Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The island is dominated by the vast Christiansborg Palace which houses the Danish Parliament, the Supreme Court of Denmark, the Prime Ministers Office, the site used to consist of several small natural islands in the sound between the islands of Zealand and Amager. On the largest of these, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde constructed a castle in 1167. In 1250 the castle was extended with two towers to get the appearance that is now depicted on Copenhagens Coat of Arms. The castle was conquered by the Hanseatic League 1368 and pulled down the year as part of peace terms. Shortly after Copenhagen Castle was built on the site and it became the residence for the Danish king in 1443. However, the took place in a rather haphazard way and continued during the reign of the following kings. Probably during the reign of Christian III a building was constructed on the quay of the canal in front of the castle to house the Chancellery.
During the reign of Christian III and Frederick II an arsenal was constructed by the south of the castle. Under King Christian IV Slotsholmen saw considerable development, especially in the part of the island. Here a new harbour was established, surrounded on one side by an Arsenal. Other new buildings constructed were the Stock Exchange and the Brewhouse, all four of these historic buildings are still there today. By the time of the introduction of the monarchy in 1660. During the reign of King Frederick III, further lack of space in the led to the construction in 1665-1673 of an additional building between the Supply Depot and the Arsenal. This building, still visible today, was to house the Cabinet of curiosities of the king, founded about 1650, during the reign of King Frederick IV, a magnificent administration building was constructed in 1716-21 next to the palace adjacent to the Supply Depot. This new building was to house the chancelleries, thus replacing the previous chancellery building situated by the canal, the new chancellery building was connected to the castle by an arched passageway, thus allowing the king to stay in close contact with his government.
The Chancellery Building has functioned as the heart of the administration for almost 300 years. Several renovations were made, most notably by Frederick IV in 1721-29 and this rebuilding thoroughly changed the irregular appearance of the castle to a more regular shape
Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found
University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden
The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden, usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 10 hectares and is noted for its extensive complex of historical glasshouses dating from 1874. The garden is part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark and it serves both research and recreational purposes. The botanical garden was first established in 1600 but it was moved twice before it was given its current location in 1870. It was probably founded to secure a collection of Danish medicinal plants after the Reformation had seen many convents, the first garden, known as Hortus Medicus, was created on 2 August 1600 by royal charter on a piece of land donated by the king, Christian IV. It was located in Skidenstræde and a residence for one of the professors of the university was built at the site. It rested upon the professor in residence to maintain the garden, the smaller western section, covering just under half a hectare, was equipped with a greenhouse while the eastern section remained largely unplanted.
The garden was opened to the public in 1763, in 1770 part of Oeders Garden was put at the disposal of the Universitys botanical garden. The preceding year Christian VII had donated 2,500 thaler to the University and this had created the economical foundation for an enlargement but since there was no space for it at its original address, the off-site solution was ultimately opted for. Oeder became the Botanical Gardens first director, oeder was fired in 1771 in connection with the Johann Friedrich Struensee affair. Plans for this garden received royal approval on 22 July 1778 and it was to have two directors, one appointed by the University and the other by the King. The first University appointment to this post was Christian Friis Rottbøll, who had managed the garden since Oeders retirement. At the same event, a professor was employed at the garden. The first to hold this chair was Martin Vahl, who played a part in moving the plants from Oeders Garden to Charlottenborg Garden. In 1817, the model with a double directorship was abandoned when Jens Wilken Hornemann was made the director of the garden.
At this stage the garden encompassed approximately 1.6 hectares in a low, waterlogged area that was bounded by Charlottenborg, the Mint and Bremerholm. A main building was erected along the Nyhavn cabal, housing both a museum, a library and residences for the director and a botanical gardener. There were facilities for the storage of sensitive plants during winter, the gardens first greenhouse, Guiones Koldhus, was erected in 1784
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The park plays host to art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, the garden contained a pavilion, statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples, pears, in the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a garden maze, a feature of the Baroque garden. It had a system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. The 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade, Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides. The two main entrance are the Kings Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, and the Queens Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade, there are four other entrances to the park.
The tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Kriegers Baroque garden, special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was originally a pavilion, in 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann, in 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen. The Commandants House is located just left of the entrance to Rosenborg Castle. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling, today the building plays host to special exhibitions. The building is used as an exhibition space. It was built in 1688 and extended with a story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park, the Gartners House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen.
It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Orpheus and Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy, along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalices
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
It is now a protected area with a museum, grassy fields for recreation and a restaurant. Mosede Fort was as part of Tunestillingen, a 22 km long line of fortifications around outer-Copenhagen, construction began in 1913, but was first battle-ready in July 1916. The battery was originally dubbed Mosede Battery but was popularly called Mosede Fort and it was fully manned until 1922, and was thereafter only used for drills. The Fort was re-manned in 1939, but it was captured by the Germans in 1940, when Denmark was liberated, the government continued to use the fort as a detention camp until 1947. It was handed over to Hjemmeværnet, who used it for shooting practice and drills until 1970 and it has since been a park open for public. Mosede Fort is now being preserved by Greve Kommune, it is popular as a recreational area for ballgames, picnics. In 2010 Greve Kommune along with Greve Museum, began to restore and insulate the old fort so it could be dehumidified sufficiently, in order to store historical objects safely.
It was planned to open Denmarks first Denmark during World War 1 museum with the inauguration on 1 August 2014 -100 anniversary of Germanys declaration of war on Russia. On 30 September 2012, during the celebration of Copenhagens fortification, the museum opened 6 August 2014, with HRH Prince Joachim of Denmark attending. The fort was equipped with the most modern artillery, a generator, the Fort was armed with,6 120mm L/15, rapid firing Howitzer. Aimed towards the sea 4 75mm L/30, for coastal and air defense 4 37mm Maxim gun. For land defense 31 recoil rifles
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Kastellet, located in Copenhagen, Denmark, is one of the best preserved star fortresses in Northern Europe. It is constructed in the form of a pentagram with bastions at its corners, Kastellet was continuous with the ring of bastioned ramparts which used to encircle Copenhagen but of which only the ramparts of Christianshavn remain today. A number of buildings are located within the grounds of Kastellet, the area houses various military activities but it mainly serves as a public park and a historic site. King Christian IV of Denmark initiated Kastellet’s construction in 1626 with the building of an advanced post, at that time the fortifications only reached as far north as present day Nørreport station, and returned south east to meet the coast at Bremerholm, the Royal Shipyard. However, part of the plan was to expand the area of the fortified city by abandoning the old East Rampart. This plan was not completed until the mid-1640s, shortly after King Frederick III succeeded King Christian IV, after the Swedish siege on Copenhagen the Dutch engineer Henrik Rüse was called in to help rebuild and extend the construction.
The fortification was named Citadellet Frederikshavn, but it is known as Kastellet. Kastellet was part of the defense of Copenhagen against England in the Battle of Copenhagen, christen Købke, Danish painter associated with the Golden Age of Danish Painting, grew up in Kastellet and made many paintings of the area. During the German invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940, German troops landing at the nearby harbor captured The Citadel without resistance, Kastellet was renovated 1989–1999 with funds from the A. P. Møller and Wife Chastine McKinney Møllers General Fund. The Citadel has two gates, Kings Gate on the side, facing the city, and Norway Gate on the north side of the edifice. They are built in the Dutch Baroque style, and are on their interior side flanked by guardhouses, the Kings Gate is decorated with garlands and pilasters, and a bust of King Frederik III. The clock and two bells on the facade of the gate come from the Central Guard House at Kongens Nytorv and were installed in 1874 when the central guard moved to the Citadel.
In front of the gate stand two so-called caponiers from where it was possible to keep assaulting troops under fire, the Norway Gate used to face open countryside outside the city, and has therefore been built to a more simple design. The caponiers of this gate were demolished in the late 19th century, the five bastions are named as follows, The King’s Bastion, The Queen’s Bastion, The Count’s Bastion, the Princess’s Bastion and the Prince’s Bastion. Smedelinien is a system of outworks, separating the inner and the moat, located to the south. It consisted of four ravelins and three counter guard interconnected by long, low earthworks, on Fyns Ravelin, one of the namesake forges has been preserved and is now used by the park authorities. Another forge was built on Falsters Counter Guard in 1709, rebuilt in 1888, it now serves as residence of military employees. The Commanders House served as the residence of the commander of Kastellet and it was built in 1725 in the Baroque style by architect and master builder Elias Häuser who designed the first Christiansborg Palace which burned in 1794