The Copenhagen Metro is a 24/7 rapid transit system in Copenhagen, serving the municipalities of Copenhagen, Tårnby. The 20.4-kilometre system opened between 2002 and 2007, has two lines, M1 and M2. The driverless light metro supplements the larger S-train rapid transit system, is integrated with DSB local trains and Movia buses. Through the city center and west to Vanløse, M1 and M2 share a common line. To the southeast, the system serves Amager, with the 13.9-kilometre M1 running through the new neighborhood of Ørestad, the 14.2-kilometre M2 serving the eastern neighborhoods and Copenhagen Airport. The metro has 22 stations. In 2018, the metro carried 64,7 million passengers; the system is owned by Metroselskabet, owned by the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, the Ministry of Transport. The 34 trains are of the AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro class and stationed at the Control and Maintenance Center at Vestamager; the trains are three cars long. The metro trains were planned to be four cars long, but trains were reduced to three cars per set as a savings measure.
Platforms are – although shorter than planned – built to accommodate trains with four cars, the automatic doors can be modified accordingly should the need arise. Operation of the system is subcontracted to Metro Service. Trains run continually, twenty-four hours a day, with the headway varying from two to four minutes, but with longer intervals during the night only. While a 6 train per hour service with 8-car trains, moves 48 cars per hour in each direction, Copenhagen Metro with 30 tph with 3 cars only moves 90 cars per hour in each direction. So, in terms of capacity, the Copenhagen Metro is equivalent to a system with 8 cars and 12 tph; the S-trains have 8 cars and 12 tph in the suburbs, but 30 tph in the city centre and therefore higher capacity than the metro. Planning of the Metro started in 1992 as part of the redevelopment plans for Ørestad with construction starting in 1996, stage 1, from Nørreport to Vestamager and Lergravsparken, opened in 2002. Stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, opened in 2003, followed by stage 3, from Lergravsparken to Lufthavnen, in 2007.
Three extensions are under construction. The City Circle Line is an underground 15.5 km loop through central Copenhagen and Frederiksberg with 17 stops. This loop is scheduled to open in July 2019; this loop will not share any track with the M1 and M2 lines, but will intersect them at Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg stations. When it opens, two lines will run on the loop. M3 will run the full length of the loop in both direction and M4 will run the busiest south-eastern section in both directions. With the City loop open in 2019, the Metro expects that its ridership will double from its 2016 levels to 116 million annual passengers; the M4 line will evolve into a separate line between 2020 and 2024 as extensions to Nordhavn and Sydhavn open. The two-stop, 3 km long, line to Nordhavn is under construction and will open in 2020; the extension will add an interchange with Nordhavn S-train station. The five-stop, 4.5 km, extension to Sydhavn is under construction, with planned opening in 2024. The Sydhavn line will terminate at Ny Ellebjerg where it will create a new regional rail transport hub by connecting the metro system to the S-train network, regional trains, long-distance trains on the current lines and the upcoming high speed Copenhagen-Ringsted railway.
Once these extensions are complete, Metro expects the daily ridership to triple from its current level of 200,000 riders per weekday to 600,000 riders per weekday in 2030 The planning of the metro was spurred by the development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen. The principle of building a rail transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992, with the Ørestad Act; the responsibility for developing the area, as well as building and operating the metro, was given to the Ørestad Development Corporation, a joint venture between Copenhagen Municipality and the Ministry of Finance. Three modes were considered: a tramway, a light rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit; the tram solution would have been a street tram, without any major infrastructure investments in the city centre, such as a dedicated right-of-way. Through Ørestad it would have had level crossings, except for a grade-separated crossing with the European Route E20 and the Øresund Line.
It would have had a driver and have operated at about a 150-second interval—twice the cycle time of the city's traffic lights. Power would have been provided with overhead wires. Stops were to be located about every 500 m at street level; the articulated trams would have a capacity for 230 passengers. The light rail model would have used the same approach as the tram in Ørestad, but would instead have run through a tunnel in the city centre; the tunnel sections would be shorter, but the diameter larger because it would have to accommodate overhead wires. The system would have the same frequency as the tram, but use double trams and would therefore require larger stations; the metro solution was chosen because it combined the highest average speeds, the highest passenger capacity, the lowest visual and noise impact, the lowest number of accidents. Despite requiring the highest investment, it had the highest net present value; the decision to build stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse
Christianshavn Station is a rapid transit station on the Copenhagen Metro, served by the M1 and M2 lines. The station is located centrally in the Christianshavn district, it is located in fare zone 1 and opened in 2002. It is notable for having a different layout than other underground stations on the line; the platforms are much narrower, the "diamonds" seen on street level are not present on this station. The station has bicycle parking facilities. Christianshavn station on www.m.dk Christianshavn station on www.m.dk
Islands Brygge Station
Islands Brygge is a rapid transit station of the Copenhagen Metro in Copenhagen, Denmark. The first station on the M1 Line after its split from the M2 Line at Christianshavn, it is located in zone 1 in the northwestern section of the island of Amager. Islands Brygge station is situated in the evolving Islands Brygge area in the northern part of the Ørestad redevelopment area, termed Ørestad Nord; the station lies below Ørestads Boulevard at its intersection with Njalsgade. Nearby is Havneparken, a celebrated public park transformed from a former industrial site in 1984 with additions since then; as one of six stations within or bounding the Ørestad redevelopment area, Islands Brygge has witnessed significant transit-oriented development. Educational in nature, nearby is the University of Copenhagen's Faculty of Humanities. Commercial development in the area includes Metropolen, a 9,500 square metres office and shopping complex opened in 2010. Like all Copenhagen Metro stations, Islands Brygge has an island platform setup with two tracks.
Islands Brygge station on www.m.dk Islands Brygge station on www.m.dk
Farum station is the terminus of the Hareskovbanen radial of the S-train network around Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located about 1 km east of the old village Farum, but is the center of the modern Farum, which has grown up around the station; the station opened in 1906 as an intermediate station on the Copenhagen-Slangerup railway. The line between Farum and Slangerup closed in 1954; the station was remodeled prior to the line's conversion to S-trains in 1977. Media related to Farum Station at Wikimedia Commons
Kongens Nytorv Station
Kongens Nytorv is a rapid transit station on the Copenhagen Metro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located under Kongens Nytorv plaza and is part of fare zone 1, it is under reconstruction due to an expansion of the metro lines but the station is still open and operated during the expansion work. It provides direct access to the Magasin du Nord department store. Kongens Nytorv station opened as part of the initial segment of the Copenhagen Metro, with trains running west to Nørreport and east to either Vestamager or Lergravsparken. Construction for the City Circle Line, which will carry the M3 and M4 Lines and for which Kongens Nytorv will act as an interchange, began on 4 October 2009 with wire work and archaeological sites; the excavation is expected to begin in mid-2011 and the station is expected to be completed in 2018. Kongens Nytorv is built and designed in the same style as other underground stations on the Copenhagen Metro. There are two main levels below ground level. At this level, passengers take an escalator down to a mezzanine switchback that makes them turn around and go down another escalator to reach platform level.
There is a lift that transports passengers to the platform. There are two entrances to the station as well: the southwestern corner of the intersection of Kongens Nytorv, Lille Kongensgade, Holmens Kanal, Store Kongensgade and the other inside the Magasin du Nord department store. Both Copenhagen Metro lines, the M1 and the M2, serve Kongens Nytorv. Both operate westbound towards Vanløse and eastbound towards Vestamager on the M1 and Lufthavnen on the M2; when the City Circle Line and M4 is completed in 2019, Kongens Nytorv will act as a connection between the existing metro lines and the new M3 and M4 lines. Kongens Nytorv Kongens Nytorv station on www.m.dk Kongens Nytorv station on www.m.dk
Vestamager is a rapid transit station of the Copenhagen Metro in Copenhagen, Denmark. The terminus of the M1 line, it is located in zone 3 in the southwestern section of the island of Amager. Vestamager is the southernmost station of the Copenhagen Metro, located in the southern part of Amager; the station lies on a viaduct paralleling Ørestads Boulevard at its intersection with Asger Jorns Allé. Vestamager station is close to Kalvebod Fælled and next to the Metro's control and maintenance centre. Vestamager is the last of six stations within the Ørestad redevelopment area on the M1 Line beginning at Islands Brygge and, as a result, has witnessed significant transit-oriented development; the vast majority of new construction around Vestamager is to the west of Ørestads Boulevard and south of the Øresundsmotorvejen. This area is classified by the master plan as Ørestads Syd and is one of four key planning and development districts in Ørestad. In general, the northern half of Ørestads Syd will be dedicated to office projects, while the southern half will be focused on residential development.
The first major residential project to be completed in the area - 8TALLET, a 61,000 square metres, figure-eight shaped apartment complex - was awarded the title of "best residential development" at the World Architecture Festival in 2011. Vestamager station opened on 19 October 2002 as part of the first phase of the Copenhagen Metro, known as the Ørestadsbanen. At the time, trains operated between Vestamager and Nørreport, with the M2 Line running between Nørreport and Lergravsparken. Service continues to this day. Vestamager station on www.m.dk Vestamager station on www.m.dk
M2 is a line of the Copenhagen Metro, colored yellow on the map. It runs from Vanløse to Lufthavnen through the center of Copenhagen, sharing track with the M1 from Vanløse to Christianshavn; the line was built along with M1 as part of the redevelopment of Ørestad. The principle of the line was passed in 1992, construction commenced in 1998; the line opened in several stages between 2002 and 2007. It is owned by Metroselskabet and operated by Metro Service, operates with a headway between four and twenty minutes; the line is 14.2 kilometers long, runs in a tunnel through the city center between Lindevang and Amager Strand. It connects the eastern borough of Vanløse and the municipality of Frederiksberg to the city center of Copenhagen, as well as the western parts of Amager and Copenhagen Airport, it provides transfer to DSB trains at two stations. Its southern end, in the district of Amager Øst follows the same route as a disused railway line, along the coast of Øresund; the background for the metro was the urban development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen.
The principle of building a rail transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992, with the Ørestad Act. The responsibility for developing the area, as well as building and operating the metro, was given to the Ørestad Development Corporation, a joint venture between Copenhagen Municipality and the Ministry of Finance. Three modes of transport were considered: a tramway, a light rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit system; the decision to build stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, stage 3 to the airport, was made by parliament on 21 December 1994. Stage 2 involved the establishment of the company Fredriksbergbaneselskapet I/S in February 1995, owned 70% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 30% by Fredriksberg Municipality; the third stage would be built by Østamagerbaneselskapet I/S, established in September 1995 and owned 55% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 45% by Copenhagen County. In October 1996, a contract was signed with the Copenhagen Metro Construction Group for building the lines, with Ansaldo for delivery of the trains and operate the system the first five years.
COMET was a consortium comprised Astaldi, Bachy, SAE, Ilbau, NCC Rasmussen & Schiøtz Anlæg and Tarmac Construction. Construction started in November 1996, with the moving of underground pipes and wires around the station areas. In August 1997, work commenced at the depot, in September, COMET started the first mainline construction work. In October and November, the two tunnel boring machines, christened Liva and Bette, were delivered, they started digging each barrel of the tunnel from Islands Brygge in February 1998. The same month, the Public Transport Authority gave the necessary permits to operate a driverless metro; the section between Fasanvej and Frederiksberg is a former S-train line, was last operated as such on 20 June 1998. The first section of tunnel was completed by September 1998, after which the TMBs moved to Havnegade. By December 1998, work had started on all the initial nine stations. Plans for M2 were presented to the public in April 1999, with a debate emerging if the proposed elevated solution was the best.
In May, the first trains were delivered, trial runs began at the depot. In December, the tunnels were completed to Strandlodsvej, the TMBs were moved to Havnegade, where they started to grind towards Frederiksberg. From 1 January 2000, the S-train service from Solbjerg to Vanløse was terminated, work to rebuild to metro started. By February 2001, all tunnels were finished. In March 2001, the Copenhagen County Council decided to start construction of stage 3. On 6 November 2001, the first train operates through a tunnel section and on 28 November, laying of tracks along stage 1 and stage 2A completed. An agreement about financing stage 3 was reached on 12 April. By 22 May, the 18 delivered; the section from Nørreport to Lergravsparken and Vesterport was opened on 19 October 2002. The system had a 12-minute headway on each of the two services. From 3 December this was reduced to 9 minutes, from 19 December to 6 minutes. Operation of the system was subcontracted to Ansaldo, who again subcontracted it to Metro Service, a subsidiary of Serco.
The contract had a duration of five years, with an option for extension for another three. Trial runs on the next section of metro, stage 2A from Nørreport to Frederiksberg, began on 24 February, it opened on 29 May 2003. All changes to bus and tin schedules in Copenhagen took place on 25 May, but to allow Queen Margrethe II to open the line, the opening needed to be adapted to her calendar; this caused four days without a bus service along the line. Stage 2B, from Frederiksberg to Vanløse, opened on 12 October. Forum Station was nominated for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture in 2005. In 2007, the Ørestad Development Corporation was discontinued, the ownership of the metro was transferred to Metroselskabet I/S; the 4.5-kilometre stage 3 opened on 28 September 2007, from Lergravsparken to the airport. It followed for the most part the route of the former Amager Line of the Danish State Railways. With this stage complete, 34 trains had been delivered. However, the line had caused a heated debate, several locals had organized themselves in the Amager Metro Group.
They demanded that the line instead be tunneled, arguing that it caused a physical barrier in Amager and that it created noise pollution. M2 starts at Vanløse, which serves a residential area, where there is transfer to the S-train's lines C and H; the line starts elevated and is located in fare zone 2. The