Bartholomew Roberts, born John Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided ships off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. He was the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy as measured by vessels captured, taking over 400 prizes in his career, he is known as Black Bart, but this name was never used in his lifetime. He was born John Roberts in 1682 in Casnewydd-Bach, between Fishguard and Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire, Wales, his father was most George Roberts. It's not clear why Roberts changed his name from John to Bartholomew, but pirates adopted aliases, he may have chosen his first name after the well-known buccaneer Bartholomew Sharp. He is thought to have gone to sea when he was 13 in 1695, but there is no further record of him until 1718, when he was mate of a Barbados sloop. In 1719, Roberts was second mate on the slave ship Princess under Captain Abraham Plumb. In early June that year, the Princess was anchored at Anomabu; the pirates were in two vessels, Royal Rover and Royal James, were led by captain Howell Davis.
Davis, like Roberts, was a Welshman from Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire. Roberts and several other of the crew of the Princess were forced to join the pirates. Davis discovered Roberts' abilities as a navigator and took to consulting him, he was able to confide information to Roberts in Welsh, thereby keeping it hidden from the rest of the crew. Roberts is said to have been reluctant to become a pirate at first, but soon came to see the advantages of this new lifestyle. Captain Charles Johnson reports him as saying: In an honest service there is thin commons, low wages, hard labour. In this and satiety, pleasure and ease and power. No, a merry life and a short one shall be my motto. In the merchant navy, Roberts' wage was less than £4 per month and he had no chance of promotion to captaincy. A few weeks after Roberts' capture, Royal James had to be abandoned because of worm damage. Royal Rover headed for the island of Príncipe. Davis was allowed to enter the harbour. After a few days, Davis invited the governor to lunch on board his ship, intending to hold him hostage for a ransom.
Davis had to send boats to collect the governor, he was invited to call at the fort for a glass of wine first. The Portuguese had discovered, they ambushed Davis' party on its way to the fort. A new captain had to be elected. Davis' crew was divided into "Lords" and "Commons", it was the "Lords" who had the right to propose a name to the remainder of the crew. Within six weeks of his capture, Roberts was elected captain; this was unusual as he had objected to serving on the vessel. Historians believe he was elected for his navigational abilities and his personality, which history reflects was outspoken and opinionated, he accepted of the Honour, that since he had dipp'd his Hands in Muddy Water, must be a Pyrate, it was better being a Commander than a common Man. Roberts' first act as captain was to lead the crew back to Príncipe to avenge the death of Captain Davis. Roberts and his crew landed on the island in the darkness of night, killed a large portion of the male population, stole all items of value that they could carry away.
Soon afterwards, he captured a Dutch Guineaman two days a British ship called Experiment. The pirate ship took on water and provisions at Anamboe, where a vote was taken on whether the next voyage should be to the East Indies or to Brazil; the vote was for Brazil. The combination of bravery and success that marked this adventure cemented most of the crew's loyalty to Roberts, they concluded that they had much to gain by staying with him. Roberts and his crew crossed the Atlantic and watered and boot-topped their ship on the uninhabited island of Ferdinando, they saw no ships. They were about to leave for the West Indies when they encountered a fleet of 42 Portuguese ships in the Todos os Santos' Bay, waiting for two men-of-war of 70 guns each to escort them to Lisbon. Roberts ordered her master to point out the richest ship in the fleet, he pointed out Sagrada Familia, a ship of 40 guns and a crew of 170, which Roberts and his men boarded and captured. Sagrada Familia contained 40,000 gold moidores and jewellery designed for the King of Portugal, including a cross set with diamonds.
Rover next headed for Devil's Island off the coast of Guiana to spend the booty. A few weeks they headed for the River Surinam where they captured a sloop. After they sighted a brigantine, Roberts took 40 men to pursue it in the sloop, leaving Walter Kennedy in command of Rover; the sloop became wind-bound for eight days, when Roberts and his crew returned to their ship, they discovered that Kennedy had sailed off with Rover and what remained of the loot. Roberts and his crew renamed their sloop Fortune and agreed on new articles, now known as a pirate code, which they swore on a Bible to uphold. In late February 1720, they were joined by French pirate Montigny la Palisse in another sloop, Sea King; the inhabitants of Barbados equipped two well-armed ships and Philipa, to try to put an end to the pirate menace. On 26 February, they encountered the two pirate sloops. Sea King fled, Fortune broke off the engagement after sustaining considerable damage and was able to escape. Roberts headed f
Bagatelle is a billiards-derived indoor table game, the object of, to get a number of balls past wooden pins into holes that are guarded by wooden pegs. It developed from the table made with raised sides for trou madame, played with ivory balls and continued to be popular into the nineteenth century, after which it developed into bar billiards, with influences from the French/Belgian game billard russe. A bagatelle variant using fixed metal pins, billard japonais led to the development of pachinko and pinball. Bagatelle is laterally related to miniature golf. Table games involving sticks and balls evolved from efforts to bring outdoor games like ground billiards and bowling inside for play during inclement weather, they are attested in general by the 15th century, although the 19th-century idea that bagatelle itself derived from the English "shovel-board" described in Charles Cotton's 1674 Compleat Gamester has since been disregarded. In France, during the long 1643–1715 reign of Louis XIV, billiard tables were narrowed, with wooden pins or skittles at one end of the table, players would shoot balls with a stick or cue from the other end, in a game inspired as much by bowling as billiards.
Pins took too long to reset when knocked down, so they were fixed to the table, holes in the bed of the table became the targets. Players could ricochet balls off the pins to achieve the harder scorable holes. Quite a number of variations on this theme were developed. In 1777 a party was thrown in honour of Louis XVI and the queen at the Château de Bagatelle erected at great expense by the king's brother, the Count of Artois. Bagatelle from Italian bagattella, signifies'a trifle','a decorative thing'; the highlight of the party was a new table game featuring a slender table and cue sticks, which players used to shoot ivory balls up an inclined playfield. The game was dubbed bagatelle by the count and shortly after swept through France; the name Bagatelle was first used to describe such a game in 1819. Its dimensions soon standardised at 7 feet by 21 inches; some French soldiers carried their favorite bagatelle tables with them to America while helping to fight the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Bagatelle spread and became so popular in America as well that a political cartoon from 1863 depicts US President Abraham Lincoln playing a small tabletop version of bagatelle against presidential rival George B. McClellan; the world's largest bagatelle board is believed to be one made by 5th Chislehurst Scout Group in 2016. It measures four by sixteen feet. Pub games Pardon, George Frederick, "Bagatelle", in Baynes, T. S. Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 229–230 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Bagatelle", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, Cambridge University Press, pp. 192–193 Instructional / informational video of Bagatelle game
Fortuna Glacier is a tidewater glacier at the mouth of Cumberland Bay on the island of South Georgia. It flows in a northeast direction to its terminus just west of Cape Best, with an eastern distributary reaching the west side of Fortuna Bay, on the north coast of South Georgia, it was named in about 1912 after the whale catcher Fortuna, is notable for two major events in the 20th Century. In mid-April 1915, explorer Ernest Shackleton's ship Endurance, carrying the 27 members of his Antarctic expedition, became locked in the polar ice in the Weddell Sea just off Antarctica. In the spring of 1916, as the ice warmed and drifted north, the ship was crushed; the party used the lifeboats to get to Elephant Island, a desolate, uninhabited island at the edge of the Antarctic Peninsula. There they were stranded. Shackleton and five others crammed into a lifeboat, the James Caird, sailed across the Scotia Sea for 800 miles, reaching South Georgia two weeks later, they landed on the island's uninhabited west side at King Haakon Bay.
Poor weather preventing them from setting sail again to one of the whaling stations on the island's east side, which were the only human habitation on South Georgia. Instead they had to cross the unknown interior of the island. Shackleton beached his boat and with two others made his traverse of the island, crossing the Fortuna Glacier in the process. Thirty-six hours they reached Stromness whaling station; when Argentina militarily occupied the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, the British Armed Forces recaptured the island in'Operation Paraquet', thereby removing the Argentinian military presence and restoring the island to British Sovereignty. It was decided to land a mountain troop of Special Air Service and 42 Royal Marine Commandos on the glacier, to approach Grytviken from the most unlikely direction. After the troops were landed on the glacier in conditions of poor visibility and gale extreme force winds on 21 April, their conditions deteriorated still further. During several repeated rescue attempts the following day by a Wessex 3 and two Wessex V helicopters, the Wessex V aircraft crashed in extreme weather conditions.
The Wessex 3, crewed by Lt Cdr Ian Stanley, Lt Chris Parry, Sub Lt Stewart Cooper and PO ACMN David Fitzgerald, succeeded in rescuing all troops and aircrew in an amazing feat of flying and navigation just before dark. On returning to Antrim, the Wessex 3 held 16 personnel instead of its normal 4 capacity. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Fortuna Glacier"
BASF Plant Science
BASF Plant Science is a subsidiary of BASF in which all plant biotechnology activities are consolidated. The GmbH was founded in 1998 and employs 700 people at 6 different locations worldwide; the headquarters of BASF Plant Science is located in Research Triangle Park. Plant Science has research sites in Canada and Europe. At these locations the company is developing genetically modified seeds; the company genetically modified crops like maize, cotton, sugarcane, sugar beet and potatoes "for a more efficient agriculture". Together with subsidiaries and partners, as well as in cooperation with universities and research institutions, BASF Plant Science is developing new procedures and practices in genetic technology. Genetically modified crops by BASF are sold and distributed through biotechnology companies like Monsanto, KWS Saat, Embrapa, or CTC; as of 2011, BASF Plant Science has developed three products: Amflora, a potato developed for the European market, producing pure amylopectin starch for industrial use.
Waxy potato starch is used in industrial procedures to make yarn stronger and paper glossier. Due to lack of acceptance of GM crops in Europe BASF Plant Science decided in 2012 the stop of its commercialization and research activities on the European potato varieties Amflora and Fortuna. Further it announced the relocation of the corporate headquarters from Germany to the USA. Cultivance is an herbicide resistant soybean, it received market permission form Brazil in 2010. Marketing and sales of Cultivance are through a Brazilian company. NutriDense is a higher nutritional maize plant used as a feed source for pigs and cows. A range of more crops are in the pipeline: Maize, soy and cotton: The aim is a higher biomass and plants that better resist environmental factors such as drought or disease; these crops are developed on the island of Kauai in Hawaii and is distributed in cooperation with Monsanto. Sugarcane, sugar beet: The aim is to develop plants that produce more sugar that can be used in food or as raw material for biofuel production.
Fortuna Potato: developed for resistance against Phytophthora infestans, a disease, difficult to handle for European agriculturists. Other products are being developed for the food industry for use in genetically modified foods. Examples include plants with a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids for preventing cardiovascular diseases, plants with a higher content of astaxanthin, used in fish farming as feed additive, as a food supplement for humans. BASF plant biotechnology
Fortuna station is a station along the SEPTA Lansdale/Doylestown Line. It is located near the corner of North Broad Street and Cowpath Road in Hatfield, United States. Cowpath Road was an actual cow path. In FY 2013, Fortuna station had a weekday average of 103 alightings; as part of an out of court settlement with the owners of a cow killed by a Reading Railroad train at the crossing, the station was named Fortuna in honor of the deceased cow. Media related to Fortuna station at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA – Fortuna Station December 28, 2001 Bob Vogel photo Station from Cowpath Road from Google Maps Street View
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I is a former King of Spain, reigning from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the abolition of the monarchy in 1931 and the subsequent declaration of the Second Spanish Republic. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his family's exile. Generalísimo Francisco Franco, the Spanish dictator who initiated the civil war by means of a coup d'état against the constitutional republic in 1936, took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor. Juan Carlos's father, was the fourth child of Alfonso, who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969 was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor as head of state. Juan Carlos came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his secondary education in 1955, he began his military training and entered the General Military Academy at Zaragoza.
He attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, finished his tertiary education at the University of Madrid. In 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Denmark in Athens; the couple had two daughters and a son together: Elena and Felipe. Due to Franco's declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spain's head of state in the summer of 1974. Franco died in November the following year and Juan Carlos became king on 22 November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first reigning monarch since 1931. Expected to continue Franco's legacy, Juan Carlos, soon after his accession introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and begin the Spanish transition to democracy; this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy. In 1981, Juan Carlos played a major role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the King's name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.
Hailed for his role in Spain's transition to democracy, the King and the monarchy's reputation began to suffer after controversies surrounding his family arose, exacerbated by an elephant-hunting trip he undertook during a time of financial crisis in Spain. In 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded to the throne as Felipe VI. Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931, he was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, his early life was dictated by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there.
He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the Instituto San Isidro in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza. Juan Carlos has two sisters: Duchess of Badajoz, he had a younger brother, Alfonso. On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, on the Portuguese Riviera; the Spanish Embassy in Portugal issued the following official communiqué: Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion. Alfonso had won a local junior golf tournament earlier in the day went to evening Mass and rushed up to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter holidays from military school.
It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun, given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired; as they were alone in the room, it is unclear how Alfonso was shot, but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that it was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall, hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm, causing him to fire the pistol. In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University.
He went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements. The dictatorial re
The steamboat Fortuna was a vessel that operated on Lake Washington in the first part of the 20th century. Fortuna was built in 1904 at a shipyard on the west side of Lake Washington two blocks south of Leschi Park, she was 106.9 feet in length overall, rated at 81 tons. The vessel is reported to have been acquired by Anderson Steamboat Company at a cost $31,500 in December 1906. Fortuna was built for Captain John Anderson to join his fleet of steamboats on Lake Washington, operating under the name of the Anderson Steamboat Company. Anderson at that point may have been operating in partnership with the Seattle Street Railway. Fortuna had compound engines, built at Seattle Machine Works.. Fortuna was the Roman name for the goddess of fortune. Captain Anderson named his vessels starting with Xanthus and Cyrene. Fortuna was known for her distinctive chime whistle, prepared by Captain Anderson, filing away at the whistle’s pipe until the sound suited him; the whistle was transferred to another Anderson boat, the Sightseer, which became one of the last steamboats of the Mosquito Fleet to operate on Puget Sound.
Publicly owned ferries (owned by King County on Lake Washington ran Captain Anderson out of the steamboat business by about the time of the First World War, so he sold his interest in the Anderson Steamboat Company. Captain Anderson operated Fortuna and other former vessels of his as a lessee of King County. In 1919, Fortuna was reconstructed into a ferry at Captain Anderson’s shipyard at Houghton. Unlike most purpose-built ferries, Fortuna remained a single-ender. Automobiles however could drive right through the once-beautiful steamer; the procedure was for Fortuna to dock bow-on at Roanoke, on Mercer Island, have autos drive on back out and head for the Seattle ferry dock at Leschi. On reaching Leschi, to unload the autos, Fortuna had to be backed into the dock; this took great skill by her engineer. In 1928 King County sold Fortuna to the King Shipbuilding Company of Seattle; the leading source states that she lasted until 1938, but is silent as to her career or ultimate disposition. Steamboats of Lake Washington Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet Urania steamer Fortuna at Fortuna dock on Mercer Island Fortuna underway on Lake Washington Fortuna at dock Kirkland Fortuna underway Fortuna unrecognizable as an auto ferry