A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Yuma County Area Transit
The Yuma County Area Transit system is a public transportation system based in Yuma County, Arizona. Since 1990 the agency has grown from a new transit service offering paratransit to the current mix of fixed-route and demand-responsive services serving over 32,000 riders per month, with an annual operating budget of $2.5 million. YCAT is the local Greyhound Lines agent. Before 1999 only private transportation companies operated any type of transit service in Yuma County, with taxis serving the urbanized areas and private van services providing transportation between San Luis and Yuma. Paratransit in Yuma County began in February 1999; when the Saguaro Foundation began operating a public dial-a-ride system funded by Yuma Metropolitan Planning Organization in 1996, YMPO's fixed-route service began in February 1999 with service between San Luis and Yuma under the name Valley Transit. The name YCAT or Yuma County Area Transit was adopted in 2002, with a new system of two routes, a local route within Yuma and an intercity route between San Luis and Yuma/Arizona Western College.
YCAT service between Yuma and Foothills was initiated in 2001, but the ridership was not considered high enough to justify the cost, the system was shortened to terminate at Arizona Western College. After a comprehensive review of the transit system by Moore and Associates, as well as financial and operating difficulties in 2003 which nearly caused the fixed-route transit system to shut down, the city of Yuma and other member jurisdictions in Yuma County contributed additional funding to the system. YMPO selected a new operating contractor, service survived. Two routes were added to the system in 2004, an additional route to Wellton was initiated in January 2006. Service was expanded to 10:00 pm on all routes in the system on a network of seven routes. In 2010, again after financial and operating difficulties, reductions in funding from the State of Arizona and local member entities, which resulted in the elimination of two routes within the City of Yuma, reduction of service hours from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, Monday through Saturday.
YCAT came close to closing down. However, a new operations strategy adopted by YMPO came into play to save the transit system using a reduced level of local funding from its member entities with the exception of the City of Yuma. In December 2010, a new agency - Yuma County Intergovernmental Public Transportation Authority was formed to assume the operation of transit services from YMPO, completed on July 1, 2012. A new service delivery model was implemented on January 9, 2012, with a complete restructure of all routes to improve efficiency. Today, a total of 9 routes now operate Monday through Saturday on a fleet of 17 YCAT fixed route buses and 11 cutaways and vans. Both demand-response and fixed-route service is administered and funded by the YCIPTA and its member agencies, operated by a private contractor. Presently, YCIPTA owns all vehicles for fixed-route and demand-response service as well as the lease for the East 14th Street and Atlantic Avenue maintenance facility. Under Arizona Revised Statutes - Title 28 Transportation, an intergovernmental public transportation authority may be organized in any county in Arizona with a population of two hundred thousand persons or less.
Besides the YCIPTA, the Coconino and Yavapai Counties. The YCIPTA is an IPTA, formed on December 13, 2010 by the Yuma County Board of Supervisors to administer, plan and maintain public transit services throughout Yuma County, including within the political jurisdictional boundaries of the Cities of Yuma, San Luis, Town on Wellton and the unincorporated Yuma County areas. On September 21, 2010, the Town of Wellton and City of Somerton passed a resolution to petition the County to form the IPTA. On October 3 and 20, 2010 the Cities of San Luis and Yuma passed a resolution to petition the County to form the IPTA. On December 6, 2010, Northern Arizona University petitioned the County to join the IPTA. On December 13, 2010, the County held a public hearing and approved the formation of the IPTA. On January 24, 2011, the Yuma County Intergovernmental Public Transportation Authority held its first Board of Directors meeting. Since the first meeting, Arizona Western College, Quechan Indian Tribe, Cocopah Indian Tribe has petition and joined the IPTA.
Support from the YMPO Executive Board was provided in August 2010 through the formation of a subcommittee to establish new governance structure for public transit management and again in August 2011 through the adoption of a resolution with an intent to transfer transit operations to YCIPTA by July 1, 2012. The transition was completed on July 1, 2012. In 2014, National Express replaced First Transit as the operator, it is the intent that the Federal Transit Administration funding, used to support Yuma County Area Transit and Greater Yuma Area Dial-A-Ride would be used by YCIPTA through YCIPTA designation as a grantee. YCIPTA would receive local match funding from the governmental entities, Indian tribes plus Northern Arizona University and Arizona Western College. Yuma County Area Transit is the marketing name for the fixed route transit system. YCAT OnCall is the marketing name for the demand responsive transit system known as Greater Yuma Area Dial-A-Ride. YCAT began in 2003 as a rebranded effort from what was known as Valley Transit.
Greater Yuma Area Dial-A-Ride began in 1996 an
Somerton is a city in Yuma County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 14,287, it is part of the Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area. Somerton was established in 1898 and incorporated in 1918. Somerton's economy is based on agriculture, medical services, tourism. Somerton is located at 32°35′50″N 114°42′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,266 people, 1,818 households, 1,652 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,483.2 people per square mile. There were 1,967 housing units at an average density of 1,484.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 44.52% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 51.11% from other races, 2.99% from two or more races. 95.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,818 households out of which 59.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.9% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.1% were non-families.
7.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.99 and the average family size was 4.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 38.9% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 14.4% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,544, the median income for a family was $27,944. Males had a median income of $21,619 versus $16,677 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,960. About 24.0% of families and 26.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 27.9% of those age 65 or over. Somerton is served by the Somerton Elementary School District, the Crane Elementary School District, the Yuma Union High School District. PPEP TEC High Schools's José Yepez Learning Center is located in Somerton.
Somerton has an annual Tamale Festival that benefits students from the area who will be attending Arizona State University. More than 20,000 visitors attend the festival each year; the festival is put together by The El Diablito Arizona State University Alumni chapter. The chapter was established by ASU graduates who have returned to work and live in the Yuma/Somerton/San Luis areas. Somerton photo gallery at Flickr Somerton Named NerdWallet's 5th City on the Rise in Arizona
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Interstate 8 is an Interstate Highway in the southwestern United States. It runs from the southern edge of Mission Bay at Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego, California at the Pacific Ocean, to the junction with I-10, just southeast of Casa Grande, Arizona. In California, the freeway travels through the San Diego metropolitan area as the Ocean Beach Freeway and the Mission Valley Freeway before traversing the Cuyamaca Mountains and providing access through the Imperial Valley, including the city of El Centro. Crossing the Colorado River into Arizona, I-8 continues through the city of Yuma across the Sonoran Desert to Casa Grande, in between the cities of Phoenix and Tucson; the first route over the Cuyamaca Mountains was dedicated in 1912, a plank road served as the first road across the Imperial Valley to Yuma. These were replaced by U. S. Route 80 across California and part of Arizona, Arizona State Route 84 between Gila Bend and Casa Grande; the US 80 freeway through San Diego was complete by the time it was renumbered as I-8 in the 1964 state highway renumbering.
The Arizona portion of the road was built starting in the 1960s. Several controversies erupted during the construction process. S. House of Representatives subcommittee found that the Arizona government had mismanaged financial resources; the route was completed in 1975 through California, by 1977 through Arizona, though the bridge over the Colorado River was not completed until 1978. Since the freeway through San Diego has been widened due to increasing congestion, another portion in Imperial County had to be rebuilt following damage by the remnants of Hurricane Kathleen. I-8 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the freeway from the eastern junction with California State Route 98 to the eastern end is designated as part of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail auto tour route, promoted by the National Park Service. The freeway begins at the intersection of Sunset Cliffs Nimitz Boulevard in San Diego.
For its first few miles, it parallels the San Diego River floodway. Near Old Town San Diego, I-8 intersects with I-5 as well as with Rosecrans Avenue, the former routing of SR 209; as the freeway enters Mission Valley, it continues eastward, bisecting the area known as "Hotel Circle" that has several hotels. I-8 has interchanges with SR 163, I-805, I-15 and its continuation, SR 15, before making a small bend to the north. In La Mesa, the route intersects SR 125. I-8 continues into El Cajon, where it intersects with SR 67 before it ascends into the mountains and the Cleveland National Forest, traveling through towns such as Alpine and Pine Valley, reaching high points at Laguna Summit, Crestwood Summit, Tecate Divide, crossing the Pine Valley Creek Bridge and passing near the Viejas Casino. A U. S. border patrol interior checkpoint was constructed in 1995 near Alpine, for westbound traffic on I-8. The freeway intersects with SR 79 in the national forest before passing through the La Posta and Campo Indian reservations.
In Boulevard, I-8 has an interchange with the eastern end of SR 94. I-8 straddles the San Diego–Imperial county line for a few miles before turning east. At the Mountain Springs/In Ko Pah grade, the freeway is routed down two separate canyons—Devils Canyon for westbound traffic and In-Ko-Pah Gorge for eastbound traffic—as it descends 3,000 feet in 11 miles. In places, the median is over 1.5 miles wide. This portion of the road is known for high winds through the canyons that have made driving difficult, sometimes resulting in closure of the freeway; the route enters the Imperial Valley, where it intersects with SR 98, a highway leading to Calexico, passes near the Desert View Tower. I-8 goes through Coyote Wells before entering the city of El Centro several miles later. In El Centro, I-8 intersects with SR 86 and SR 111, both north–south routes which connect to I-10 in the Coachella Valley, north of the Salton Sea. SR 115 and SR 98 end at I-8 east of El Centro; the route has the lowest above-ground elevation of any Interstate at 52 feet below sea level near El Centro.
The freeway traverses the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area and intersects with SR 186 leading south to Baja California Norte, Mexico. I-8 runs parallel to the All-American Canal across the desert for 55 miles. At points in eastern Imperial County, the Mexican border is less than half a mile south of the Interstate. I-8 passes through Felicity and Winterhaven before crossing the Colorado River on a bridge into Yuma, Arizona. I-8 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System from I-5 to the western junction of SR 98, though it is not an official state scenic highway, it is known as the Border Friendship Route from San Diego to the Arizona state line. The Interstate is signed as the Ocean Beach Freeway west of I-5. For the entire length within San Diego County and into Imperial County, it is signed as the Kumeyaay Highway, after the local Native American tribe and their trad