The M16 rifle designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a family of military rifles adapted from the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle for the United States military. The original M16 rifle was a 5.56mm automatic rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U. S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U. S. military's standard service rifle. The M16A1 improvements include a 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U. S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U. S. Army adopted it in 1986; the M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge and has a newer adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series, it is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices.
The M16 has been adopted by other armed forces around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U. S. military has replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version, the M4 carbine. In 1928, a U. S. Army'Caliber Board' conducted firing tests at Aberdeen Proving Grounds and recommended transitioning to smaller caliber rounds, mentioning in particular the.27. In deference to tradition, this recommendation was ignored and the Army referred to the.30 caliber as "full sized" for the next 35 years. After World War II, the United States military started looking for a single automatic rifle to replace the M1 Garand, M1/M2 Carbines, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, M3 "Grease Gun" and Thompson submachine gun. However, early experiments with select-fire versions of the M1 Garand proved disappointing. During the Korean War, the select-fire M2 carbine replaced the submachine gun in US service and became the most used carbine variant.
However, combat experience suggested. American weapons designers concluded that an intermediate round was necessary, recommended a small-caliber, high-velocity cartridge. However, senior American commanders having faced fanatical enemies and experienced major logistical problems during WWII and the Korean War, insisted that a single powerful.30 caliber cartridge be developed, that could not only be used by the new automatic rifle, but by the new general-purpose machine gun in concurrent development. This culminated in the development of the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. The U. S. Army began testing several rifles to replace the obsolete M1 Garand. Springfield Armory's T44E4 and heavier T44E5 were updated versions of the Garand chambered for the new 7.62 mm round, while Fabrique Nationale submitted their FN FAL as the T48. ArmaLite entered the competition late, hurriedly submitting several AR-10 prototype rifles in the fall of 1956 to the U. S. Army's Springfield Armory for testing; the AR-10 featured an innovative straight-line barrel/stock design, forged aluminum alloy receivers and with phenolic composite stocks.
It had rugged elevated sights, an oversized aluminum flash suppressor and recoil compensator, an adjustable gas system. The final prototype featured an upper and lower receiver with the now-familiar hinge and takedown pins, the charging handle was on top of the receiver placed inside of the carry handle. For a 7.62mm NATO rifle, the AR-10 was lightweight at only 6.85 lb empty. Initial comments by Springfield Armory test staff were favorable, some testers commented that the AR-10 was the best lightweight automatic rifle tested by the Armory. In the end the U. S. Army chose the T44 now named M14 rifle, an improved M1 Garand with a 20-round magazine and automatic fire capability; the U. S. adopted the M60 general purpose machine gun. Its NATO partners adopted the FN FAL and HK G3 rifles, as well as the FN MAG and Rheinmetall MG3 GPMGs; the first confrontations between the AK-47 and the M14 came in the early part of the Vietnam War. Battlefield reports indicated that the M14 was uncontrollable in full-auto and that soldiers could not carry enough ammunition to maintain fire superiority over the AK-47.
And, while the M2 carbine offered a high rate of fire, it was under-powered and outclassed by the AK-47. A replacement was needed: a medium between the traditional preference for high-powered rifles such as the M14, the lightweight firepower of the M2 Carbine; as a result, the Army was forced to reconsider a 1957 request by General Willard G. Wyman, commander of the U. S. Continental Army Command to develop a.223 inch caliber select-fire rifle weighing 6 lb when loaded with a 20-round magazine. The 5.56 mm round had to penetrate a standard U. S. helmet at 500 yards and retain a velocity in excess of the speed of sound, while matching or exceeding the wounding ability of the.30 Carbine cartridge. This request resulted in the development of a scaled-down version of the Armalite AR-10, named ArmaLite AR-15 rifle. In the late 1950s, designer Eugene Stoner was completing his work on the AR-15; the AR-15 used.22-caliber bullets, which destabilized when they hit a human body, as opposed to the.30 round, which passed through in a straight line.
The smaller caliber meant. Being one-third the weight of the.30 meant that the soldier could sustain fire for longer with the same load. Due to design innovations, the AR-15 could fire 600 to 700 rounds a minute with an low jamming rate. Par
Improvised explosive device
An improvised explosive device is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional military explosives, such as an artillery shell, attached to a detonating mechanism. IEDs are used as roadside bombs. IEDs are seen in heavy terrorist actions or in asymmetric unconventional warfare by insurgent guerrillas or commando forces in a theatre of operations. In the second Iraq War, IEDs were used extensively against US-led invasion forces and by the end of 2007 they had become responsible for 63% of coalition deaths in Iraq, they are used in Afghanistan by insurgent groups, have caused over 66% of coalition casualties in the 2001–present Afghanistan War. IEDs were used extensively by cadres of the rebel Tamil Tiger organisation against military targets in Sri Lanka. An IED is a bomb fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy or incapacitate personnel or vehicles.
In some cases, IEDs are used to distract, disrupt, or delay an opposing force, facilitating another type of attack. IEDs may incorporate military or commercially sourced explosives, combine both types, or they may otherwise be made with homemade explosives. An HME lab refers to a Homemade Explosive Lab, or the physical location where the devices are crafted. An IED has five components: a switch, an initiator, charge, a power source. An IED designed for use against armoured targets such as personnel carriers or tanks will be designed for armour penetration, by using a shaped charge that creates an explosively formed penetrator. IEDs are diverse in design and may contain many types of initiators, detonators and explosive loads. Antipersonnel IEDs also contain fragmentation-generating objects such as nails, ball bearings or small rocks to cause wounds at greater distances than blast pressure alone could. In the conflicts of the 21st century, anti-personnel improvised explosive devices have replaced conventional or military landmines as the source of injury to dismounted soldiers and civilians.
These injuries were reported in BMJ Open to be far worse with IEDs than with landmines resulting in multiple limb amputations and lower body mutilation. This combination of injuries has been given the name "Dismounted Complex Blast Injury" and is thought to be the worst survivable injury seen in war. IEDs are triggered by various methods, including remote control, infrared or magnetic triggers, pressure-sensitive bars or trip wires. In some cases, multiple IEDs are wired together in a daisy chain to attack a convoy of vehicles spread out along a roadway. IEDs made by inexperienced designers or with substandard materials may fail to detonate, in some cases, they detonate on either the maker or the placer of the device; some groups, have been known to produce sophisticated devices constructed with components scavenged from conventional munitions and standard consumer electronics components, such as mobile phones, consumer-grade two-way radios, washing machine timers, pagers, or garage door openers.
The sophistication of an IED depends on the training of the designer and the tools and materials available. IEDs may use artillery shells or conventional high-explosive charges as their explosive load as well as homemade explosives. However, the threat exists that toxic chemical, biological, or radioactive material may be added to a device, thereby creating other life-threatening effects beyond the shrapnel, concussive blasts and fire associated with bombs. Chlorine liquid has been added to IEDs in producing clouds of chlorine gas. A vehicle-borne IED, or VBIED, is a military term for a car bomb or truck bomb but can be any type of transportation such as a bicycle, donkey, etc, they are employed by insurgents in particular ISIS, can carry a large payload. They can be detonated from a remote location. VBIEDs can create additional shrapnel through the destruction of the vehicle itself and use vehicle fuel as an incendiary weapon; the act of a person's detonating it is known as an SVBIED suicide.
Of increasing popularity among insurgent forces in Iraq is the house-borne IED, or HBIED from the common military practice of clearing houses. The Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms includes two definitions for improvised devices: improvised explosive devices and improvised nuclear device; these definitions address the Explosive in CBRNe. That leaves chemical and radiological undefined. Four definitions have been created to build on the structure of the JCS definition. Terms have been created to standardize the language of first responders and members of the military and to correlate the operational picture. A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, harass, or distract, it may incorporate military stores, but is devised from non-military components. IEDs have been deployed in the form of explosively formed projectiles, a special type of shaped charge, effective at long standoffs from the target, however they are not accurate at long distances.
This is because of. The large "slug" projected from the explosion has no stabilization because it has no tail fins and it does not spin like a bullet fro
A firearm is a portable gun that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by expanding high-pressure gas produced chemically by exothermic combustion of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm; the first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon considered the true ancestor of all firearms; the technology spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Older firearms used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Modern firearms can be described in the case of shotguns by their gauge. Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used and to the barrel length, to the firing mechanism, to the design's primary intended use, or to the accepted name for a particular variation. Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights; the accurate range of pistols does not exceed 110 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, or to longer ranges using optical sights. Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards. Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed upon definition. Many soldiers consider a firearm to be any ranged weapon that uses gunpowder or a derivative as a propellant. Small arms include handguns and long guns, such as rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, light machine guns; the world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Mossberg, Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther, ČZUB, Steyr-Mannlicher, FN Herstal, Norinco, Tula Arms and Kalashnikov, while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, Rock Island Armory under Armscor.
In 2018, Small Arms Survey reported that there are over one billion small arms distributed globally, of which 857 million are in civilian hands. U. S. civilians alone account for 393 million of the worldwide total of civilian held firearms. This amounts to "120.5 firearms for every 100 residents." The world's armed forces control about 133 million of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation and China. Law enforcement agencies control about 23 million of the global total of small arms; the smallest of all firearms is the handgun. There are two common types of handguns: semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round; each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately.
This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried by military and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still used. Speaking and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to reload by removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges and the strength and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers in.22 LR and 38 Special/357 Magnum, are common concealed weapons in j
A grenade launcher is a weapon that fires a specially-designed large-caliber projectile with an explosive, smoke or gas warhead. Today, the term refers to a class of dedicated firearms firing unitary grenade cartridges; the most common type are man-portable, shoulder-fired weapons issued to individuals, although larger crew-served launchers are issued at higher levels of organisation by military forces. Grenade launchers can either come in the form of standalone weapons or attachments mounted to a parent firearm a rifle. Larger crew-served automatic grenade launchers such as the Mk 19 are mounted on vehicles; some armored fighting vehicles mount fixed arrays of short range, single-shot grenade launchers as a means of defense. The earliest devices which could conceivably be referred to as grenade launchers were slings, which could be used to throw early grenado fuse bombs; the ancestors of modern ballistic grenade launchers, were simplistic muzzle-loading devices using a stake-like body to mount a short, large-bore gun barrel into which an explosive or incendiary device could be inserted.
These weapons were not regarded due to their unreliability, requiring the user to ignite a fuse on the projectile before firing and with a substantial risk of the explosive failing to leave the barrel. During the First World War a number of novel crew-served launchers designed to increase the range of infantry hand grenades were developed, such as the Sauterelle crossbow and West Spring Gun and Leach Trench Catapult devices. None were effective, such devices were replaced by light mortar systems like the Stokes Mortar, while the task of increasing the range of infantry explosive projectiles was taken by rifle grenades. A late example of such a system was the Japanese Type 91 grenade, which could be used as a thrown hand grenade, or fitted with adaptors to either be fired as a rifle grenade or used as a projectile by the Type 89 grenade discharger, a light infantry mortar. A new method of launching grenades was developed during the First World War and used throughout the Second; the principle was to use the soldier's standard rifle as an ersatz mortar, mounting a grenade fitted with a propelling charge, using an adaptor or socket on the weapon's muzzle or inside a mounted launching cup, firing with the weapon's stock resting on the ground.
For older rifle grenades, igniting the charge required loading the parent rifle with a special blank propellant cartridge, though modern rifle grenades can be fired using live rounds using "bullet trap" and "shoot through" systems. The system has some advantages: since it does not have to fit in a weapon's breech, the warhead can be made larger and more powerful compared to that of a unitary grenade round, the rifle's weight and handling characteristics are not affected as with underbarrel systems unless a grenade is mounted. While older systems required the soldier carry a separate adaptor or cup to attach to the rifle to make it ready to launch rifle grenades were designed to attach to the standard factory-mounted flash hider of the parent rifle; the disadvantage of this method is that when a soldier wants to launch a grenade, they must mount the grenade to the muzzle prior to each shot. If they are surprised by a close-range threat while preparing to fire the grenade, they have to reverse the procedure before they can respond with rifle fire.
Due to the lack of a barrel, rifle grenades tend to be more difficult to fire compared to underbarrel or standalone designs. Prior to the development of lightweight disposable anti-tank weapons such as the M72 LAW, large HEAT rifle grenades such as the ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade were the preferred method for allowing infantry who were not part of dedicated anti-tank teams to engage vehicles. Rifle grenades have fallen out of favor since the 1970s, replaced in most of their traditional roles by dedicated grenade launchers, though there has been a recent resurgence in interest in such devices for special purposes; the earliest examples of standalone grenade launchers in the modern sense were breech-loading riot guns designed to launch tear gas grenades and baton rounds, such as the Federal Riot Gun developed in the 1930s. One of the first examples of a dedicated breech-loading launcher for unitary explosive grenade rounds was the M79 grenade launcher, a result of the American Special Purpose Individual Weapon program.
The goal for the M79 was the production of a device with greater range than a rifle grenade but more portable than a mortar. Such single-shot devices were replaced in military service with underbarrel grenade launchers, removing the need for a dedicated grenadier with a special weapon. Many modern underbarrel grenade launchers can, however be used in standalone configurations with suitable accessories fitted. Single shot launchers are still used in riot control operations. Heavier multi
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave, modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached internet speeds of over 100 petabit×kilometer per second using fiber-optic communication. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age; because of its advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world. The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps: creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter from an electrical signal relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak receiving the optical signal converting it into an electrical signal Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication and cable television signals.
Due to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance, high-demand applications. However, infrastructure development within cities was difficult and time-consuming, fiber-optic systems were complex and expensive to install and operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber-optic communication systems have been installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their full transmission capacity, offsetting the increased cost; the prices of fiber-optic communications have dropped since 2000. The price for rolling out fiber to the home has become more cost-effective than that of rolling out a copper based network. Prices have dropped to $850 per subscriber in the US and lower in countries like The Netherlands, where digging costs are low and housing density is high. Since 1990, when optical-amplification systems became commercially available, the telecommunications industry has laid a vast network of intercity and transoceanic fiber communication lines.
By 2002, an intercontinental network of 250,000 km of submarine communications cable with a capacity of 2.56 Tb/s was completed, although specific network capacities are privileged information, telecommunications investment reports indicate that network capacity has increased since 2004. In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D. C. Bell considered it his most important invention; the device allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. On June 3, 1880, Bell conducted the world's first wireless telephone transmission between two buildings, some 213 meters apart. Due to its use of an atmospheric transmission medium, the Photophone would not prove practical until advances in laser and optical fiber technologies permitted the secure transport of light; the Photophone's first practical use came in military communication systems many decades later.
In 1954 Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany showed that rolled fiber glass allowed light to be transmitted. It was considered that the light can traverse in only straight medium. Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, proposed the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963. Nishizawa invented the PIN diode and the static induction transistor, both of which contributed to the development of optical fiber communications. In 1966 Charles K. Kao and George Hockham at STC Laboratories showed that the losses of 1,000 dB/km in existing glass were due to contaminants which could be removed. Optical fiber was developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works, with attenuation low enough for communication purposes and at the same time GaAs semiconductor lasers were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for transmitting light through fiber optic cables for long distances. After a period of research starting from 1975, the first commercial fiber-optic communications system was developed which operated at a wavelength around 0.8 µm and used GaAs semiconductor lasers.
This first-generation system operated at a bit rate of 45 Mbit/s with repeater spacing of up to 10 km. Soon on 22 April 1977, General Telephone and Electronics sent the first live telephone traffic through fiber optics at a 6 Mbit/s throughput in Long Beach, California. In October 1973, Corning Glass signed a development contract with CSELT and Pirelli aimed to test fiber optics in an urban environment: in September 1977, the second cable in this test series, named COS-2, was experimentally deployed in two lines in Turin, for the first time in a big city, at a speed of 140 Mbit/s; the second generation of fiber-optic communication was developed for commercial use in the early 1980s, operated at 1.3 µm and used InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. These early systems were limited by multi mode fiber dispersion, in 1981 the single-mode fiber was revealed to improve system performance, however practical connectors capable of working with single mode fiber proved difficult to develop. In 1984, they had developed a fiber optic cable that would help further their progress toward making fiber optic cables that would circle the globe.
Special Forces (United States Army)
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force of the United States Army tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, counter-terrorism. The first two emphasize language and training skills in working with foreign troops. Other duties include combat search and rescue, counter-narcotics, counter-proliferation, hostage rescue, humanitarian assistance, humanitarian demining, information operations, psychological operations, security assistance, manhunts. S. government activities may specialize in these secondary areas. Many of their operational techniques are classified, but some nonfiction works and doctrinal manuals are available; as special operations units, Special Forces are not under the command authority of the ground commanders in those countries. Instead, while in theater, SF units may report directly to a geographic combatant command, USSOCOM, or other command authorities.
The Central Intelligence Agency's secretive Special Activities Division and more its Special Operations Group recruits from the Army's Special Forces. Joint CIA–Army Special Forces operations go back to the MACV-SOG branch during the Vietnam War; the cooperation still is seen in the War in Afghanistan. The primary mission of the Army Special Forces is to train and lead unconventional warfare forces, or a clandestine guerrilla force in an occupied nation; the 10th Special Forces Group was the first deployed SF unit, intended to train and lead UW forces behind enemy lines in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. As the U. S. became involved in Southeast Asia, it was realized that specialists trained to lead guerrillas could help defend against hostile guerrillas, so SF acquired the additional mission of Foreign Internal Defense, working with Host Nation forces in a spectrum of counter-guerrilla activities from indirect support to combat command. Special Forces personnel qualify both in advanced military skills and the regional languages and cultures of defined parts of the world.
While they are best known for their unconventional warfare capabilities, they undertake other missions that include direct action raids, peace operations, counter-proliferation, counter-drug advisory roles, other strategic missions. As strategic resources, they report either to a regional Unified Combatant Command. To enhance their DA capability, specific Commanders In-Extremis Force teams were created with a focus on the direct action side of special operations. SF team members work together and rely on one another under isolated circumstances for long periods of time, both during extended deployments and in garrison; because of this, they develop long-standing personal ties. SF non-commissioned officers spend their entire careers in Special Forces, rotating among assignments to detachments, higher staff billets, liaison positions, instructor duties at the U. S. Army John F. Kennedy Special School, they are required to move to staff positions or to higher command echelons. With the creation of USSOCOM, SF commanders have risen to the highest ranks of U.
S. Army command, including command of USSOCOM, the Army's Chief of Staff, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Special Forces traces its roots as the Army’s premier proponent of unconventional warfare from purpose-formed special operations units like the Alamo Scouts, Philippine guerrillas, First Special Service Force, the Operational Groups of the Office of Strategic Services. Although the OSS was not an Army organization, many Army personnel were assigned to the OSS and used their experiences to influence the forming of Special Forces. During the Korean War, individuals such as former Philippine guerrilla commanders Col. Wendell Fertig and Lt. Col. Russell W. Volckmann used their wartime experience to formulate the doctrine of unconventional warfare that became the cornerstone of the Special Forces. In 1951, Major General Robert A. McClure chose former OSS member Colonel Aaron Bank as Operations Branch Chief of the Special Operations Division of the Psychological Warfare Staff in the Pentagon.
In June 1952, the 10th Special Forces Group was formed under Col. Aaron Bank, soon after the establishment of the Psychological Warfare School, which became today’s John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School; the 10th Special Forces Group was split, with the cadre that kept the designation 10th SFG deployed to Bad Tölz, Germany, in September 1953. The remaining cadre at Fort Bragg formed the 77th Special Forces Group, which in May 1960 was reorganized and designated as today’s 7th Special Forces Group. Since their establishment in 1952, Special Forces soldiers have operated in Vietnam, Laos, North Vietnam, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Panama, Somalia, Kosovo, 1st Gulf War, Iraq, the Philippines, Yemen, Niger and, in an FID role, East Africa. 1st Special Forces Command In 1957 the two original special forces groups were joined by the 1st, stationed in the Far East. Additional groups were formed in 1961 and 1962 after President John F. Kennedy visited the Special Forces at Fort Bragg in 1961.
Nine groups were organized for the reserve components in 1961.. Among them were the 16th and 17th Special Forces, Groups. However, 17th Special Forces Gr