Paixhans gunOne descriptive characteristic, used was to define guns by their pound rating — theoretically, the weight of a single solid iron shot fired by that bore of cannon. Common sizes were 42-pounders, 36-pounders, 32-pounders, 24-pounders, 18-pounders, 12-pounders, 9-pounders, 8-pounders, 6-pounders, various smaller calibres. French ships used standardized guns of 36-pound, 24-pound, 18-pound, 12-pound, 8-pound calibers, augmented by carronades and smaller pieces. In general, larger ships carrying more guns carried larger ones as well; the muzzle-loading design and weight of the iron placed design constraints on the length and size of naval guns. Muzzle-loading required the cannon to be positioned within the hull of the ship for loading; the hull width, guns lining both sides, hatchways in the centre of the deck limited the room available.
Weight is always a great concern in ship design as it affects speed and buoyancy. The desire for longer guns for greater range and accurac
Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U. S. state of Washington, the largest suburb of Portland, Oregon. Incorporated in 1857, it is the fourth largest city in the state, with a population of 161,791 as of April 1, 2010 census. Vancouver is the county seat of Clark County and forms part of the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area, the 23rd largest metropolitan area in the United States. Established in 1825 around Fort Vancouver, a fur-trading outpost, the city is located on the Washington/Oregon border along the Columbia River, directly north of Portland. In 2005, Money magazine named it No. 91 on its list of best places in America to live. In 2016, WalletHub ranks Vancouver the 89th best place in the US for families to live. Vancouver shares its name with the larger city of Vancouver in southern British Columbia, Canada 300 mi to the north. Both cities were named after sea captain George Vancouver. Vancouver, British Columbia was incorporated 29 years after the incorporation of Vancouver and more than 60 years after the name Vancouver was first used in reference to the historic Fort Vancouver trading post on the Columbia River.
City officials have periodically suggested changing the U. S. city's name to Fort Vancouver to reduce confusion with its larger and better-known northern neighbor. Many Pacific Northwest residents distinguish between the two cities by referring to the Canadian city as "Vancouver, B. C." and the United States city as "Vancouver, Washington," or "Vancouver, USA." Local nicknames include "Vantucky" and "The'Couv". In 2013, the nickname "Vansterdam" surfaced as a result of the legalization of marijuana in the state of Washington; the Vancouver area was inhabited by a variety of Native American tribes, most the Chinook and Klickitat nations, with permanent settlements of timber longhouses. The Chinookan and Klickitat names for the area were Skit-so-to-ho and Ala-si-kas meaning "land of the mud-turtles." First European contact was made in 1775, with half of the indigenous population dead from smallpox before the Lewis and Clark expedition camped in the area in 1806. Within another fifty years, other actions and diseases such as measles and influenza had reduced the Chinookan population from an estimated 80,000 "to a few dozen refugees, landless and swindled out of a treaty."Meriwether Lewis wrote that the Vancouver area was "the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains."
The first permanent European settlement did not occur until 1824, when Fort Vancouver was established as a fur trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company. From that time on, the area was settled by both the US and Britain under a "joint occupation" agreement. Joint occupation led to the Oregon boundary dispute and ended on June 15, 1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, which gave the United States full control of the area. Before 1845, American Henry Williamson laid out a large claim west of the Hudson's Bay Company, called Vancouver City and properly registered his claim at the U. S. courthouse before leaving for California. In 1850, Amos Short named the town Columbia City, it changed to Vancouver in 1855. The City of Vancouver was incorporated on January 23, 1857. Based on an act in the 1859–60 legislature, Vancouver was the capital of Washington Territory, before capital status was returned to Olympia, Washington by a 2–1 ruling of the territory's supreme court, in accordance with Isaac Stevens' preference and concern that proximity to the border with Oregon might give some of the state's influence away to Oregon.
U. S. Army Captain Ulysses S. Grant was quartermaster at what was known as Columbia Barracks for 15 months beginning in September 1852. Soon after leaving Vancouver, he resigned from the army and did not serve again until the outbreak of the American Civil War. Other notable generals to have served in Vancouver include George B. McClellan, Philip Sheridan, Oliver O. Howard and 1953 Nobel Peace Prize recipient George Marshall. Army presence in Vancouver was strong, as the Department of the Columbia built and moved to Vancouver Barracks, the military reservation for which stretched from the river to what is Fourth Plain Boulevard and was the largest Army base in the region until surpassed by Fort Lewis, 120 miles to the north. Built on the old company gardens and skirmish range, Pearson Army Field was a key facility, at one point the US Army Signal Corps operated the largest spruce cut-up plant in the world to provide much-needed wood for airplanes. Vancouver became the end point for two ultra-long flights from USSR over the North Pole.
The first of these flights was performed by Valery Chkalov in 1937 on a Tupolev ANT-25RD airplane. Chkalov was scheduled to land at an airstrip in nearby Portland, but redirected at the last minute to Vancouver's Pearson Airfield. Today there is a street named for him in Vancouver. In 1975 an obelisk was erected at Pearson Field commemorating this event. Separated from Oregon until 1917, when the Interstate Bridge began to replace ferries, Vancouver had three shipyards just downstream which produced ships for World War I before World War II brought an enormous economic boom. An Alcoa aluminum plant opened on September 2, 1940, using inexpensive power from the nearby New Deal hydropower turbines at Bonneville Dam. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Henry Kaiser opened a shipyard next to the U. S. Army base, whi