United States Secret Service
The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders. Until 2003, the Secret Service was part of the Department of the Treasury, as the agency was founded to combat the then-widespread counterfeiting of US currency; the Secret Service is mandated by Congress with two distinct and critical national security missions: protecting the nation's leaders and safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States. Ensures the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, the President's and Vice President's immediate families, former presidents, their spouses, their minor children under the age of 16, major presidential and vice presidential candidates and their spouses, foreign heads of state; the Secret Service provides physical security for the White House Complex, the neighboring Treasury Department building, the Vice President's residence, all foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, D.
C. The protective mission includes protective operations to coordinate manpower and logistics with state and local law enforcement, protective advances to conduct site and venue assessments for protectees, protective intelligence to investigate all manners of threats made against protectees; the Secret Service is the lead agency in charge of the planning and implementation of security operations for events designated as National Special Security Events. As part of the Service's mission of preventing an incident before it occurs, the agency relies on meticulous advance work and threat assessments developed by its Intelligence Division to identify potential risks to protectees. Safeguards the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes. Financial investigations include counterfeit US currency, bank & financial institution fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, illicit financing operations, major conspiracies. Electronic investigations include cybercrime, network intrusions, identity theft, access device fraud, credit card fraud, intellectual property crimes.
The Secret Service is a key member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force which investigates and combats terrorism on a national and international scale, as well as of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Task Force which seeks to reduce and eliminate drug trafficking in critical regions of the United States. The Secret Service investigates missing and exploited children and is a core partner of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children; the Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate the counterfeiting of US currency, rampant following the American Civil War. The agency evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, IRS Criminal Investigation Division; the Secret Service combines the two responsibilities into a unique dual objective.
The two core missions of protection and investigations synergize with the other, providing crucial benefits to special agents during the course of their careers. Skills developed during the course of investigations which are used in an agent’s protective duties include but are not limited to: Partnerships that are created between field offices and local law enforcement during the course of investigations being used to gather both protective intelligence and in coordinating protection events. Tactical operation and law enforcement writing skills being applied to both investigative and protective duties. Proficiency in analyzing handwriting and forgery techniques being applied in protective investigations of handwritten letters and suspicious package threats. Expertise in investigating electronic and financial crimes being applied in protective investigations of threats made against the nation's leaders on the Internet. Protection of the nation's highest elected leaders and other government officials is one of the primary missions of the Secret Service.
After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States. The Secret Service is authorized by law to protect: The President, Vice President, President-elect and Vice President-elect The immediate families of the above individuals Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, under the Former Presidents Act. From 1997 until 2013, legislation was in place limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents and their spouses to a period of 10 years from the date the former President leaves office. President Barack Obama signed legislation on January 10, 2013, reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection; the widow or widower of a former President who dies in office or dies within a year of leaving office for a period of one year after the President's death Children of former Presidents until age 16 or 10 years after the presidency Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, their children under 16 years of age, for up to 6 months from the date the former Vice President leaves office (the Secre
A casemate is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. The term referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the structure that accommodates the gun is termed the casemate; the word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of, uncertain, though it could derive from casa, matta, "done with reeds and wickers", thus a low-roof hut without windows or other openings set in marshy place. It could derive from casa matta with matta in the sense of "false". A casemate was a vaulted chamber constructed underneath the rampart, it could be used for sheltering troops or stores. With the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected gun position. In the early 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart. Casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from air attack.
In warship design the term "casemate" has been used in a number of ways. The American Civil War saw the use of casemate ironclads: armored steamboats with a low freeboard and their guns on the main deck protected by a sloped armoured casemate, which sat on top of the hull. Although both sides of the Civil War used casemate ironclads, the ship is associated with the southern Confederacy, as the north employed turreted monitors, which the south was unable to produce; the most famous naval battle of the war was the duel at Hampton Roads between the Union turretted ironclad USS Monitor and the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia. "Casemate ship" was an alternative term for "central battery ship" or "center battery ship". The casemate was an armoured box; the armoured sides of the box were the sides of hull of the ship. There was an armoured bulkhead at the front and rear of the casemate, a thick deck protecting the top; the lower edge of the casemate sat on top of ship's belt armour. Some ships, such as the Alexandra, had a two-storey casemate.
A "casemate" was an armoured room in the side of a warship. A typical casemate held a 6-in gun, had a 6" front plate, with thinner armour plates on the sides and rear, with a protected top and floor, weighed about 20 tons. Casemates were similar in size to turrets; the first battleships to carry them were the British Royal Sovereign class laid down in 1889. They were adopted as a result of live-firing trials against HMS Resistance in 1888. Casemates were adopted because it was thought that the fixed armour plate at the front would provide better protection than a turret, because a turret mounting would require external power and could therefore be put out of action if power were lost – unlike a casemate gun, which could be worked by hand; the use of casemates enabled the 6-in guns to be dispersed, so that a single hit would not knock out all of them. Casemates were used in protected and armoured cruisers, starting with the 1889 Edgar class, and retrofitted to the 1888 Blake class during construction.
In the pre-dreadnought generation of warships, casemates were placed on the main deck, on the upper deck as well. Casemates on the main deck were close to the waterline. In the Edgar-class cruisers, the guns in the casemates were only 10 feet above the waterline. Casemates that were too close to the waterline or too close to the bow were prone to flooding, making the guns ineffective. Shipboard casemate guns were rendered obsolete by the arrival of “all-big gun” battleship, pioneered by HMS ‘’Dreadnought’’ in 1906, but were reintroduced as the increasing torpedo threat from destroyers forced an increase in secondary armament calibre. Many battleships had their casemates plated over during modernization in the 1930s but some, like HMS Warspite carried them to the end of WWII; the last ships built with casemates as new construction were the American Omaha class cruisers of the early 1920s and the 1933 Swedish aircraft cruiser Gotland. In both cases the casemates were built into the forward angles of the forward superstructure.
In regards to armoured fighting vehicles, casemate design refers to vehicles that have their main gun mounted directly within the hull and lack the rotating turret associated with tanks. Such a design makes the vehicle mechanically simpler in design, less costly in construction, lighter in weight and lower in profile; the saved weight can be used to mount a heavier, more powerful gun or alternatively increase the vehicle's armour protection in comparison to regular, turreted tanks. However, in combat the crew has to rotate the entire vehicle if an enemy target presents itself outside of the vehicle's limited gun traverse arc; this can prove disadvantageous in combat situations. During World War II, casemate-type armoured fighting vehicles were used by both the German Wehrmacht and the Soviet Red Army, they were employed as tank destroyers and assault guns. Tank destroyers, intended to operate from defensive ambush operations, did not need a rotating turret as much as offensively used tanks, while assault guns were used against fo
A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids water. Cisterns are built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings. Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres forming covered reservoirs. Waterproof lime plaster cisterns in the floors of houses are features of Neolithic village sites of the Levant at, for instance and Lebwe, by the late fourth millennium BC, as at Jawa in northeastern Lebanon, cisterns are essential elements of emerging water management techniques in dry-land farming communities. In the Middle Ages, cisterns were constructed in hill castles in Europe where wells could not be dug enough. There were two types: the filter cistern; such a filter cistern was built at the Riegersburg in Austrian Styria, where a cistern was hewn out of the lava rock. Rain water collected in the cistern; the filter enriched it with minerals. Cisterns are prevalent in areas where water is scarce, either because it is rare or has been depleted due to heavy use.
The water was used for many purposes including cooking and washing. Present-day cisterns are used only for irrigation due to concerns over water quality. Cisterns today can be outfitted with filters or other water purification methods when the water is intended for consumption, it is not uncommon for a cistern to be open in some manner in order to catch rain or to include more elaborate rainwater harvesting systems. It is important in these cases to have a system that does not leave the water open to algae or to mosquitoes, which are attracted to the water and potentially carry disease to nearby humans; some cisterns sit on the top of houses or on the ground higher than the house, supply the running water needs for the house. They are supplied not by rainwater harvesting, but by wells with electric pumps, or are filled manually or by truck delivery. Common throughout Brazil, for example, they were traditionally made of concrete walls, with a similar concrete top, with a piece that can be removed for water filling and reinserted to keep out debris and insects.
Modern cisterns are manufactured of plastic. These cisterns differ from water tanks in the sense that they are not enclosed and sealed with one form, rather they have a lid made of the same material as the cistern, removable by the user. To keep a clean water supply, the cistern must be kept clean, it is important to inspect them keep them well enclosed, to empty and clean them with a proper dilution of chlorine and to rinse them well. Well water must be inspected for contaminants coming from the ground source. City water has up to 1ppm chlorine added to the water to keep it clean, in many areas can be ordered to be delivered directly to the cistern by truck. If there is any question about the water supply at any point the cistern water should not be used for drinking or cooking. If it is of acceptable quality and consistency it can be used for toilets, housecleaning. Water of non-acceptable quality for the aforementioned uses may still be used for irrigation. If it is free of particulates but not low enough in bacteria boiling may be an effective method to prepare the water for drinking.
Many greenhouses rely on a cistern to help meet their water needs in the United States. Some countries or regions, such as Bermuda and the U. S. Virgin Islands, have strict laws requiring that rainwater harvesting systems be built alongside any new construction, cisterns can be used in these cases. Other countries, such as Japan and Spain offer financial incentives or tax credit for installing cisterns. Cisterns may be used to store water for firefighting in areas where there is an inadequate water supply; the city of San Francisco, maintains fire cisterns under its streets in case the primary water supply is disrupted. In many flat areas the use of cisterns is encouraged to absorb excess rainwater which otherwise can overload sewage or drainage systems by heavy rains. In some southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia showers are traditionally taken by pouring water over one's body with a dipper. Many bathrooms in modern houses are constructed with a small cistern to hold water for bathing by this method.
The modern water closet or toilet utilises a cistern to reserve and hold the correct amount of water required to flush the toilet bowl. In earlier toilets, the cistern was located high above the toilet bowl and connected to it by a long pipe, it was necessary to pull a hanging chain connected to a release valve located inside the cistern in order to flush the toilet. Modern toilets may be close coupled, with the cistern mounted directly on the toilet bowl and no intermediate pipe. In this arrangement, the flush mechanism is mounted on the cistern. Concealed cistern toilets, where the cistern is built into the wall behind the toilet, ar
12-inch gun M1895
The 12-inch coastal defense gun M1895 and its variants the M1888 and M1900 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945. For most of their history they were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps. Most were installed on disappearing carriages, with early installations on low-angle barbette mountings. From 1919, 19 long-range two-gun batteries were built using the M1895 on an M1917 long-range barbette carriage. All of the weapons not in the Philippines were scrapped during and after World War II. In 1885, William C. Endicott, President Grover Cleveland's secretary of war, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses; the findings of the board illustrated a grim picture of existing defenses, in its 1886 report recommended a massive $127 million construction program of breech-loading cannons, floating batteries, submarine mines for some 29 locations on the US coastline. Most of the board's recommendations were implemented.
Coast artillery fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are referred to as "Endicott Period" fortifications. Watervliet Arsenal built the barrels. For several years, difficulties were encountered in building a disappearing carriage for the 12-inch gun. One alternative was the M1891 gun lift carriage, with the gun mounted on a large steam-powered elevator. Only one battery of this type was built, Battery Potter at Fort Hancock, New Jersey; when this proved to be too complex, guns were mounted on low-angle M1892 or M1897 barbette carriages. The M1897 carriage was an "altered gun lift" carriage, functionally equivalent to the barbette carriage; the guns were mounted on M1896, M1897, or M1901 disappearing carriages designed by Bethlehem Steel. Bethlehem built barrels as well. After the Spanish–American War, the government wanted to protect American seaports in the event of war, protect newly gained territory, such as the Philippines and Cuba, from enemy attack. A new Board of Fortifications, under President Theodore Roosevelt's secretary of war, William Taft, was convened in 1905.
Taft recommended technical changes, such as more searchlights, and, in some cases, less guns in particular fortifications. The seacoast forts were funded under the Spooner Act of 1902 and construction began within a few years and lasted into the 1920s; the defenses of the Philippines on islands in Manila Bay were built under this program. After the American entry into World War I, the army recognized the need for large-caliber railway guns for use on the Western Front. Among the weapons available were 45 12-inch guns, to be removed from fixed defenses or taken from spares. At least 12 were mounted on railway carriages by mid-1919. A detailed description of the railway mounting is given in Vol. I by Lt. Col. H. W. Miller. Like all US-made railway guns of World War I, these never left the US. All were returned to coastal defenses after the war. S. Army Ordnance Training and Heritage Center at Fort Lee, Virginia in the 2000s. During World War I, it was recognized that naval guns were improving and longer-range weapons were needed.
Fourteen two-gun and two one-gun batteries were constructed with M1895 guns on the new M1917 long-range barbette carriage, which allowed an elevation of 35 degrees, compared to 15 degrees for the disappearing carriages. This increased the range from 18,400 yards to 30,100 yards. Eleven of these batteries were in the continental United States, with two in Panama, one in Hawaii, two one-gun batteries on Corregidor in the Philippines; the guns were in open mounts, but most were casemated against air attack around 1940 as World War II approached the United States. The batteries in the Philippines, were not casemated, as the 1923 Washington Naval Treaty prohibited further fortification of US and Japanese Pacific-area possessions. Along with other coast artillery weapons, the 12-inch guns in the Philippines saw action in the Japanese invasion in World War II. Since they were positioned against a naval attack, they had armor-piercing ammunition and were poorly sited to engage the Japanese, the open mountings were vulnerable to air and high-angle artillery attack.
Three additional long-range casemated batteries were constructed during the war, at Fort Miles, San Juan, Puerto Rico, on Sullivan's Island near Fort Moultrie in the Harbor Defenses of Charleston, South Carolina. With the additional construction of 16-inch gun batteries at most harbor defenses, all guns on disappearing carriages were scrapped in 1943–44; the long-range batteries' guns were scrapped soon. Battery Varnum (two 12-inch M1888 guns on barbette carriages.
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S