Laird is a generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate equivalent to an esquire in England, yet ranking above the same in Scotland. In the Scottish order of precedence, a laird ranks above a gentleman; this rank is only held by those lairds holding official recognition in a territorial designation by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. They are styled of, are traditionally entitled to place The Much Honoured before their name. Although the UK Government deems that "for Scottish lairds it is not necessary for the words Laird of to appear on any part of a passport, requests from applicants and passport holders for manorial titles and Scottish lairds to be included in their passports may be accepted providing documentary evidence is submitted, recorded in the passport with the observation e.g.: THE HOLDER IS THE LORD OF THE MANOR/LAIRD OF....... ". The Lord Lyon, Scotland's authority on titles, has produced the following guidance regarding the current use of the term laird as a courtesy title:The term ‘laird’ has been applied to the owner of an estate, sometimes by the owner himself or, more by those living and working on the estate.
It is a description rather than a title, is not appropriate for the owner of a normal residential property, far less the owner of a small souvenir plot of land. The term ‘laird’ is not synonymous with that of ‘lord’ or ‘lady’. Ownership of a souvenir plot of land is not sufficient to bring a person otherwise ineligible within the jurisdiction of the Lord Lyon for the purpose of seeking a grant of arms; the term bonnet laird was applied to rural, petty landowners, as they wore a bonnet like the non-landowning classes. Bonnet lairds filled a position in society below lairds and above husbandmen, similar to the yeomen of England; the word "laird" is known to have been used from the 15th century, is a shortened form of laverd, derived from the Old English word hlafweard meaning "warden of loaves". The word "lord" is of the same origin, would have been interchangeable with "laird". In the 15th and 16th centuries, the designation was used for land owners holding directly of the Crown, therefore were entitled to attend Parliament.
Lairds reigned over their estates like their castles forming a small court. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the designation was applied to the head chief of a highland clan and therefore was not personal property and had obligations towards the community; the laird may possess certain feudal rights. A lairdship carried voting rights in the ancient pre-Union Parliament of Scotland, although such voting rights were expressed via two representatives from each county who were known as Commissioners of the Shires, who came from the laird class and were chosen by their peers to represent them. A certain level of landownership was a necessary qualification. A laird is said to hold a lairdship. A woman who holds a lairdship in her own right has been styled with the honorific "Lady". Although "laird" is sometimes translated as lord and signifies the same, like the English term lord of the manor "laird" is not a title of nobility; the designation is a'corporeal hereditament', i.e. the designation cannot be held in gross, cannot be bought and sold without selling the physical land.
The designation does not entitle the owner to sit in the House of Lords and is the Scottish equivalent to an English squire, in that it is not a noble title, more a courtesy designation meaning landowner with no other rights assigned to it. A laird possessing a Coat of Arms registered in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland is a member of Scotland's minor nobility; such a person can be recognised as a laird, if not a chief or chieftain, or descendant of one of these, by the formal recognition of a territorial designation as a part of their name by the Lord Lyon. The Lord Lyon is the ultimate arbiter as to determining entitlement to a territorial designation, his right of discretion in recognising these, their status as a name, dignity or title, have been confirmed in the Scottish courts. Several websites, internet vendors on websites like Ebay, sell Scottish lairdships along with minuscule "plots of land" – one foot squared; the Court of the Lord Lyon considers these particular titles to be meaningless because it is impossible to have numerous "lairds" of a single estate at the same time, as has been advertised by these companies.
A contemporary popular view of Lairdship titles has taken a unique twist in the 21st century in millions of sales of souvenir land plots from buyers who show no interests in the opinions of the Registry of Scotland or of the Court of Lyon. They see their contract purporting to sell a plot of Scottish souvenir land as bestowing them the informal right to the title Laird; this is despite the fact that the buyer does not acquire ownership of the plot because registration of the plot is prohibited by Land Registration Act 2012, s 22. As ownership of land in Scotland requires registration of a valid disposition under Land Registration Act 2012, s 50 the prohibition on registration of a souvenir plot means the buyer does not acquire ownership, accordingly has no entitlement to a descriptive title premised on landownership. A study in 2003 by academics at the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen concluded that:"The modern Scottish Highland sporting estate continues to be a place owned by an absentee landowner who uses its 15-20,000 acres for hu
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of, located in Turkey; the Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia and the recognised Artsakh Republic; the region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The term Caucasus is not only used for the mountains themselves but includes Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. According to Alexander Mikaberidze, Transcaucasia is a "Russo-centric" term. Pliny the Elder's Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis. German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means "ice". In the Tale of Past Years, it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы came from Ancient Greek Καύκασος ), according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος is connected to Gothic Hauhs as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas and Kaukarà. British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- means "mountain" in Pelasgian; the Transcaucasus region and Dagestan were the furthest points of Parthian and Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region.
In Middle Persian sources of the Sasanian era, the Caucasus range was referred to as Kaf Kof. The term resurfaced in Iranian tradition on in a variant form when Ferdowsi, in his Shahnameh, referred to the Caucasus mountains as Kōh-i Kāf. "Most of the modern names of the Caucasus originate from the Greek Kaukasos and the Middle Persian Kaf Kof"."The earliest etymon" of the name Caucasus comes from Kaz-kaz, the Hittite designation of the "inhabitants of the southern coast of the Black Sea". It was noted that in Nakh Ков гас means "gateway to steppe" The modern name for the region is similar in the many languages, is between Kavkaz and Kawkaz; the North Caucasus region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus region is known as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, it consists of Southern Russia the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, borders the Southern Federal District to its north.
The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus borders the Greater Caucasus range and Southern Russia to its north, the Black Sea and Turkey to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, Iran to its south. It contains surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia and Georgia are in the South Caucasus; the watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus located in western Ciscaucasus, is considered as the highest point in Europe; the Caucasus is one of the culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation; the Russian divisions include Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful entities: Artsakh and South Ossetia.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognized by the world community as part of Georgia, Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. The region has language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani, Kumyk language and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus; the peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'
Adoption is an process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents. Legal adoptions permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents. In many jurisdictions the adopted person's full original birth certificate is cancelled and replaced with a fabricated post-adoption birth certificate which states that the child was born to the adoptive parents; this deception, where carried out, may continue with the adopted person for life and can be the cause for many well documented traumas experienced by the adopted person, including loss of identity, family history, biological family, family medical history and records, increased risk of suicide, incarceration, PTSD, anxiety. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to affect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction.
Some societies have enacted specific laws governing adoption. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. Adoption for the well-born While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the practice appeared throughout history; the Code of Hammurabi, for example, details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at length. The practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the Codex Justinianus. Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter, providing a legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and created male heirs to manage estates; the use of adoption by the aristocracy is well documented. Adrogation was a kind of Roman adoption. Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare. Abandoned children were picked up for slavery and composed a significant percentage of the Empire's slave supply.
Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the father who abandoned them. Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, used some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests the goal of this practice was to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices. In ancient India, secondary sonship denounced by the Rigveda, continued, in a limited and ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son. China had a similar idea of adoption with males adopted to perform the duties of ancestor worship; the practice of adopting the children of family members and close friends was common among the cultures of Polynesia including Hawaii where the custom was referred to as hānai. Adoption and commoners The nobility of the Germanic and Slavic cultures that dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced the practice of adoption.
In medieval society, bloodlines were paramount. The evolution of European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law, for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of 50, older than the adopted person by at least 15 years, to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years; some adoptions continued to occur, but became informal, based on ad hoc contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age. Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the nobility, the practice shifted toward abandoned children.
Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church. The clergy reacted by drafting rules to govern the exposing and rearing of abandoned children; the Church's innovation, was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children did not have legal, social, or moral disadvantages; as a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned children became alumni of the Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage; as the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families: boys could become apprenticed to an arti
Sagas of Icelanders
Not to be confused with The saga of Icelanders, based on historical events from the 13th century. The Sagas of Icelanders known as family sagas, are prose narratives based on historical events that took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age, they are the best-known specimens of Icelandic literature. They are focused on history genealogical and family history, they reflect the struggle and conflict that arose within the societies of the early generations of Icelandic settlers. Many of these Icelandic sagas were recorded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The'authors', or rather recorders of these sagas are unknown. One saga, Egils saga, is believed by some scholars to have been written by Snorri Sturluson, a descendant of the saga's hero, but this remains uncertain; the standard modern edition of Icelandic sagas is known as Íslenzk fornrit. Among the several literary reviews of the sagas is that by Sigurður Nordal's Sagalitteraturen, which divides the sagas into five chronological groups distinguished by the state of literary development: 1200 to 1230 – Sagas that deal with skalds 1230 to 1280 – Family sagas 1280 to 1300 – Works that focus more on style and storytelling than just writing down history Early 14th century – Historical tradition 14th century – Fiction Atla saga Ótryggssonar Bandamanna saga – Bandamanna saga Bárðar saga Snæfellsáss Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa Droplaugarsona saga Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar – Egil's Saga Eiríks saga rauða – Saga of Erik the Red Eyrbyggja saga Færeyinga saga Finnboga saga ramma Fljótsdæla saga Flóamanna saga Fóstbrœðra saga Gísla saga Súrssonar, of an outlaw poet – Gísla saga Grettis saga - Saga of Grettir the Strong Grœnlendinga saga – Greenland saga Gull-Þóris saga Gunnars saga Keldugnúpsfífls Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu Hallfreðar saga Harðar saga ok Hólmverja Hávarðar saga Ísfirðings – The saga of Hávarður of Ísafjörður Heiðarvíga saga Hrafnkels saga Hrana saga hrings Hænsna-Þóris saga Kjalnesinga saga Kormáks saga Króka-Refs saga Laurentius Saga Laxdæla saga Ljósvetninga saga Njáls saga Reykdœla saga ok Víga-Skútu Skáld-Helga saga Svarfdœla saga Valla-Ljóts saga Vatnsdœla saga Víga-Glúms saga Víglundar saga Vápnfirðinga saga Þorsteins saga hvíta Þorsteins saga Síðu-Hallssonar Þórðar saga hreðu Ölkofra saga The Saga of Gaukur á Stöng is believed to have existed but is now considered lost.
The saga – set in the anthology of sagas known as Möðruvallabók between Njáls saga and Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar – tells of a man named Gaukur Trandilsson who lived in the 10th century. Gaukur is mentioned in chapter 26 of Njáls saga. Icelandic professor and poet Jón Helgason managed to decipher a line that read "Let Trandilsson's story be written here. I am told that Grim knows it." However, the story was never put to paper. The Grim mentioned in the manuscript is believed to have been Grímur Þorsteinsson and governor. Gaukur is reported to have been an exceptionally gentle man, he was the foster brother of Ásgrimur. However, it is said that he had a falling out with his foster brother, who killed him. Gaukur must have been a well-known figure in Icelandic folklore as he is mentioned in not only Njáls Saga but the Íslendigadrápa, a poem about the Icelandic heroes, he is mentioned on a tomb in the Orkney Islands, where a runic inscription translates to "These runes were carved by the man, the most knowledgeable of runes in the west of the sea, using the axe that belonged to Gaukur Trandilsson in the south of the land".
The south of the land refers to Iceland. Icelanders produced a high volume of literature relative to the size of the population. Historians have proposed various theories for the high volume of saga writing: The unique nature of the political system of the Icelandic Commonwealth created incentives for aristocrats to produce literature; because new principalities lacked internal cohesion, a leader produced Sagas "to create or enhance amongst his subjects or followers a feeling of solidarity and common identity by emphasizing their common history and legends". Leaders from old and established principalities did not produce any Sagas, as they were cohesive political units; the production of literature was a way for chieftains to create and maintain social differentiation between them and the rest of the population. Saga-writing was motivated by the desire of the Icelandic aristocracy to maintain or reconnect links with the Nordic countries by tracing the ancestry of Icelandic aristocrats to well-known kings and heroes to which the contemporary Nordic kings could trace their origins.
It has been proposed that the Icelandic settlers were so prolific at writing in order to capture their settler history. Historian Gunnar Karlsson does not find that explanation reasonable though, given that other settler communities have not been as prolific as the early Icelanders were. Early nationalist historians emphasized how the ethnic characteristics of the Icelanders were conducive to a literary culture, but these types of explanations have fallen out of favor with academics in modern times, it has been argued that a combination of available parchment and long winters encouraged Icelanders to take up writing. Historian Gunnar Karlsson has proposed the theory that Iceland's peripheral location put it out of reach of the continental kings of Europe and that those kings could therefore not ban subversive forms of literature
Foster care is a system in which a minor has been placed into a ward, group home, or private home of a state-certified caregiver, referred to as a "foster parent" or with a family member approved by the state. The placement of the child is arranged through the government or a social service agency; the institution, group home or foster parent is compensated for expenses unless with a family member. The State, via the family court and child protective services agency, stand in loco parentis to the minor, making all legal decisions while the foster parent is responsible for the day-to-day care of the minor. A little more than a quarter of all foster children are placed in the care of relatives. Most kinship care is done informally, without the involvement of public organization. However, in the U. S. formal kinship care is common. In 2012, a quarter of all children in formal foster care were placed with relatives instead of being placed into the system. In Australia foster care was known as "boarding-out".
Foster care had its early stages in South Australia in 1866 and stretched to the second half of the 19th century. It is said that the system was run by women until the early 20th century; the control was centered in many state children's departments. "Although boarding-out was implemented by nongovernment child rescue organizations, many large institutions remained. These institutions assumed an increasing importance from the late 1920s when the system went into decline." The system was re-energized in the postwar era, in the 1970s. The system is still the main structure for "out-of-home care." The system took care of both foreign children. "The first adoption legislation was passed in Western Australia in 1896, but the remaining states did not act until the 1920s, introducing the beginnings of the closed adoption that reached it peak in the period 1940–1975. New baby adoption dropped from the mid-1970s, with the greater tolerance of and support for single mothers". Foster care in Cambodia is new as an official practice within the government.
However, despite a start, the practice is making great strides within the country. Left with a large number of official and unofficial orphanages from the 1990s, the Cambodian government conducted several research projects in 2006 and 2008, pointing to the overuse of orphanages as a solution for caring for vulnerable children within the country. Most notably, the studies found that the percentage of children within orphanages that had parents approached 80%. At the same time, local NGOs like Children In Families began offering limited foster care services within the country. In the subsequent years, the Cambodian government began implementing policies that required the closure of some orphanages and the implementation of minimum standards for residential care institutions; these actions lead to an increase in the number of NGOs providing foster care placements and helped to set the course for care reform around the country. As of 2015, the Cambodian government is working with UNICEF, USAID, several governments, many local NGOs in continuing to build the capacity for child protection and foster care within the Kingdom.
Foster children in Canada are known as permanent wards. A ward is someone, in this case a child, placed under protection of a legal guardian and are the legal responsibility of the government. Census data from 2011 counted children in foster care for the first time, counting 47,885 children in care; the majority of foster children – 29,590, or about 62 per cent – were aged 14 and under. The wards remain under the care of the government until they "age out of care." All ties are severed from the government and there is no longer any legal responsibility toward the youth. This age is different depending on the province. In December 2013, the Israeli Knesset approved a bill co-drafted by the Israel National Council for the Child to regulate the rights and obligations of participants in the foster care system in Israel. In Japan, foster care started around 1948; the idea of foster care or taking in abandoned children came about around 1392-1490s in Japan. The foster care system in Japan is similar to the Orphan Trains because Brace thought the children would be better off on farms.
The people in Japan thought the children would do better on farms rather than living in the "dusty city." The families would send their children to a farm family outside the village and only keep their oldest son. The farm families served as the foster parents and they were financially rewarded for taking in the younger siblings. "It was considered an honor to be chosen as foster parents, selection depended on the family's reputation and status within the village". Around 1895 the foster care program became more like the system used in the United States because the Tokyo Metropolitan Police sent children to a hospital where they would be "settled". Problems emerged in this system, such as child abuse, so the government started phasing it out and "began increasing institutional facilities". In 1948 the Child Welfare Law was passed, increasing official oversight, creating better conditions for the children to grow up in. In the United Kingdom, foster care and adoption has always been an option, "in the sense of taking other people's children into their homes and looking after them on a permanent or temporary basis."
Although, nothing about it had a legal foundation, until the 20th century. The UK had "wardship," the family taking in the child had custody by the Chancery Court. Wardship was not used often because it did not give the guardian "parental rights." In the 19th century
Mull or the Isle of Mull — is the second largest island of the Inner Hebrides, lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute. With an area of 875.35 square kilometres, Mull is the fourth largest Scottish island and the fourth largest island surrounding Great Britain. In the 2011 census the usual resident population of Mull was 2,800, a slight increase on the 2001 figure of 2,667. In the summer the population is supplemented by many tourists. Much of the population lives in Tobermory, the only burgh on the island until 1973, its capital. Tobermory is home to Mull's only single malt Scotch whisky distillery: Tobermory distillery. Mull has a coastline of 480 kilometres and its climate is moderated by the Gulf Stream; the island has a mountainous core. Various peninsulas, which are predominantly moorland, radiate from the centre; the Aros peninsula to the north includes the main town of Tobermory, a burgh until 1973 when burghs were abolished. Other settlements include Salen and Calgary.
The Ross of Mull lies to the south west and includes the villages of Bunessan, Pennyghael and Fionnphort. Lochbuie and Craignure lie to the east. Numerous islands lie off the west coast of Mull, including Erraid, Inch Kenneth, Iona and Ulva. Smaller uninhabited islands include Little Colonsay, the Treshnish Isles and Staffa. Calve Island is an uninhabited island in Tobermory Bay. Two outlying rock lighthouses are visible from the south west of Mull, Dubh Artach and Skerryvore; the Torran Rocks are a large shoal of reefs and skerries 15 square miles in extent, located two miles to the south west, between the Ross of Mull peninsula and Dubh Artach. Frank Lockwood's Island near Lochbuie is named after the brother-in-law of the 21st MacLean of Lochbuie, Solicitor General from 1894-5. Part of the indented west coast of Mull and some of the offshore islands there are part of the Loch Na Keal National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland, it is believed that Mull was inhabited from shortly after the end of the last Ice Age, around 6000 BC.
Bronze Age inhabitants built menhirs, brochs and a stone circle with examples of burial cairns, standing stones and knife blades provide compelling evidence. Between 600 BC and AD 400, Iron Age inhabitants were building protective forts and crannogs. Whether or not they were Picts is unclear. In the 6th century, Irish migrants invaded Mull and the surrounding coast, establishing the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata; the kingdom was divided into a number of regions, each controlled by a kin group, of which the Cenél Loairn controlled Mull and the adjacent mainland to the east. Dál Riata was a springboard for the Christianisation of the mainland. In the 9th century, Viking invasions led to the destruction of Dál Riata, its replacement by the Norse Kingdom of the Isles, which became part of the kingdom of Norway following Norwegian unification; the Kingdom of the Isles was much more extensive than Dál Riata, encompassing the Outer Hebrides and Skye. In Old Norse, the island kingdom became meaning southern isles.
The former lands of Dál Riata acquired the geographic description "Argyle": the Gaelic coast. In the late 11th century, Magnus Barefoot, the Norwegian king, launched a military campaign which, in 1098, led the king of Scotland to quitclaim to Magnus all claim of sovereign authority over the territory of the Kingdom of the Isles. However, a coup some 60 years led by a Norse-Gael named Somerled, detached the whole of the Suðreyjar from Norway, transformed it into an independent kingdom. After Somerled's death in 1164, nominal Norwegian authority was established, but practical control of the realm was divided between Somerled's sons and the heirs of Somerled's brother-in-law, the Crovan Dynasty, his son Dougall received the former territory of the Cenél Loairn, now known as Lorn, of which Mull formed part. Meanwhile, the Crovan dynasty had retained the title "king of the Isles", control of Lewis/Harris, the Isle of Man. After a few decades, they acknowledged the English kings as their overlords, so Dougall's heirs complained to Haakon, the Norwegian king, in 1237 were rewarded by the kingship being split.
They established the twin castles of Aros and Ardtornish, which together controlled the Sound of Mull. Throughout the early 13th century, the king of Scots, Alexander II, had aggressively tried to expand his realm into the Suðreyjar, despite Edgar's earlier quitclaim; this led to hostility between Norway and Scotland, which continued under Alexander III, Alexander II's successor. The Norwegian king died shortly after the indecisive Battle of Largs. In 1266, his more peaceable successor ceded his nominal authority over the Suðreyjar to Alexander III by the Treaty of Perth, in return for a large sum of money. Alexander acknowledged the semi-independent authority of Somerled's heirs. At the end of the 13th century, a violent dispute arose over the
Cú Chulainn spelled Cú Chulaind or Cúchulainn and sometimes known in English as Cuhullin, is an Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle, as well as in Scottish and Manx folklore. He is believed to be an incarnation of the god Lugh, his father, his mother is sister of Conchobar mac Nessa. Born Sétanta, he gained his better-known name as a child, after killing Culann's fierce guard-dog in self-defence and offered to take its place until a replacement could be reared. At the age of seventeen he defended Ulster single-handedly against the armies of queen Medb of Connacht in the famous Táin Bó Cúailnge, it was prophesied that his great deeds would give him everlasting fame, but his life would be a short one. He is known for his terrifying battle frenzy, or ríastrad, in which he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe, he fights from his chariot, driven by his loyal charioteer Láeg and drawn by his horses, Liath Macha and Dub Sainglend. In more modern times, Cú Chulainn is referred to as the "Hound of Ulster".
Cú Chulainn shows striking similarities to the legendary Persian hero Rostam, as well as to the Germanic Lay of Hildebrand and the labours of the Greek epic hero Heracles, suggesting a common Indo-European origin, but lacking in linguistic and archaeological material. There are a number of versions of the story of Cú Chulainn's miraculous birth. In the earliest version of Compert Con Culainn, his mother Deichtine is the daughter and charioteer of Conchobar mac Nessa, king of Ulster, accompanies him as he and the nobles of Ulster hunt a flock of magical birds; as snow begins to fall, Ulstermen seek shelter in a nearby house. As the host's wife goes into labour, Deichtine assists in the birth of a baby boy, while a mare gives birth to twin colts; the next morning, the Ulstermen find themselves at the Brug na Bóinde —the house and its occupants have disappeared, but the child and the colts remain. Deichtine takes the boy home and begins raising him as her own; the god Lug appears to her and tells her he was their host that night, that he has put his child in her womb, to be called Sétanta.
Her pregnancy turns into a scandal as she is betrothed to Sualtam mac Róich, the Ulstermen suspect Conchobar of being the father, so she aborts the child and goes to her husband's bed "virgin-whole". She conceives a son whom she names Sétanta. In the and better-known version of Compert Con Culainn, Deichtine is Conchobar's sister, disappears from Emain Macha, the Ulster capital; as in the previous version, the Ulstermen go hunting a flock of magical birds, are overtaken by a snowstorm and seek shelter in a nearby house. Their host is Lug, a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, but this time his wife, who gives birth to a son that night, is Deichtine herself; the child is named Sétanta. The nobles of Ulster argue over which of them is to be his foster-father, until the wise Morann decides he should be fostered by several of them: Conchobar himself, he is brought up in the house of Amergin and Findchóem on Muirthemne Plain in modern County Louth, alongside their son Conall Cernach. The County Louth town of Dundalk has the motto Mé do rug Cú Chulainn cróga "I gave birth to brave Cú Chulainn".
The stories of Cú Chulainn's childhood are told in a flashback sequence in Táin Bó Cúailnge. As a small child, living in his parents' house on Muirthemne Plain, he begs to be allowed to join the boy-troop at Emain Macha. However, he sets off on his own, when he arrives at Emain he runs onto the playing field without first asking for the boys' protection, being unaware of the custom; the boys take this as a challenge and attack him, but he has a ríastrad and beats them single-handed. Conchobar puts a stop to the fight and clears up the misunderstanding, but no sooner has Sétanta put himself under the boys' protection than he chases after them, demanding they put themselves under his protection. Culann the smith invites Conchobar to a feast at his house. Before going, Conchobar goes to the playing field to watch the boys play hurling, he is so impressed by Sétanta's performance. Sétanta promises to follow the king later, but Conchobar forgets, Culann lets loose his ferocious hound to protect his house.
When Sétanta arrives, the enormous hound attacks him, but he kills it in self-defence, in one version by smashing it against a standing stone, in another by driving a sliotar down its throat with his hurley. Culann is devastated by the loss of his hound, so Sétanta promises he will rear him a replacement, until it is old enough to do the job, he himself will guard Culann's house; the druid Cathbad announces that his name henceforth will be Cú Chulainn—"Culann's Hound". One day at Emain Macha, Cú Chulainn overhears Cathbad teaching his pupils. One asks him what that day is auspicious for, Cathbad replies that any warrior who takes arms that day will have everlasting fame. Cú Chulainn, though only seven years old, asks for arms. None of the weapons given to him withstand his strength, but when Cathbad sees this he grie