Askar Akayevich Akayev is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution. Akayev was born in Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, he was the eldest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers. He became a metalworker at a local factory in 1961, he subsequently moved to Leningrad, where he trained as a physicist and graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics in 1967 with an honors degree in mathematics and computer science. He stayed at the institute until 1976, working as teacher. In Leningrad he met and in 1970 married Mayram Akayeva with whom he now has two sons and two daughters, they returned to their native Kyrgyzstan in 1977, where he became a senior professor at the Frunze Polytechnic Institute. Some of his cabinet members were former students and friends from his academic years, he obtained a doctorate in 1981 from the Moscow Institute of Engineering and Physics, having written his dissertation on holographic systems of storage and transformation of information.
In 1984, he became a member of the Kirghiz Academy of Sciences, rose to vice president of the Academy in 1987 and president of the Academy in 1989. He was elected as a deputy in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in the same year. On 25 October 1990, the Kirghiz SSR's Supreme Soviet held elections for the newly created post of president of the republic. Two candidates contested the presidency, President of the Council of Ministers of Kirghiz SSR, Apas Jumagulov, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kirghiz SSR, Absamat Masaliyev. However, neither Jumagulov nor Masaliyev received a majority of the votes cast. In accordance with the Kirghiz SSR's constitution of 1978, both candidates were disqualified and neither could run in the second round of voting. Two days on 27 October, the Supreme Soviet selected Akayev -, a compromise candidate - to serve as the republic's first president. In 1991, he was offered the post of vice-president of the Soviet Union by President Mikhail Gorbachev, but refused.
Akayev was elected president of the renamed Republic of Kyrgyzstan in an uncontested poll on 12 October 1991. He was reelected twice, amid allegations of ballot rigging, on 24 December 1995 and 29 October 2000. Akayev was seen as an economically right-wing liberal leader, he commented in a 1991 interview that "Although I am a Communist, my basic attitude toward private property is favorable. I believe that the revolution in the sphere of economics was not made by Karl Marx but by Adam Smith." As late as 1993 political analysts saw Akayev as a "prodemocratic physicist." He promoted privatization of land and other economic assets and operated a liberal regime compared with the governments of the other Central Asian nations. He was granted lifelong immunity from prosecution by the Lower House of Parliament in 2003. Aksayev was supportive of the Kyrgyzstani Neo-Tengrist movement; the first wave of demonstrations took place in mid-March 2002. Azimbek Beknazarov, a member of parliament accused of abuse of power, was due to attend trial taking place in Jalal-Abad.
Over 2,000 demonstrators marched on the town. According to eyewitnesses, police ordered the demonstrators to stop and gave them fifteen minutes to disperse, yet opened fire before this time elapsed. Five men were shot dead. 61 people were injured, including 14 civilians. Riot police clashed with protesters in Bishkek in May during demonstrations in support of Beknazarov. Police in the capital's Parliament square kicked protesters and dragged people away to break up the 200-strong crowd, they made several demands including the resignation of Akayev. This was again repeated in November of the same year when scores were arrested as the opposition marched on the capital. Protests continued, albeit on a smaller scale, at various points over the next few years. Akayev had promised to step down from office when his final term expired in 2005, but the possibility of a dynastical succession had been raised, his son Aidar Akayev and his daughter Bermet Akayeva were candidates in the 2005 legislative election, it was suspected that he was going to retain either de facto power by arranging for the election of a close supporter or relative, or even by abrogation of the term limit provision in the constitution and remaining in power an allegation which he denied.
The results of the elections were disputed, with allegations of vote-rigging. Two of Akayev's children won seats. Serious protests broke out in Osh and Jalal-Abad, with protesters occupying administration buildings and the Osh airport; the government declared. However an opposition leader said. Akayev refused to resign, but pledged not to use force to end the protests, which he attributed to foreign interests seeking to provoke a large-scale clamp-down in response. On 23 March Akayev announced the dismissal of Interior Minister Bakirdin Subanbekov and General Prosecutor Myktybek Abdyldayev for "poor work" in dealing with the growing protests. On 24 March 2005 protesters stormed the presidential compound in the central square of Bishkek and seized control of the seat of state power after clashing with riot police during a large opposition rally. Opposition supporters seized control of key cities and towns in the south to press demands that Akayev step down; that day, Akayev fled the country with his family escaping first to Kazakhstan and to Russ
Ata Meken Socialist Party
Ata-Meken Socialist Party is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. Its current Chairman and founder is Omurbek Tekebayev, a former speaker of the Kyrgyz Parliament; the party was registered on December 16, 1992 following a split between Tekebayev and the conservative Erkin Kyrgyzstan party. The party's platform calls for a democratic state, economic reforms and evolutionary social development, it favours reasonable compromise between government bodies. The party supported Tekebayev in the 2000 Presidential elections, where he came second with 14%. On May 20, 2004 the party joined the For Fair Elections electoral alliance in preparing for the February 2005 parliamentary elections; the party won one seat in the first round of the 2005 parliamentary elections. Ata-Meken received the votes of 5.6% of eligible voters in the 2010 parliamentary elections, giving it 18 of 120 seats in parliament. This result made the party the fifth of five parties to surpass the support threshold of 5% of eligible voters necessary to enter parliament
Communist Party of Kirghizia
The Communist Party of Kirghizia was the ruling political party and the arm of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Nikolay Uzukov Vladimir Shubrikov Mikhail Kulkov Alexander Shakhray Moris Belotsky Maksim Ammosov Aleksey Vagov Nikolay Bogolyubov Iskhak Razzakov Turdakun Usubaliyev Absamat Masaliyev Jumgalbek Amanbayev Leadership of Communist Kyrgyzstan Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz Republic, known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Kyrgyz means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south.
The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai; the territory known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable. Many aspects of the Ky
Politics of Kyrgyzstan
The Politics of Kyrgyzstan known as the Kyrgyz Republic takes place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Kyrgyzstan as "hybrid regime" in 2016. In the first years of Kyrgyzstan's full independence, President Askar Akayev appeared wholeheartedly committed to the reform process. However, despite the backing of major Western donors, including the International Monetary Fund, Kyrgyzstan had consequential economic difficulties from the outset; these came as a result of the breakup of the Soviet trade bloc, which impeded the Republic's smooth transfer to a free-market economy. In 1993, allegations of corruption against Akayev's closest political associates blossomed into a major scandal. One of those accused of improprieties was Vice President Feliks Kulov, who resigned for ethical reasons in December.
Following Kulov's resignation, Akayev dismissed the government and called upon the last communist premier, Apas Djumagulov, to form a new one. In January 1994, Akayev initiated a referendum asking for a renewed mandate to complete his term of office, he received 96.2% of the vote. A new Constitution was passed by the Parliament in May 1993. In 1994, the Parliament failed to produce a quorum for its last scheduled session prior to the expiration of its term. President Akayev was accused of having manipulated a boycott by a majority of the parliamentarians. Akayev, in turn, asserted that the communists had caused a political crisis by preventing the legislature from fulfilling its role. Akayev scheduled an October 1994 referendum, overwhelmingly approved by voters, that proposed two amendments to the Constitution, one that would allow the Constitution to be amended by means of a referendum, the other creating a new bicameral parliament called the Jogorku Keņesh. Elections for the two legislative chambers – a 35-seat full-time assembly and a 70-seat part-time assembly – were held in February 1995 after campaigns considered remarkably free and open by most international observers, although the election-day proceedings were marred by widespread irregularities.
Independent candidates won most of the seats, suggesting that personalities prevailed over ideologies. The new Parliament convened its initial session in March 1995. One of its first orders of business was the approval of the precise constitutional language on the role of the legislature. Kyrgyzstan's independent political parties competed in the 1996 parliamentary elections. A February 1996 referendum – in violation of the Constitution and the law on referendums – amended the Constitution to give President Akayev more power, it removed the clause that parliamentarians be directly elected by universal suffrage. Although the changes gave the President the power to dissolve Parliament, it more defined Parliament's powers. Since that time, Parliament has demonstrated real independence from the executive branch. An October 1998 referendum approved constitutional changes, including increasing the number of deputies in the upper house, reducing the number of deputies in the lower house, rolling back Parliamentary immunity, reforming land tender rules, reforming the state budget.
Two rounds of Parliamentary elections were held on 20 February 2000 and 12 March 2000. With the full backing of the United States, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe reported that the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections and hence were invalid. Questionable judicial proceedings against opposition candidates and parties limited the choice of candidates available to Kyrgyz voters, while state-controlled media reported favorably on official candidates only and government officials put pressure on independent media outlets that favored the opposition. In 2002 Azimbek Beknazarov, a leading opposition figure, was imprisoned by the local authorities, in what many believe to be politically motivated circumstances; this led to protests resulting in clashes with police forces, culminating in the death of five people in Jalal-Abad. As May approached the authorities further extended their hold on power, imprisoning the vocal former Presidential ally, Feliks Kulov, to ten years for alleged "abuses of office".
During the same month the entire government resigned, accepting blame for the loss of life during the protests earlier in the year. A new government led by Nikolay Tanayev was formed and has remained since. In November the President faced yet more protests, as the opposition announced it would march on the capital and demand his resignation; the police reacted by arresting large amounts of demonstrators, further adding to international disapproval at the authoritarian nature of Akayev's government. By June 2003, the lower house of Parliament announced that President Akayev and two other leaders of Kyrgyzstan, from the Soviet era, would be given lifetime immunity from prosecution, raising the prospect of Akayev stepping down. In 2005, following disputed results of the 2005 parliamentary elections, Kyrgyzstan was thrown into a state of political turmoil, with different parties claiming that they were the legitimate government. On 10 July 2005 interim President and opposition People's Movement leader Kurmanbek Bakiyev won the presidential election in a landslide victory..
In 2006, Bakiyev faced a political crisis as thousands of people demonstrated in a series of protests in Bishkek. They accused him of reneging on promised constitutional reforms limiting presidential power and giving more authority to the parliament
Hizb ut-Tahrir is an international, pan-Islamist political organisation, which describes its ideology as Islam, its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah to resume the Islamic way of life in the Muslim world. The caliphate would unite the Muslim community upon their Islamic creed and implement the Shariah, so as to carry the proselytising of Islam to the rest of the world; the party was founded in 1953 as a political organisation in Jerusalem by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, an Islamic scholar and appeals court judge from Haifa. Since Hizb ut-Tahrir has spread to more than 50 countries, grown to a membership estimated to be between "tens of thousands" to "about one million". Hizb ut-Tahrir is very active in Western countries in the United Kingdom, in several Arab and Central Asian countries, despite being banned by a number of governments. Members meet in small private study circles, but in countries where the group is not illegal it engages with the media and organises rallies and conferences.
The basis of the party's ideological structure has been "meticulously thought out and published in many detailed books" that are available. Al-Nabhani developed a program and "draft constitution" for the caliphate, which would be run by a Caliph. Articles of the constitution detail canons fundamentally related to the economy, judiciary and more. Hizb ut-Tahrir has been banned in countries such as Germany, China, Egypt and all Arab countries except Lebanon and the UAE. In July 2017, the Indonesian government formally revoked Hizbut ut-Tahrir's charter, citing incompatibility with government regulations on extremism and national ideology. Hizb ut-Tahrir states its aim as unification of all Muslim countries over time in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, headed by a caliph elected by Muslims. This, it holds, is an obligation decreed by God, warning that he will punish those Muslims "who neglect this duty." Once established, the caliphate will expand into non-Muslim areas, through "invitation" and through military jihad, so as to expand the land of Islam" and diminish land of unbelief.
To "achieve its objective" HT seeks "to gain the leadership of the Islamic community" so that the community will "accept it as her leader, to implement Islam upon her and proceed with it in her struggle against the Kuffar and in the work towards the return of the Islamic State..."The nature of the "Islamic state"/caliphate/khilafah is spelled out in a detailed program and "draft constitution" which notes the caliphate being a unitary state, run by a caliph head of state elected by Muslims. Other specified features include: "The currency of the State is to be restricted to gold and silver"—article 163. Forbidden by the constitution are such things as copyrights on educational materials, military treaties, memberships by the state in secular international organizations. In addition to the constitution, "many detailed books" expand on the HT ideology and "method of work", according to its 2010 Information pack. Although hizb means party in Arabic, in the countries where Hizb ut-Tahrir is active it has not registered as a political party or attempted to elect candidates to political office, although it did early in its history.
Hizb ut-Tahrir put forward candidates for office in Jordan in the 1950s when it was first formed and before it was banned, according to Suha Taji-Farouki. Kyrgyz Hizb ut-Tahrir members campaigned unsuccessfully for an affiliated candidate in Kyrgyzstan's national presidential election in July 2005, have participated in municipal elections where their followers have won in a number of regions. One observer describes the strategy as "global, grassroots revolution, culminating in a sudden, millenarian victory", as opposed to a slog through a political process "that risks debasing the Koran and perpetuating the ummah’s subjugation to the West"; the party plans its political progress in three stages, taking after the process "by which the Prophet Muhammad established the Caliphate in thirteen years." According to an analyst of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Kazakhstan, where the group is outlawed: "First they convert new members. Secondly, they establish a network of secret cells, they try to infiltrate the government to work to legalize their party and its aims."
A more sympathetic description of this strategy is that Hizb ut-Tahrir works to: Establish group of elites as a community of Hizb ut-Tahrir members who carry the invitation to Muslim societies to support an Islamic state. Members should accept the goals and methods of the organization as their own and be ready to work to fulfill these goals. Build public opinion among the Muslim masses for the caliphate and the other Islamic concepts that will lead to a revival of Islamic thought. (This process of what the party calls "intellectual transformation through political and cultural interaction", attempts to imitate Muhmmad's using his core of supporters to win over the population of Mecca and Medina