The River Forth is a major river, 47 km long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt. The Gaelic name is Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river", in the upper reach above Stirling. Below the tidal reach, its name is Uisge For; the Forth rises in a mountainous area 30 km west of Stirling. Ben Lomond's eastern slopes drain into the Duchray Water which meets with Avondhu River coming from Loch Ard; the confluence of these two streams is the nominal start of the River Forth. From there it flows eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Kelty Water, about 5 km further downstream; the flat expanse of the Carse of Stirling follows including Flanders Moss. It is joined by the River Teith just west of the M9, the next tributary being the Allan Water just east of that motorway. From there it meanders into the ancient port of Stirling. At Stirling the river widens, becomes tidal, it is here that the last ford of the river exists. From Stirling, the Forth flows east accepting the Bannock Burn from the south before passing the town of Fallin.
Two towns of Clackmannanshire are passed: firstly Cambus followed by Alloa. Upon reaching Airth on the south shore and Kincardine on the north, the river begins to widen and becomes the Firth of Forth; the banks have many settlements including Aberfoyle, Stirling, Cambus, Alloa, South Alloa, Dunmore and Kincardine. Beyond this the brackish water is considered the Firth of Forth. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Stirling harbour was a busy port, with goods coming into Scotland and being exported to Europe. Links with the Hansa towns were strong, Stirling had a close relationship with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. After 1707 much of the trade shifted to the port of Glasgow, as trade with America became the new focus. During the First and Second World Wars, Stirling harbour thrived again as a gateway for supplies of tea to Scotland. Trade returned after the wars but the few agricultural merchants based at Stirling found such shipping uncompetitive due to high shore dues levied by the harbour’s owners.
Today Stirling's harbour is not used but there are plans to redevelop it. Upstream of Stirling, the river is crossed in numerous places. After its confluence with the Teith and Allan, the river is sufficiently wide that a significant bridge is required. A bridge has existed at Stirling since at least the 13th century, until the opening of the road crossing at Kincardine in 1936, Stirling remained the easternmost road crossing; the Alloa Swing Bridge, a railway bridge between Alloa on the north shore and Throsk on the south opened in 1885 and was closed in 1970. Only the metal piers remain; the Clackmannanshire Bridge just upstream of the Kincardine Bridge opened on 19 November 2008. Much further downstream joining North Queensferry and South Queensferry is the famous Forth Bridge opened in 1890, the Forth Road Bridge which opened in 1964. In 2011 construction began on the Queensferry Crossing, to the west of the Forth Road Bridge, which opened on 4 September 2017. Two islands known as inches form part of the meandering estuarine waters downstream from Stirling.
Tullibody Inch near Cambus and Alloa Inch near Alloa are both small and uninhabited. River Forth, a silent black and white short film - includes scenes of animals being herded through the streets. Britain's Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones Episode 3 shows the difficulties cattle drovers might have encountered at Frew, shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig. Sruth gu Sal - a look at the Forth river Episode 1 -25 mins 400 kV Forth Crossing List of rivers of Scotland Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland Forth, the name of one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast. Scottish Parliament: Forth Crossing Bill Committee Report, March 2010 River Forth Crossing: House of Commons debates 18 May 2009 British Waterways: River Forth Gazetteer for Scotland: River Forth SCRAN image: Steam dredger, River forth, late 19th Century Stirling Council: River Forth Forth Ports PLC Scottish Environment Protection Agency: River level data for River Forth Forth Estuary Forum, a Scottish Charity Forth District Salmon Fishery Board River Forth Fisheries Trust Forth Bridges Visitor Centre Trust FYCA Alloa Swing Bridge RIVER FORTH FORTH - POWERHOUSE FOR INDUSTRY
Firth of Forth
The Firth of Forth is the estuary of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Lothian on the south, it was known as Bodotria in Roman times. In the Norse sagas it was known as the Myrkvifiörd. An early Welsh name is Merin Iodeo, or the "Sea of Iudeu". Geologically, the Firth of Forth is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period; the drainage basin for the Firth of Forth covers a wide geographic area including places as far from the shore as Ben Lomond, Harthill and the edges of Gleneagles Golf Course. Many towns line the shores, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, commercial docks at Leith, former oil rig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, along with numerous other industrial areas, including the Forth Bridgehead area, encompassing Rosyth and the southern edge of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven; the firth is bridged in two places. The Kincardine Bridge and the Clackmannanshire Bridge cross it at Kincardine, while the Forth Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge and the Queensferry Crossing cross from North Queensferry to South Queensferry, further east.
The Romans made a bridge of around 900 boats at South Queensferry. From 1964 to 1982, a tunnel existed under the Firth of Forth, dug by coal miners to link the Kinneil colliery on the south side of the Forth with the Valleyfield colliery on the north side; this is shown in the 1968 educational film "Forth - Powerhouse for Industry". The shafts leading into the tunnel were filled and capped with concrete when the tunnel was closed, it is believed to have filled with water or collapsed in places. In July, 2007, a hovercraft passenger service completed a two-week trial between Portobello and Kirkcaldy, Fife; the trial of the service was hailed as a major operational success, with an average passenger load of 85 percent. It was estimated the service would decrease congestion for commuters on the Forth road and rail bridges by carrying about 870,000 passengers each year. Despite the initial success, the project was cancelled in December, 2011; the inner firth, located between the Kincardine and Forth bridges, has lost about half of its former intertidal area as a result of land reclamation for agriculture, but for industry and the large ash lagoons built to deposit spoil from the coal-fired Longannet Power Station near Kincardine.
Historic villages line the Fife shoreline. The firth is a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the Firth of Forth Islands SPA is home to more than 90,000 breeding seabirds every year. There is a bird observatory on the Isle of May; the youngest person to swim across the Firth of Forth was 13-year-old Joseph Feeney, who accomplished the feat in 1933. In 2008, a controversial bid to allow oil transfer between ships in the firth was refused by Forth Ports. SPT Marine Services had asked permission to transfer 7.8 million tonnes of crude oil per year between tankers, but the proposals were met with determined opposition from conservation groups. Bass Rock Craigleith Cramond Eyebroughy Fidra Inchcolm Inchgarvie Inchkeith Inchmickery with Cow and Calf The Lamb Isle of May lowest bridging point: Stirling North shore South shore Isle of May bird observatory Forthfast experimental hovercraft service, 16–28 July 2007 Inchcolm Virtual Tour Take a virtual tour around some of the Inchcolm's military defences
Forth River (Tasmania)
The Forth River is a perennial river located in northwest Tasmania, Australia. The lower part of the river features Lake Barrington, a major venue for competitive rowing, it is the location of the village of Forth. The river is a part of the Mersey-Forth power project, which includes seven hydroelectric power stations. Three hydroelectric power stations have been built on the Forth River itself, including Cethana Power Station; the catchment for the river is 1,126 square kilometres. List of rivers of Tasmania
Alexander Rud Mills
Alexander Rud Mills was a barrister, published author and Nazi sympathiser. He was a prominent Australian Odinist, one of the earliest proponents of the rebirth of Germanic Neopaganism in the 20th century, an antisemite, he founded the First Anglecyn Church of Odin in Melbourne in 1936. He published under the pen-name Tasman Forth. Mills was born in Forth, Tasmania in 1885. Around 1910 he moved to Victoria to enrol at the Melbourne University Law School at the University of Melbourne. Mills graduated in 1916 and was admitted to the Victorian Bar in 1917, he was a legal practitioner thereafter but it was the mid-1930s after he returned from Europe having met with Hitler that he gained notoriety as an anti-semite and'Odinist'. Mills had a long friendship and romance with schoolteacher Evelyn Louisa Price for over thirty years. Price, the daughter of Frederick Andrew Price and Helena Louisa Rogers, had been born in South Yarra in 1889. At the time of their marriage Mills was 65, Price 62. Witnesses at the wedding were Edward Clare.
Rud Mills died on 8 April 1964, buried at Victoria. Alexander Rud Mills was rejected on medical grounds, his soldier's reject badge was No. 65039. Mills became politically and religiously active during a trip to Europe between 1931 and 1934. While in Russia during this time he became disillusioned with communism, which he had come to view as a form of organized thuggery. In England he attended meetings of Sir Oswald Mosley's'British Union of Fascists', Arnold Leese's smaller and more radical'Imperial Fascist League, receiving Leese's newspaper, The Fascist; when Mills appeared before a Commission of Inquiry, some years he conceded that he believed Leese to be “at times misguided in his statements." He pointed out that he received "Soviet Today" and the "Jewish Chronicle". Historian of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke characterises Mills as a "Nazi sympathiser". In 1933, Mills met Adolf Hitler. According to the Odinic Rite website, of meeting Hitler Mills wrote: "I saw him. Talked to him, he would not discuss my theme."
In Germany Mills met followers of General Erich Ludendorff, the famous strategist and hero of the First World War, interested in a Nordic religious revival. Mills disagreed with Ludendorff on philosophical grounds. On Mills' return to Australia in 1934 he established the Anglecyn Church of Odin and in 1935 he founded the'British Australian Racial Body', he had established two short-lived newspapers, the National Socialist and The Angle as a vehicle through which to espouse his racial and political views. In 1941 he became associated with the anti-War, pro-Isolationist'Australia First Movement' and contributed to its newspaper The Publicist, before 1939, described itself as being'for national socialism' and'for Aryanism. Mills' most influential book was published in 1933 as The Odinist Religion: Overcoming Jewish Christianity. In this work he claimed that Nordic races had established the ancient civilisations of Sumeria, Persia and Rome, but that they had been weakened by miscegenation with other races and by adopting Christianity, along with it the view that all humans were equal.
Given Mills' known pro-Nazi sympathies and his association with the Australia First Movement, it was unsurprising that he was detained without trial for suspicion of placing Australia's interests before those of the Empire, for offering his legal services to Australia First members, on 10 March 1942. He was interned until 17 December 1942. In The Puzzled Patriots author Bruce Muirden refers to a bashing of Mills by an army officer at Loveday Internment Camp in South Australia. In Federal Parliament on 30 March 1944 Robert Menzies leader of the opposition, said "I happen to know him quite well, because he went through the university as the same time as I did... he was hauled out of his home and put in an internment camp... his association, so I am informed, with the Australia First Movement amounted to this: some man who had secured appointment with the movement wrote to him and asked him to subscribe, he forward 10s 6d. as a subscription... I know this man and I know something of the disaster which this has brought upon him...
Here is a man. He was taken out of his home, he was incarcerated in circumstances of immense notoriety. When he came out, what happened? His friends were gone, his practice gone, his reputation was gone." Menzies was of course himself an appeaser in the years leading up to the War and might well have wished individuals such as himself and Mills to be exonerated. Mills' articulation of Odinism is quite different in flavour to some modern tendencies within Odinism. Having formulated "his own unique blend" of Ariosophy, he was influenced by the writings of pioneering Austrian Ariosophist and Wotanist Guido von List. Much of Mills' ideology focused around what he conceived as the "British race", a group who he believed inhabited other parts of the world colonised by the British Empire; this concept was problematic given the ethnically and linguistically diverse nature of the British population during the early 20th century. Mills believed that while Christianity was alien to Britons, Odinism was instead native and thus could be better understood
Islands of the Forth
The Islands of the Forth are a group of small islands located in the Firth of Forth and in the estuary of the River Forth on the east coast of Scotland. Most of the group lie in the open waters of the firth, between the Lothians and Fife, with the majority to the east of the city of Edinburgh. Two islands lie further west in the river estuary; the islands have a varied geology and history and several have both ecclesiastical connections and were involved in military occupations throughout the centuries of recorded history. Various lighthouses and other aids to navigation have been erected on the islands and skerries, one dating to the 17th century, but only one of the islands is still permanently inhabited; the area has a diversity of bird and sea life and the scientific name for the northern gannet is derived from this bird's connection with the Bass Rock. There are few islands off eastern Scotland and most of any size are in this group. Furthest east is the Isle of May, off the coast of Fife south of Crail.
To the south in the outer Firth there is a group of islands off East Lothian near North Berwick and Gullane. A second group lie in the inner Firth of Forth. Inchkeith and Inchcolm are off Kinghorn and Aberdour on the north shore, Inchgarvie lies midway between North and South Queensferry, Inchmickery and Cramond Island are nearer to Edinburgh on the south shore. Alloa Inch and Tullibody Inch are furthest west in the estuarine waters of the River Forth. Only one of these islands, has had a resident population in recent years, although there have been monasteries, hermitages and fortifications on most of them in the past. In the late 19th century the Isle of May had a population of over 20. Many of the island names have the first element, "Inch-". Geologically, most of the islands are the remnants of igneous intrusions; the Isle of May's rock is "fine grained basalt of a dark-grey colour with tinges of green and greenstone". Fidra is largely basalt and The Bass is a phonolite volcanic plug. Craigleith is a laccolith made up of essexite, popular for making curling stones and Cramond island is made up of dolerite.
Inchmickery and Inchgarvie are of igneous origin and the latter is made up of picrite. Studies of the landscape beneath the waters of the firth have revealed that the visible surface of Inchgarvie is only the top of a larger crag and tail structure similar in structure to Edinburgh Castle and the Royal Mile created by glacial action; the tidal islet of Eyebroughy is about 1.5 kilometres to the west of Fidra. Its component rock is Lower Carboniferous in origin. Most of Inchkeith is of volcanic origin but there are sections of sandstone, coal and shale, the last named containing numerous fossils. There are several springs on the island. Inchcolm is varied, consisting of greenstone, sandstone and limestone; the Firth is an important area for nature conservation and has a range of habitats including extensive mudflats, shingle shorelines and saltmarsh. The last named, well developed on Alloa Inch, is dominated by saltmarsh rush, sea club-rush, sea aster and common saltmarsh-grass; the inner Firth is important for nationally and internationally important numbers of wintering wildfowl and wading birds and hosts populations of shelduck, redshank, great crested grebe and goldeneye.
The outer islands support significant numbers of nesting seabirds. The Bass Rock has more than 150,000 nesting northern gannets and is the largest single rock gannetry in the world; when viewed from the mainland much of the rock looks white due to the sheer number of birds. The scientific names for this gannet, Sula bassana and Morus bassanus, are derived from the rock; the bird was traditionally known locally as the solan goose, its eggs and meat were considered delicacies. It is estimated that in 1850 2000 birds were harvested from the rock. Other bird species on the rock include guillemot, cormorant, eider duck and numerous gulls. Craigleith lies close to North Berwick's harbour and was used as a rabbit warren; the rabbits were bred for food but they were wiped out by myxomatosis in the 1950s. The Atlantic puffin colony on Craigleith, once one of the largest in Britain with 28,000 pairs, became endangered from 1999 onwards, due to an invasion of the non-endemic plant tree mallow, which choked the puffins' burrows, preventing them from rearing their chicks, or "pufflings".
A five-year project, SOS Puffin, led by the Scottish Seabird Centre at North Berwick, was launched early in 2007. Since hundreds of volunteers have been working hard to rid the island of the problem, ferried out by boat from the Seabird Centre during the winter months, when the puffins are at sea. There are signs. Fidra and Eyebroughy are RSPB reserves, the last being noted for its cormorants. Over 240 species of bird and 60 varieties of seaweed have been recorded on the Isle of May. Several of the islands contain pre-historic remains created by cultures, they have been affected by the successive influences of Celtic and English-speaking peoples during the historic period and this is reflected in their names. The islands came under attack from Vikings during the early Historic period. During the reign of King James IV Inchkeith was the site of an extraordinary experiment. According to the historian Robert Lyndsay of Pitscottie, in 1493 James directed that a dumb woman and two infants be transported to the islan
Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas
The Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas is a research center in Greece, supervised by the Ministry for Education through its General Secretariat for Research and Technology. It consists of seven research institutes, which are located in various cities of Greece: Heraklion, Rethymno and Ioannina; the Foundation’s headquarters, as well as the central administration offices are located in Heraklion, Crete. Established in 1983, FORTH is today internationally known and one of the largest research organizations in Greece. FORTH's research and technological focus is on areas of scientific and economic interest, such as: computer science, molecular biology, telecommunications, robotics, materials, medical engineering and computational mathematics, biomedical research, Mediterranean Studies, historical studies. FORTH operates Crete University Press, an independent non-profit publishing house, they host the Stefanos Pnevmatikos International Award every two years. FORTH consists of the following research institutes: Biomedical Research Institute - BRI Institute of Applied Computational Mathematics - IACM Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Processes - ICE/HT Institute of Computer Science - ICS Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser - IESL Institute of Mediterranean Studies - IMS Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology - IMBBFrom 1987 to 2000, the Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute based in Thessaloniki was part of FORTH.
In 2000, CPERI was separated from FORTH to become a founding member of a new research center, the National Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas. FORTH web site
Forth is a small village in north-west Tasmania on the Forth River, 11 kilometres west of Devonport and 110 kilometres north-west of Launceston via the Bass Highway. Forth has a population of about 711. Known as Hamilton-on-Forth, the village predates the larger settlement of Devonport. Nearby is the Forthside Dairy Research Facility run by the Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research. James Fenton, a young man of Irish descent came to the Forth estuary in 1839 in search of arable land. Assisted by his hired male companion, he erected the first European edifice in the district, in 1840 returned to take up permanent settlement, he was soon to be followed by Andrew Risby, his wife and young family and a handful of other settlers seeking a new life. Fenton expended large sums of money attempting to drain the estuarine swamplands which he hoped would produce ideal cropping fields; this venture failed and he resorted to moving further inland to the rich, although timbered soils of the sloping ground to the west.
Fenton is attributed to introducing the practice of ring-barking the large eucalyptus trees to allow light to penetrate the forest floor where the first domestic crops were grown. The district produced fine crops of potatoes in those early years. Forth Post Office opened on 12 May 1856. Bertha Southey Brammall, writer Media related to Forth, Tasmania at Wikimedia Commons