A caponier is a type of defensive structure in a fortification. The word originates from the French caponnière, meaning "chicken coop". In some types of bastioned fortifications, the caponier served as a means of access to the outworks, protecting troops from direct fire. Although they could be used for firing along the ditch, the flanks of the bastions were the main defence of the ditch by fire. In polygonal forts, caponiers were roofed, were not intended as a type of covered way, but as the main way of keeping the ditch clear of the enemy; the term referred to a covered passageway that traversed the ditch outside the curtain of a fortress. Fire from this point could cover the ditch beyond the curtain wall to deter any attempt to storm the wall, thus the passageway was equipped with musket ports and cannon ports. While fortifications were evolving to the simpler polygonal style, the term was sometimes used to describe the flanking positions set at the corners of the ditch that provide the same function in that style of fort in France.
In bastioned forts, it takes the form of a low open passage partly sunken into the floor of the ditch and projecting outward into and across it, with access from the main fortress via a passage through the curtain wall. The roof, if any, was made against weather and small arms fire, not artillery; as polygonal fortresses evolved, caponiers became more substantial and protected above from plunging fire with masonry and earth cover. In late 19c. Works which were underground, caponiers were reached via a tunnel from within the fort; the caponier is equipped with a firing step and rifle ports to allow troops to fire along the ditch, has provision for small cannon to sweep the ditch as well. To clear the smoke and fumes from the firing the roof of the caponier is provided with ventilation ports. To avoid fire from one caponier bearing on the next, caponiers are sometimes set at alternate corners of the fort, so that they fire towards a blank wall at the opposite end of the ditch, giving full coverage of the ditch without subjecting the next caponier to fire.
The length of the straight sections of the ditch is chosen so that it can be covered by fire from a single caponier. Caponiers are wedge shaped so that they can fire down both angles of the ditch. An alternative to the caponier is a counterscarp battery, dug into the outer face of the corner of the ditch, giving a similar field of fire. Reached by a tunnel from within the fort, it does not have the vulnerable roof that the caponier has, but being outside the ditch, is more vulnerable to mining. Both structures may be found in the same fort. Caponiers are a common feature of 18- and 19th-century fortifications, are found on all the Victorian forts of Malta, the Palmerston Forts in UK, the Lisbon Entrenched Camp forts in Portugal, fortifications in many Nordic countries, in: Birgu main ditch Fort Manoel Fort Ricasoli Boden Fortress in Sweden Brest-Litovsk fortress, Camden Fort Meagher, Cork Harbour, Ireland Coalhouse Fort, England Craignethan Castle in Scotland contains a good 16th century example.
Eluanbi Lighthouse in southern Taiwan Fort Glanville Conservation Park, South Australia Fort Hamilton, New York City, USA Fort McClary, Kittery Point, Maine Fort Washington, Maryland, USA Fort Wellington, Ontario, Canada Kiev fortress Petersberg Citadel, Germany Poznań Fortress, Poland Sevastopol. Southsea Castle Spandau Citadel Suomenlinna in Finland York Redoubt and Fort Charlotte, Halifax Regional Municipality, Canada Newhaven Fort in East Sussex, UK Coffer List of established military terms Amherst Fort - Kent Vladivostok Fortress Sant Julià de Ramis Fort
The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast; the whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. Administratively, it is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia; the major port of Arkhangelsk is located on the White Sea. For much of Russia's history this was Russia's main centre of international maritime trade, conducted by the Pomors from Kholmogory. In the modern era it became an important Soviet submarine base; the White Sea–Baltic Canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. The White Sea is one of the four seas named in English after common colour terms — the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the Yellow Sea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of the White Sea as "A line joining Svyatoi Nos and Cape Kanin".
There are four main gulfs on the White Sea. These bays connect with the funnel-shaped opening to the Barents Sea via a narrow strait called "Gorlo". Kandalaksha Gulf lies in the western part of the White Sea. On the south, Onega Bay receives the Onega River. To the southeast, the Dvina Bay receives the Northern Dvina River at the major port of Arkhangelsk. On the east side of the'gorlo', opposite the Kola Peninsula, is Mezen Bay, it receives the Kuloy River. Other major rivers flowing into the sea are the Vyg, Umba and Ponoy; the seabed of the central part and Dvina Bay is covered in silt and sand, whereas the bottom of the northern part, the Kandalaksha Gulf and Onega Bay is a mixture of sand and stones. Ice age deposits emerge near the sea shores. Northwestern coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the southeastern side; the White Sea contains a large number of islands. The main island group is the Solovetsky Islands, located in the middle of the sea, near the entrance to Onega Bay.
Kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. Velikiy Island, located close to the shore, is the largest island in the Kandalaksha Gulf; the White Sea is a water-filled depression in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield. Its bottom is uneven and contains the Kandalaksha Hollow in the northwest and the Solovetsky Islands in the south; the Onega Bay has many small underwater elevations. The opening and the gorlo of the sea are rather shallow, with depths about 50 metres or less. In addition, there is an underwater ridge in the northern part of the gorlo, resulting in maximum depths of 40 metres in that part; this hinders water exchange between the Barents seas. The exchange is however assisted by the tides, which are semidiurnal, with the amplitude increasing from 1 metre on the south to 10 metres in Mezen Bay. Currents are rather weak in the open seas with the speed below 1 km/h, but they strengthen in the bays; the tidal waves are much faster than the regular currents and reach the speeds of 9 km/h in Mezen Bay, 3.6 km/h in Onega Bay and 1.3 km/h in the Kandalaksha Gulf.
Rivers bring annually about 215 km3 of fresh water, on average to the Onega and Dvina bays. The Northern Dvina River alone may contribute up to 171 km3 in some years, with the Mezen, Onega and Vyg rivers adding up to 38.5, 27.0, 12.5 and 11.5 km3, respectively. About 40% of this volume is brought during the snow melting in May, the inflow is minimal in February–March; this inflow lowers the sea level that promotes the water exchange with the Barents Sea. As a result, about 2,000 km3 and 2,200 km3 flow in and out of the White Sea, respectively; the inflow of fresh water in spring decreases the surface salinity in the top 5–10 metre layer to 23‰ in the eastern and 26–27‰ in the western parts of the sea, reaching 10–12‰ in Dvina Bay. Storms are the strongest in October–November. However, small sea depths reduce the wave height to the average of 1 metre, sometimes reaching 3–5 metres; the sea is quiet in July–August. The climate varies between moderate continental with frequent fogs and clouds. Winds are predominantly southwestern in winter with speeds of 4–8 m/s.
They bring cold air from the south, establishing the temperature of about −15 °C over most of the sea. The northern part is warmer at about −9 °C, sometimes reaching −6 °C, due to the warm air masses from the Atlantic. Arctic anticyclones, change winds to the northeastern ones, bringing much colder weather with temperatures of about −25 °C. Summers are cold and humid, with northeastern winds and frequent rains. Average July temperatures are 8–10 °C. Occasional southeastern winds bring warm air from Europe, raising the temperature to 17–19 °C and sometimes to 30 °C. Annual precipitations increase from 282 mm in the north 529 in the south. In winter, from October–November till May–June, the sea freezes, with the average January water temperatures of −1.9 °C in the north, between −1.3 and −1.7 °С in the centre, between −0.5 and −0.7 °С in the bays. These variations are due to the distribution of water salinity across the sea, which increases from 24–26‰ in the centre to 30.5‰ in the gorlo, reaching 34.0–34.5‰ toward the Barents Sea.
The freezing period varies fro
Kamianka-Buzka is a city in Lviv Oblast, of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Kamianka-Buzka; the city was known as Kamianka Strumilova, was a district city in Galicia. From 1918 to 1939 it was part of Poland, called Kamionka Strumiłowa, was the capital of a county of the Tarnopol Voivodeship. Population: 10,779 . 40 km to the north-east of Lviv and 26 km to the north of the nearest Karol Ludwik Railway station in Zadworze. There are two villages to the north of the city: Jazienica Polska; the whole area is situated on the Bug River. The latter flows along the south-eastern border; the Kamianka river is one of the tributaries. The Kamianka river flows on the small area along the border it crosses the city centre flowing from the south to the north where it falls into the Bug River. There are city and suburban buildings in the Bug River valley, they are in the Kamianka river valley, too. The city takes up the valley space and there are brick houses in the market square but the wooden houses prevail.
The western part of the area rises more above the valley than the part in the east and it reaches the peak of Kamienna Gora at 258m above the sea level. It is the highest peak in the area; the highest peak in the east rises 232m above the sea level. The Farastwo hill lowers towards the eastern line at 222m above the sea level; the city takes up the space of 6/10 square miles. The manorial area has 77 of meadows and gardens, 11 of pastureland; the minor estate has 276 of meadows and gardens, 282 of pastureland. The soil is fertile, it is humus. Kamianka was first mentioned in 1441, it was the property of Jerzy Strumillo. The city was named Kamianka after huge stone blocks, which are erratic, located in the local fields and in the neighbouring fields in the west; the Strumilowa cognomen was added to pay homage to the city owner. Jerzy Strumillo, the city of Lviv chamberlain, granted the village of Kamianka the civic rights. In the year of 1471 he founded and furnished the Latin rite church and the parish in Kamianka.
The kings who ruled the country chartered the city over the centuries. These are the most important charters: the charter of 1509 - Sigismund I, the king, restored the Magdeburg Law, the charter of 1539 – on the strength of it, duties were imposed on wine, taken abroad, it binds the merchants who take the salt to the Volyn region to stay in the city for three days, In the year of 1589, Sigismund III Vasa, the king, sanctioned the agreement between the city inhabitants and the Jews, which permitted Jews to settle down in the city, to purchase properties and to trade. The guilds of furriers and shoemakers were granted rights by the same king, who accepted the products of weavers, blacksmiths and of the guilds which were mentioned. Jan Pruchnicki, the archbishop of Lviv, permitted Jews to raise a synagogue in the city, he did it in compliance with the law and the rules by his predecessors, the charter of 1642 – it made the starosty permit the city inhabitants to fish with fishing rods, with fishing- and troll-nets in the local ponds.
At the same time, this charter forced the inhabitants to net the fish and participate in hunts, which were organized twice a year. There was an exception: they were not forced to do this work when a king or his representatives wanted to hunt on their own. In 1662, when the war with the Swedes ended, the court inspectors reported: "500 buildings used to stand here. 16 of them belong to Jews. The castle near the city is surrounded by the fence; the tower which overlooks the city is inhabited by a court writer. The nearby tower is the city gate"; the city was not restored after the damage caused by the war because the court inspectors reported these words in 1766: "no inns are suitable for staying there. The inhabitants do not engage themselves in trade ‘magis araturae et piscaturae quam mercaturae dediti’, it is used to smear carts and it is produced in the forest, which belongs to the starost. There are 6 small Catholic houses in the city centre, 67 cottages in the suburbs, 39 building plots with gardens.
108 landholders and 52 yeomen live in the suburbs. There are 29 inns run by Jews in the city centre; the castle used to stand near the grange in the city neighbourhood on the Kamianka river. The castle was destroyed a long time ago, it lies in ruins." Kamianka used to be'the royal city'. It was ‘starostwo niegrodowe’; until the Partitions of Poland, it was part of Ruthenian Voivodeship. The following men were the starosts in Kamianka: Piotr Zborowski (i
Volodymyr-Volynskyi is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative centre of the Volodymyr-Volynskyi Raion, the city itself is designated as a separate municipality within the oblast as the city of regional significance; the city is the historic centre of the region of Volhynia and the historic capital of the Principality of Volhynia. Population: 39,074 The mediaeval Latin name of the town "Lodomeria" became the namesake of the 19th century Austro-Hungarian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, of which the town itself was not a part. 5 kilometres south from Volodymyr is Zymne, where the oldest Orthodox Monastery in Volynia is located.????-1569 Володимѣръ 1569-1795 Włodzimierz 1795-1922 Влади́мир-Волы́нский 1922-1939 Włodzimierz 1939-1941 Влади́мир-Волы́нск / Володимир-Волинськ 1941-1944 Wladimir-Wolynsk 1944-1991 Влади́мир-Волы́нский / Володимир-Волинський 1991–present Володимир-Волинський The city is one of the oldest towns in Ukraine and historical Ruthenia.
It took its name after Prince Volodymyr the Great, who founded a stronghold on the lands taken from the Polish Lendians around 981. In 988 the city became the capital of Volodymyr Principality and the seat of an Orthodox bishopric, as mentioned in the Primary Chronicle. In 1160 the building of Sobor of Dormition of The Holy Mother of God was completed. By the 13th century the city became part of Galicia–Volhynia as one of the most important trading towns in the region. Upon the conquest of Batu Khan in 1240, the city was subordinated to the Mongol Empire together with other Ruthenian principalities. In the 14th century, Metropolitan Theognostus of all Rus' resided in the city for several years before moving to Moscow. In 1349 King Casimir the Great captured the city, subsequently it became part of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1370 it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and it was not until the Union of Lublin of 1569 that it returned to the Crown of Poland. In the meantime the city was given Magdeburg rights in 1431.
From 1566 to 1795 it was part of the Volhynian Voivodeship. It was a royal city of Poland. On July 17, 1792, the Battle of Włodzimierz took place in the vicinity of the town: a numerically inferior Polish force led by Tadeusz Kościuszko defeated the Russian army; the city remained a part of Poland until the Third Partition of Poland of 1795, when the Russian Empire annexed it. That year the Russian authorities changed the name of several cities in Volhynia including Novohrad-Volynskyi. Volodymyr-Volynsky stayed within Russian Partition till 1917. In 18th and 19th centuries the town started to grow mostly thanks to large numbers of Jews settling there. By the second half of the 19th century they made up the majority of local inhabitants. According to the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland, in the late 19th century the city had 8336 inhabitants, 6122 of them Jews. After World War I, the area became disputed by Poland, Bolshevist Russia and the Ukrainian People's Republic, with the Polish 17th Infantry Regiment capturing it overnight on January 23, 1919.
In the interbellum the city was a seat of a powiat within the Volhynian Voivodeship and an important garrison was located there. Following the Nazi-Soviet Pact the city was occupied by Soviet forces on 19 September 1939. On 23 June 1941 the city was occupied by Germany, the Jewish community of 11,554 began to be persecuted. Between September 1 and 3, 1942, 25,000 Jews from the local area were shot at Piatydni. On November 13, 1942, the Germans killed another 3,000 Jews from the town near Piatydni. During World War II, a German concentration camp was located near the city. About 140 Jews returned to the city after the war, but most emigrated. By 1999 only 30 remained; the city was occupied again by the Red Army on 20 July 1944 and annexed to the Ukrainian SSR. A Cold War air base was located north-east of the town at Zhovtnevy. Since 1991 the city has been part of Ukraine. A series of mass graves were discovered in 1997, with exhumations completed by 2013. Thought to be an example of NKVD mass murder, similar to the Katyn massacre and the Vinnytsia massacre, the Volodymyr-Volynskyi murders were shown in 2012 to have been carried out by German forces, most the Einsatzgruppen C.
The primary archeological evidence for German culpability was that most of the bullet shell casings were dated 1941. Testimony by a Jewish survivor of the city, recorded by the USC Shoah Foundation corroborated the view that the perpetrators were German and that the victims were Jewish. Anthropological analysis of the remains led to the conclusion that three quarters of the victims were women and children; the 747 victims were reinterred in local city cemeteries. The oldest place of worship in the town was the Temple of Volodymyr, erected several kilometres from the modern town's centre and first mentioned in a chronicle of 1044; the oldest existing church is the Dormition of the Mother of God built by Mstyslav Izyaslavovych in 1160. By the late 18th century it fell into disuse and collapsed in 1829, but was restored between 1896 and 1900; the third of the old Orthodox churches is an Orthodox Basil the Great's cathedral, was erected in 14th or 15th centuries, though local legends attribute its construction to Volodymyr the Great, to build
The ZPU is a family of towed anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet 14.5×114mm KPV heavy machine gun. It is used by over 50 countries worldwide. Quadruple, double- and single-barreled versions of the weapon exist; the first dedicated Soviet mount for anti-aircraft machine guns was developed around 1928 by Fedor Tokarev and was adopted for service in 1931. It was a base for mounting up to four 7.62 mm PM M1910 guns. This was called a ZPU, although the name М-4 was assigned to it, it served the Soviet armed forces in all major conflicts until 1945. 12.7 mm DShK 1938 was used an anti-aircraft weapon it was mounted on pintle and tripod mounts, on a triple mount on the GAZ-AA truck. Late in the war, it was mounted on the cupolas of IS-2 tanks and ISU-152 self-propelled guns; as an infantry heavy support weapon it used a two-wheeled trolley which unfolded into a tripod for anti-aircraft use. Development of the ZPU-2 and ZPU-4 began in 1945, with development of the ZPU-1 starting in 1947. All three were accepted into service in 1949.
Improved optical predicting gunsights were developed for the system in the 1950s. All weapons in the ZPU series have air-cooled quick-change barrels and can fire a variety of ammunition including API, API, API-T and I-T projectiles; each barrel has a maximum rate of fire of around 600 rounds per minute, though this is limited to about 150 rounds per minute. The quad-barrel ZPU-4 uses a four-wheel carriage similar to that once used by the obsolete 25 mm automatic anti-aircraft gun M1940. In firing position, the weapon is lowered onto firing jacks, it can be brought in and out of action in about 15 to 20 seconds, can be fired with the wheels in the traveling position if needed. The double-barrel ZPU-2 was built in two different versions. ZPU-2 turned out to be too heavy for the Airborne Troops, so a new UZPU-2 was developed from ZPU-1; the single-barrel ZPU-1 is carried on a two-wheeled carriage and can be broken down into several 80-kilogram pieces for transport over rough ground. Versions of the weapon are built in North Korea and Romania.
The series was used during the Korean War by Chinese and North Korean forces, was considered to be the most dangerous opposition to U. S. helicopters in Vietnam. It was used by Morocco and the Polisario Front in the Western Sahara War, it was used by Iraqi forces during Operation Desert Storm and again in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In 1974 the Cyprus National Guard artillery batteries used their ZPU-2's against the Turkish air force. In the Russian military, it was replaced by the newer and more powerful ZU-23 23 mm twin automatic anti-aircraft gun. ZPU has seen widespread use by all sides in the 2011 Libyan civil war and Syrian Civil War mounted on pickup-truck technicals with plenty of videos showing the gun engaging different air and ground targets. During the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese militias mounted the ZPU-2 and ZPU-4 on various vehicles, such as M113 armored personnel carriers, to create self-propelled support vehicles. API – Full metal jacket bullet round with a tungsten carbide core.
Projectile weight is 64.4 muzzle velocity is 1,000 metres per second. Armor-penetration at 500 m is 32 mm of RHA at 90 degrees. API-T – Full metal jacket round with a steel core. Projectile weight is 59.56 muzzle velocity is 1,005 m/s. Tracer burns to at least 2,000 m. I-T – "Instantaneous Incendiary" bullet with internal fuze, incendiary in tip, tracer container in base. Projectile weight is 60.0 g. Rounds are produced by Bulgaria, Egypt and Romania. ZPU-4 Type 56 – Chinese-built version. MR-4 – Romanian-built version with a two-wheel carriage designed locally. ZPU-2 Type 58 – Chinese-built version. PKM-2 – Polish-built version. ZU-2 ZPU-1 Type 75 and Type 75-1 - Chinese built-versions. BTR-40A SPAAG – A BTR-40 APC with a ZPU-2 gun mounted in the rear. Entered service in 1950. BTR-152A SPAAG – A BTR-152 with a ZPU-2 mounted in the rear. Entered service in 1952. Zastava M55 ZU-23-2 Jane's Land Based Air Defence 2005-2006. ISBN 0-7106-2697-5 Koll, Christian. Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm.
Austria: Koll. p. 98. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. ZPU-1 single barrel anti-aircraft gun data sheet ZPU-2 anti-aircraft 14.5 mm twin guns data sheet http://en.rcamuseum.com/our-collection/zpu-4-anti-aircraft-gun-14-yugo ZPU-4 anti-aircraft 14.5 mm quadruple guns data sheet Video: ZPU-1 being fired in Afghanistan Video: ZPU-2 being fired in Syria from a technical
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, ended three and a half months with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940; the League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation. The conflict began after the Soviets sought to obtain some Finnish territory, demanding among other concessions that Finland cede substantial border territories in exchange for land elsewhere, claiming security reasons—primarily the protection of Leningrad, 32 km from the Finnish border. Finland refused, the USSR invaded the country. Many sources conclude that the Soviet Union had intended to conquer all of Finland, use the establishment of the puppet Finnish Communist government and the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact's secret protocols as evidence of this, while other sources argue against the idea of the full Soviet conquest. Finland repelled Soviet attacks for more than two months and inflicted substantial losses on the invaders while temperatures ranged as low as −43 °C.
After the Soviet military reorganised and adopted different tactics, they renewed their offensive in February and overcame Finnish defences. Hostilities ceased in March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland ceded 11 percent of its territory representing 30 percent of its economy to the Soviet Union. Soviet losses were heavy, the country's international reputation suffered. Soviet gains exceeded their pre-war demands and the USSR received substantial territory along Lake Ladoga and in Northern Finland. Finland enhanced its international reputation; the poor performance of the Red Army encouraged Adolf Hitler to think that an attack on the Soviet Union would be successful and confirmed negative Western opinions of the Soviet military. After 15 months of Interim Peace, in June 1941, Nazi Germany commenced Operation Barbarossa and the Continuation War between Finland and the USSR began; until the beginning of the 19th century, Finland constituted the eastern part of the Kingdom of Sweden.
In 1809, to protect its imperial capital, Saint Petersburg, the Russian Empire conquered Finland and converted it into an autonomous buffer state. The resulting Grand Duchy of Finland enjoyed wide autonomy within the Empire until the end of the 19th century, when Russia began attempts to assimilate Finland as part of a general policy to strengthen the central government and unify the Empire through russification; these attempts were aborted because of Russia's internal strife, but they ruined Russia's relations with the Finns and increased support for Finnish self-determination movements. World War I led to the collapse of the Russian Empire during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1917–1920, giving Finland a window of opportunity; the new Bolshevik Russian Government was fragile, civil war had broken out in Russia in November 1917. Thus, Soviet Russia recognised the new Finnish Government just three weeks after the declaration. Finland achieved full sovereignty in May 1918 after a 4-month civil war, with the conservative Whites winning over the socialist Reds, the expulsion of Bolshevik troops.
Finland joined the League of Nations in 1920, from which it sought security guarantees, but Finland's primary goal was co-operation with the Scandinavian countries. The Finnish and Swedish militaries engaged in wide-ranging co-operation, but focused on the exchange of information and on defence planning for the Åland Islands rather than on military exercises or on stockpiling and deployment of materiel; the Government of Sweden avoided committing itself to Finnish foreign policy. Finland's military policy included clandestine defence co-operation with Estonia; the period after the Finnish Civil War till the early 1930s proved a politically unstable time in Finland due to the continued rivalry between the conservative and socialist parties. The Communist Party of Finland was declared illegal in 1931, the nationalist Lapua Movement organised anti-communist violence, which culminated in a failed coup attempt in 1932; the successor of the Lapua Movement, the Patriotic People's Movement, only had a minor presence in national politics with at most 14 seats out of 200 in the Finnish parliament.
By the late 1930s, the export-oriented Finnish economy was growing and the nation's extreme political movements had diminished. After Soviet involvement in the Finnish Civil War in 1918, no formal peace treaty was signed. In 1918 and 1919, Finnish volunteers conducted two unsuccessful military incursions across the Soviet border, the Viena and Aunus expeditions, to annex Karelian areas according to the Greater Finland ideology of combining all Finnic peoples into a single state. In 1920, Finnish communists based in the USSR attempted to assassinate the former Finnish White Guard Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. On 14 October 1920, Finland and Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Tartu, confirming the old border between the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and Imperial Russia proper as the new Finnish–Soviet border. Finland received Petsamo, with its ice-free harbour on the Arctic Ocean. Despite the signing of the treaty, relations between the two countries remained strained.
The Finnish Government allowed volunteers to cross the border to support the East Karelian uprising in Russia in 1921, Finnish communists in the Soviet Union continued to prepare for a revanche and staged a cross-border raid into Finland, called the Pork mutiny, in 1922. In 1
Telšiai, known by several alternative names including Telsiai and Telschi in English sources, is a city in Lithuania with about 25,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of Telšiai County and Samogitia region, it is located on the shores of Lake Mastis. Telšiai is one of the oldest cities in Lithuania dating earlier than the 14th century. Between the 15th and 20th centuries, Telšiai became a district capital and between 1795 and 1802 it was included in the Vilnius Governorate. In 1873, Telšiai was transferred to the Kovno Governorate; the name of Telšiai has been recorded in different forms and different languages throughout its history. Most of them are derived from Telšē in Samogitian dialect; some foreign names for the city include Latvian: Telši. In Yiddish, the name is טעלז. Lake Mastis is mentioned in various myths; the city was named after the Telšė, which flows into Lake Mastis. A legend has it. Telšiai was first mentioned in written sources around 1450, but the oldest archeological findings in the area of the city are from the Stone Age.
In the 15th century, Telšiai had a state-owned manor. It and the parish were governed by Samogitian elders. Telšiai was at the centre of an uprising of Samogitian peasants. At the end of the 17th century Telšiai became the centre of culture and politics of Samogitia. Local parliaments known as Sejmiks composed of noblemen were organised in the city and a court was established. Magdeburg rights were granted to Telšiai in the 17th century. During the November uprising of 1831 Telšiai became a sanctuary for Polish–Lithuanian partisans fighting the Russians. A revolutionary government of insurrectionists was formed and schools for the preparation of military officers and noncommissioned officers were opened. During the Uprising of 1863, Telšiai was one of the main centres of uprise in Samogitia since insurrectionist forces massed there. At the end of the 19th century Telšiai started to grow. A team of firemen formed, a pharmacy and a theater were opened. In 1908 the first Lithuanian concert–performance was organised.
The city survived two Polish revolutions, was conquered by the Germans in World War I, occupied by the Red Army for a short time in 1918. During the years of Lithuanian independence, 1918 to 1940, Telšiai grew rapidly. Several girls' and boys' high schools, a crafts school and a teacher's seminary were established; the Alka museum was built, several cultural societies were operated. In 1935, Telšiai became the centre of country administration. During the first Soviet occupation, as a result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Telšiai became infamous for the nearby Rainiai massacre, a mass murder of 76 Lithuanian political prisoners perpetrated by the Red Army during the night of 24–25 June 1941. Nowadays Telšiai is the 12th largest city in Lithuania, it is the centre of Telšiai district municipality. The city has four gymnasiums, four secondary schools, five primary schools. Faculties of Vilnius Academy of Art, College of Social Sciences and College of Samogitia are established in Telšiai. On 22 January 2013 The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania announced that Telšiai will be named the Lithuanian Capital of Culture in 2016.
In 1897, the Jewish population numbered 51 % of the total population. Jews were expelled during World War I, but by 1939, 2800 had returned, out of a general population of 8000. Many were involved in trade which included produce and crafts. A major source of income was the famous Telšiai Yeshiva, it was the largest and most famous yeshiva in Lithuania between 1875 and 1941, establishing Telšiai as a center of Torah studies. There was an Orthodox Jewish rabbinical seminary and a Jewish day school providing secular and religious instruction for younger children. Following World War I and the expulsion of the Jews—which decimated the Telšiai Jewish community—the city again became a center of traditional Jewish learning. There were charitable institutions, including a Chevra Kadisha, a hospital, a loan society, a public kitchen, a clinic, special summer camps, a women's association for support of the sick and poor. There were two Jewish newspapers, published in Yiddish. In 1931, Telšiai became a city of the first order.
In June 1940 Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union. Russians closed down the yeshiva. Most of the students dispersed with only about a hundred students remaining in Telshe. Learning was done in groups of 20–25 students studying in various batai medrashim led by the rosh yeshivas; the Holocaust in Telšiai was carried out by the local Lithuanian leadership with occasional supervision by Nazi German units. The Jewish population in 1939 was 2,800 some 35 percent of the town's population. Further Jews found refuge in Telšiai following the 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania. Telšiai was conquered by German troops on 25 June 1941. Jews were subjected to terror by the Germans and their Lithuanian collaborators and on 15–16 July all Jewish men were shot; the women were moved to a camp in Geruliai, with the exception of 500–600 young women, were all shot on 30 August 1941. The 500–600 young women were moved back to a ghetto in Telšiai, with the exception of some escapees, were shot on 30–31 December 1941.
64 Jewish survived. Telšiai has a rare surviving wooden synagogue; the original Telšiai yeshiva building still stands. However, during Soviet occupa