The thylacine was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger or the Tasmanian wolf, native to continental Australia and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 20th century. It was the last extant member of its family, the thylacine was an apex predator, like the tigers and wolves of the Northern Hemisphere from which it obtained two of its common names. As a marsupial, it was not closely related to these placental mammals and its closest living relative is thought to be either the Tasmanian devil or the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials to have a pouch in both sexes, the male thylacine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush. The thylacine has been described as a predator because of its ability to survive. Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, the modern thylacine first appeared about 4 million years ago.
Dicksons thylacine is the oldest of the seven discovered fossil species and this thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives. The largest species, the powerful thylacine which grew to the size of a wolf, was the species to survive into the late Miocene. In late Pleistocene and early Holocene times, the thylacine was widespread throughout Australia. Since the thylacine filled the ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere. Despite this, it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere predators, numerous examples of thylacine engravings and rock art have been found dating back to at least 1000 BC. Petroglyph images of the thylacine can be found at the Dampier Rock Art Precinct on the Burrup Peninsula in Western Australia, by the time the first European explorers arrived, the animal was already extinct in mainland Australia and rare in Tasmania. Europeans may have encountered it as far back as 1642 when Abel Tasman first arrived in Tasmania and his shore party reported seeing the footprints of wild beasts having claws like a Tyger.
Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, arriving with the Mascarin in 1772, positive identification of the thylacine as the animal encountered cannot be made from this report since the tiger quoll is similarly described. The first definitive encounter was by French explorers on 13 May 1792, as noted by the naturalist Jacques Labillardière, in 1805 William Paterson, the Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, sent a detailed description for publication in the Sydney Gazette. The first detailed description was made by Tasmanias Deputy Surveyor-General, George Harris in 1808. Harris originally placed the thylacine in the genus Didelphis, which had created by Linnaeus for the American opossums, describing it as Didelphis cynocephala
Cave diving is underwater diving in water-filled caves. It may be done as a sport, a way of exploring flooded caves for scientific investigation, or for the search for. Recreational cave diving is considered to be a type of technical diving due to the lack of a free surface during large parts of the dive. It originated in the United Kingdom, stemming from the more common activity of caving and its origins in the United States are more closely associated to scuba diving. Compared to caving and scuba diving, there are relatively few practitioners of cave diving and this is due in part to the specialized equipment and skill sets required, and in part because of the high potential risks due to the specific environment. Despite these risks, water-filled caves attract scuba divers and speleologists due to their often unexplored nature, Underwater caves have a wide range of physical features, and can contain fauna not found elsewhere. The procedures of cave diving have much in common with procedures used for types of penetration diving.
This is ensured by the use of a continuous guideline between the team and outside of the flooded cave, and diligent planning and monitoring of gas supplies. Two basic types of guideline are used, permanent lines, permanent lines may include a main line starting near the entrance/exit, and side lines or branch lines, and are marked to indicate the direction to the nearest exit. Temporary lines include exploration lines and jump lines, in some caves, changes of depth of the cave along the dive route will constrain decompression depths, and gas mixtures and decompression schedules can be tailored to take this into account. Most open-water diving skills apply to diving, and there are additional skills specific to the environment. Good buoyancy control and finning technique help preserve visibility in areas with silt deposits, the ability to navigate in total darkness using the guideline to find the way out is a safety critical emergency skill. Emergency skills for dealing with gas supply problems are complicated by the possibility of the emergency occurring in a confined space, Cave diver training stresses the importance of risk management and cave conservation ethics.
Most training systems offer progressive stages of education and certification, Cavern training covers the basic skills needed to enter the overhead environment. Training will generally consist of gas planning, propulsion techniques needed to deal with the silty environments in many caves and handling, and communication. Once certified as a diver, a diver may undertake cavern diving with a cavern or cave certified buddy. Once intro to cave certified, a diver may penetrate further into a cave, usually limited by 1/3 of a single cylinder, or in the case of a basic cave certification. An intro cave diver is not certified to do complex navigation
Cape Jaffa, South Australia
It located about 19 kilometres south west of the town centre of Kingston SE and about 245 kilometres south south-east of the Adelaide city centre. The locality includes a settlement located on the side of the headland overlooking Lacepede Bay which is known as Cape Jaffa. The settlement includes a jetty and a marina, the locality includes part of the Bernouilli Conservation Reserve. Cape Jaffa is located within the division of Barker, the state MacKillop
The Princes Highway is a major road in Australia, extending from Sydney to Port Augusta via the coast through the states of New South Wales and South Australia. The highway follows the coastline for most of its length, and thus quite an indirect. Because of the nature and lower traffic volumes over much of its length. Sections of the Princes Highway have different route allocations, the gazetted route of the Princes Highway differs from the route of State Route 60. The gazetted route was designated State Route 60 for its length, the section of the Princes Highway between West Helensburgh and Bulli Tops the original coastal route between Sydney and Wollongong, first used in 1843. From Bulli Tops this route continued south along todays Mount Ousley Road as far south as Mount Keira Road and this route replaced the inland route from Sydney via Liverpool, Appin to Bulli Tops. The Princes Highway as a named route came into being when pre-existing roads were renamed ‘Princes Highway’ after the visit to Australia in 1920 of the Prince of Wales.
The original submissions in January 1920 were in order for the Prince to have the opportunity during his visit to make the trip from Melbourne to Sydney overland along the route, different routes were considered, including the inland route via Yass. This idea never came to fruition, due partly to the amount of time. The Prince did, give his permission for the naming, the highway had opening ceremonies in both New South Wales and Victoria during 1920. The first section of road from Melbourne was opened on 10 August in Warragul, the road from Sydney was opened on 19 October in Bulli, by the NSW Minister for Local Government, Thomas Mutch. The approval was given by the Victorian executive to extend the highway west from Melbourne through Geelong, Warrnambool, the roads were renamed by the South Australian government from Adelaide east to the South Australian border in February 1922. By 1928, the route went through Mount Barker and Wistow to Lanhorne Creek, by 1935, the Princes Highway passed through Nairne and Kanmantoo, Murray Bridge and Tailem Bend.
This road was superseded by the South Eastern Freeway, Swanport Bridge, in 1942, as part of wartime defence measures, a road was built from Mount Keira Road to Fairy Meadow. This route forms part of Mount Ousley Road, city Road in fact forms the first section of the highway, and becomes King Street, part of the Princes Highway. Where King Street ends at Sydney Park Road, the Princes Highway continues in its own right, the only major engineering structures along its route are the twin Tom Uglys Bridge across Georges River. The northbound bridge is of steel construction, opened in 1929, whilst the southbound bridge is of prestressed concrete girders. It runs through Sydneys southern suburbs, via Kogarah, South of Waterfall the highway is paralleled by the 55-kilometre Princes Motorway to the top of Bulli Pass outside the city of Wollongong, which carries the majority of traffic
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals
Simosthenurus, referred to as the short-faced kangaroo, is an extinct genus of megafaunal macropods that existed in Australia, specifically Tasmania, during the Pleistocene. Analysis of Simosthenurus fossils has contributed to the finding that there are three lineages of macropods, Sthenurinae and Lagostrophinae, the genus Simosthenurus was among the sthenurines. The two most documented members of the genus are S. maddocki and S. occidentalis, though other species have been discovered, osteological information has yielded that Simosthenurus is part of the same family as that of modern kangaroos. However, modern kangaroos are plantigrade hoppers, using jumping as their means of locomotion, while Simosthenurus was a bipedal unguligrade and they had single-toed hind feet had small hoof-like nails more typical of animals adapted to moving over relatively flat terrain. Simosthenurus is a distinct lineage of macropods, with no living descendants. However, it is possible that their closest living cousin is the banded hare-wallaby, S.
occidentalis mtDNA sequences were obtained from fossils in Tasmanian caves, the fossils yielded radiocarbon dates between 46,000 and 50,000 years ago. The sequences obtained in this study were from fossils much older than any Australian fossils that previously yielded sequences. By rearing up on their limbs and using their strong, long arms and fingers, they could reach overhead to grasp high leaves and branches. They would use their jaws and striated teeth to grind tough leaves. An adult S. maddocki was smaller than S. occidentalis, like some other species from the same time period, they were apparently highly selective feeders. Local records indicate that the species was mainly located in southeastern Australia and it is uncommon to find fossils of this rare species, especially when compared to other Sthenurines. There are several proposed causes of the extinction of Simosthenurus, the two most popular hypotheses include human involvement and climate change. One theory postulates that human impact caused it, there are fewer extinct megafaunal Tasmanian species compared to those of continental Australia.
This is most likely due to arriving in mainland Australia first. The extinction of Simosthenurus may be attributable to human over-hunting or habitat alteration, another theory is that climate change caused the extinction of this genus. The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, has linked with a severe reduction in several megafaunal populations
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the worlds most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period, the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, all of these stages were defined in southern Europe. In addition to this subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used. Charles Lyell introduced the term pleistocene in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today and this distinguished it from the older Pliocene Epoch, which Lyell had originally thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. The Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years before present and it covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell.
The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC, the IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75°06 N 42°18 W, the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils, Discoaster pentaradiatus, the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age. The revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places and it is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earths surface was covered by ice.
In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C, during interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global, antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap, there were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one, the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest, the east was covered by the Laurentide
The marsupial lion is an extinct species of carnivorous marsupial mammal that lived in Australia from the early to the late Pleistocene. Despite its name, it is not closely related to the lion, the marsupial lion is the largest meat-eating mammal known to have ever existed in Australia, and one of the largest marsupial carnivores from anywhere in the world. Individuals ranged up to around 75 cm high at the shoulder and this would make it comparable to female lions and female tigers in general size. The animal was extremely robust with powerfully built jaws and very strong fore limbs and it possessed retractable claws, a unique trait among marsupials. This would have allowed the claws to remain sharp by protecting them from being worn down on hard surfaces, the claws were well-suited to securing prey and for climbing trees. The first digits on each hand were semiopposable and bore an enlarged claw, palaeontologists believe this would have been used to grapple its intended prey, as well as providing it with a sure footing on tree trunks and branches.
The hind feet had four toes, the first digit being much reduced in size, but possessing a roughened pad similar to that of possums. It is unclear whether the marsupial lion exhibited syndactyly like other diprotodonts, the marsupial lions hindquarters were well-developed, although to a lesser extent than the front of the animal. Remains of the show it had a relatively thick and strong tail. These would have served to protect critical elements such as nerves and blood vessels if the animal used its tail to support itself when on its hind legs, taking this stance would free up its fore limbs to tackle or slash at its intended victim. However, the recently discovered Microleo is a possum-like animal, the marsupial lion was a highly specialised carnivore, as is reflected in its dentition. Like other diprotodonts, it possessed enlarged incisors on both the upper and lower jaws and these teeth were shaped much more like the pointed canine teeth of animals such as dogs and cats than those of kangaroos.
The most unusual feature of the creatures dentition were the huge, the top and bottom carnassials worked together like shears and would have been very effective at slicing off chunks of flesh from carcasses and cutting through bone. The jaw muscle of the lion was exceptionally large for its size. Biometric calculations show, considering size, it had the strongest bite of any mammal, living or extinct. Using 3D modeling based on X-ray computed tomography scans, marsupial lions were found to be unable to use the prolonged, compared to an African lion which may take 15 minutes to kill a large catch, the marsupial lion could kill a large animal in less than a minute. The skull was so specialized for big game that it was inefficient at catching smaller animals. The marsupial lions limb proportions and muscle mass distribution indicate that, although it was a powerful animal, paleontologists conjecture that it was an ambush predator, either sneaking up and leaping upon its prey, or dropping down on it from overhanging tree branches
Beachport is a small coastal town in South Australia,379 kilometres south-east of Adelaide, located at the northern end of Rivoli Bay, in the Wattle Range Council. Beachport has a large crayfishing fleet, and is known for its 772-metre -long jetty, the locality of Thornlea is wholly contained within Beachport. Following the discovery and naming of Rivoli Bay in 1802 by French navigator Nicolas Baudin, the whaling industry soon declined, to be followed in succeeding decades by European pastoralists settling in the hinterland. Whaling was superseded by a booming export industry, leading to the need for a port. The town was named on 23 May 1878 for the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, Michael Hicks Beach, Beachport is the location of what are believed to be the first casualties of World War II on Australian soil. On 12 July 1941, a fisherman discovered and towed to Beachport a German sea mine. A monument now stands in the town to honour them, Beachport was officially proclaimed a port on 21 November 1878.
In the same year a lighthouse was erected close by on Penguin Island, a wool and grain store was built in 1879, served by the railway, thereby providing a facility to link the export trade by rail and sea. The old wool and grain store has been preserved and today serves as a National Trust museum, other attractions include the Salt Lake, Lake George and the rugged coastal views of the Scenic Drive. The nearby Beachport Conservation Park, which includes 710 hectares of beaches, rocky headlands and boobialla scrub, in the sandhills adjacent to Beachport is the Pool of Siloam, named in allusion to the Biblical Pool of Siloam. Said to be seven times saltier than the ocean, it is enjoyed by swimmers and has related amenities, media related to Beachport, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the second most populous city in South Australia with an estimated urban population of 28,929. The peak of the dormant volcano was the first place in South Australia named by European explorers and it was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, and named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The peak is marked by Centenary Tower, built in 1901 to commemorate the first sighting, the city is known for its geographical features, particularly its volcanic and limestone features, most notably its Blue Lake and gardens, caves and sinkholes. Before European settlement, the Buandig people were the original Aboriginal inhabitants of the area and they called it ereng balam or egree belum, meaning home of the eagle hawk. The peak of the dormant Mount Gambier crater was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the brig, HMS Lady Nelson. The Post Office opened on 22 September 1846, John Byng built the Mount Gambier Hotel in 1847, hastings Cunningham founded Gambierton in 1854 by subdividing a block of 77 acres.
From 1861 to 1878 the Post Office was known by name before reverting to Mount Gambier. Local government appeared in 1863 when Dr Wehl, who now owned a substantial millhouse on Commercial Road, was elected chairman of the District Council of Mount Gambier. In December 1864 this became the District Council of Mount Gambier West and, at the same time, incorporation in 1876 saw a further division, with the creation of the Town Council and Mr John Watson elected Mayor. Mount Gambier was governed in this fashion until 1932, when the District Council of East and West merged to form a single District Council of Mount Gambier once more. On 9 December 1954, Mount Gambier was officially declared a city, Mount Gambiers urban area is located mainly along the northern slopes and plain of a maar volcano of the same name, Mount Gambier. Comprising several craters, it is part of the Newer Volcanics Province complex of volcanoes, one of these contains a huge lake of high-quality artesian drinking water which changes colour with the seasons.
In winter, it is a grey and changes to a spectacular cobalt blue in the summer, giving rise to its name. This 70-metre deep lake accommodates a range of aquatic flora and fauna. There are several craters in the city including Valley Lake. The region surrounding the city includes other features such as Mount Schank. Mount Gambier has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the town has warm dry summers and cool wet winters. July is the wettest month with an average of 99.6 mm falling on 22 days whilst February normally records the lowest rainfall with an average of 25 mm on an average 8 days