Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
Little Lord Fauntleroy
Little Lord Fauntleroy is a novel by the English-American writer Frances Hodgson Burnett, her first children's novel. It was published as a serial in St. Nicholas Magazine from November 1885 to October 1886 as a book by Scribner's in 1886; the illustrations by Reginald B. Birch set fashion trends and the novel set a precedent in copyright law when Burnett won a lawsuit in 1888 against E. V. Seebohm over the rights to theatrical adaptations of the work. In a shabby New York City side street in the mid-1880s, young Cedric Errol lives with his mother in genteel poverty after the death of his father, Captain Cedric Errol. One day, they are visited by an English lawyer named Havisham with a message from young Cedric's grandfather, the Earl of Dorincourt, an unruly millionaire who despises the United States and was disappointed when his youngest son married an American woman. With the deaths of his father's elder brothers, Cedric has now inherited the title Lord Fauntleroy and is the heir to the earldom and a vast estate.
Cedric's grandfather wants him to be educated as an English aristocrat. He offers his son's widow a house and guaranteed income, but he refuses to have anything to do with her after she declines his money. However, the Earl is impressed by the appearance and intelligence of his American grandson and is charmed by his innocent nature. Cedric believes his grandfather to be an honorable man and benefactor, the Earl cannot disappoint him; the Earl therefore becomes a benefactor to his tenants, to their delight, though he takes care to let them know that their benefactor is the child, Lord Fauntleroy. Meanwhile, back in New York, a homeless bootblack named Dick Tipton tells Cedric's old friend Mr. Hobbs, a New York City grocer, that a few years prior, after the death of his parents, Dick's older brother Benjamin married an awful woman who got rid of their only child together after he was born and left. Benjamin moved to California to open a cattle ranch. At the same time, a neglected pretender to Cedric's inheritance appears in England, the pretender's mother claiming that he is the offspring of the Earl's eldest son, Bevis.
The claim is investigated by Dick and Benjamin, who come to England and recognize the woman as Benjamin's former wife. She flees, the Tipton brothers and the pretender, Benjamin's son, do not see her again. Afterwards, Benjamin goes back to his cattle ranch in California where he raises his son by himself; the Earl is reconciled to his American daughter-in-law, realizing that she is far superior to the impostor. The Earl planned to teach his grandson. Instead, Cedric teaches his grandfather that an aristocrat should practice compassion towards those dependent on him; the Earl becomes the man. Cedric is reunited with his mother, Mr. Hobbs, who decides to stay to help look after Cedric; the Fauntleroy suit, so well described by Burnett and realised in Reginald Birch's detailed pen-and-ink drawings, created a fad for formal dress for American middle-class children: What the Earl saw was a graceful, childish figure in a black velvet suit, with a lace collar, with lovelocks waving about the handsome, manly little face, whose eyes met his with a look of innocent good-fellowship.
— Little Lord Fauntleroy The Fauntleroy suit appeared in Europe as well, but nowhere was it as popular as in America. The classic Fauntleroy suit was a velvet cut-away jacket and matching knee pants, worn with a fancy blouse and a large lace or ruffled collar; these suits appeared right after the publication of Burnett's story and were a major fashion for boys until after the turn of the 20th century. Many boys who did not wear an actual Fauntleroy suit wore suits with Fauntleroy elements, such as a fancy blouse or floppy bow. Only a minority of boys wore ringlet curls with these suits, but the photographic record confirms that many boys did, it was most popular for boys about 3 -- 8 years of age. It has been speculated that the popularity of the style encouraged many mothers to breech their boys earlier than before, it was a factor in the decline of the fashion for dressing small boys in dresses and other skirted garments. Clothing that Burnett popularised was modelled on the costumes which she tailored herself for her two sons and Lionel.
Polly Hovarth writes that Little Lord Fauntleroy "was the Harry Potter of his time and Frances Hodgson Burnett was as celebrated for creating him as J. K. Rowling is for Potter." During the serialisation in St. Nicholas magazine, readers looked forward to new instalments; the fashions in the book became popular with velvet Lord Fauntleroy suits being sold, as well as other Fauntleroy merchandise such as velvet collars, playing cards, chocolates. During a period when sentimental fiction was the norm, in the United States the "rags to riches" story popular, Little Lord Fauntleroy was a hit. Edith Nesbit included in her own children's book The Enchanted Castle a rather unflattering reference: Gerald could always make himself look interesting at a moment's notice by opening his grey eyes rather wide, allowing the corners of his mouth to droop, assuming a gentle, pleading expression, resembling that of the late little Lord Fauntleroy who must, by the way, be quite old now, an awful prig. In 1888, after discovering her novel had been plagiarized for the stage, Burnett sued and wrote her own theatrical adaptation of Little Lord Fauntleroy.
It opened May 14, 1888, at Terry's Theatre in London, was presented in the English provinces, France and New York City. The Broadway
Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI was an English artist and satirical cartoonist. He is best remembered as the creator of St Trinian's School and for his collaboration with Geoffrey Willans on the Molesworth series. Searle was born in Cambridge, where his father was a Post Office worker who repaired telephone lines, he started drawing at the age of five and left school at the age of 15. He trained at Cambridge College of Technology for two years. In April 1939, realizing that war was inevitable, he abandoned his art studies to enlist in the Royal Engineers. In January 1942, he was stationed in Singapore. After a month of fighting in Malaya, he was taken prisoner along with his cousin Tom Fordham Searle, when Singapore fell to the Japanese, he spent the rest of the war a prisoner, first in Changi Prison and in the Kwai jungle, working on the Siam-Burma Death Railway. Searle contracted both beri-beri and malaria during his incarceration, which included numerous beatings, his weight dropped to less than 40 kilograms.
He was liberated in late 1945 with the final defeat of the Japanese. After the war, he served as a courtroom artist at the Nuremberg trials, he married the journalist Kaye Webb in 1947. In 1961, he moved to Paris, he married Monica Koenig, a painter and jewellery designer. After 1975, Searle and his wife worked in the mountains of Haute Provence, his wife Monica died in July 2011 and Searle died on 30 December 2011, aged 91. Although Searle published the first St Trinian's cartoon in the magazine Lilliput in 1941, his professional career begins with his documentation of the brutal camp conditions of his period as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese in World War II in a series of drawings that he hid under the mattresses of prisoners dying of cholera. Searle recalled, "I wanted to put down what was happening, because I thought if by any chance there was a record if I died, someone might find it and know what went on." But Searle survived, along with 300 of his drawings. Liberated late in 1945, Searle returned to England where he published several of the drawings in fellow prisoner Russell Braddon's The Naked Island.
Another of Searle's fellow prisoners recounted, "If you can imagine something that weighs six stone or so, is on the point of death and has no qualities of the human condition that aren't revolting, calmly lying there with a pencil and a scrap of paper, you have some idea of the difference of temperament that this man had from the ordinary human being."Most of these drawings appear in his 1986 book, Ronald Searle: To the Kwai and Back, War Drawings 1939–1945. In the book, Searle wrote of his experiences as a prisoner, including the day he woke up to find a dead friend on either side of him, a live snake underneath his head: "You can’t have that sort of experience without it directing the rest of your life. I think that’s why I never left my prison cell, because it gave me my measuring stick for the rest of my life... All the people we loved and knew and grew up with became fertiliser for the nearest bamboo."At least one of his drawings is on display at the Changi Museum and Chapel, but the majority of his originals are in the permanent collection of the Imperial War Museum, along with the works of other POW artists.
The best known of these are John Mennie, Jack Bridger Chalker, Philip Meninsky and Ashley George Old. Searle produced an extraordinary volume of work during the 1950s, including drawings for Life and Punch, his cartoons appeared in the Sunday Express and the News Chronicle. He compiled more St Trinian's books, which were based on his sister's school and other girls' schools in Cambridge, he collaborated with Geoffrey Willans on the Molesworth books, with Alex Atkinson on travel books. In addition to advertisements and posters, Searle drew the title backgrounds of the Sidney Gilliat and Frank Launder film The Happiest Days of Your Life. After moving to Paris in 1961, he worked more on reportage for Life and Holiday and less on cartoons, he continued to work in a broad range of media and created books, animated films and sculpture for commemorative medals, both for the French Mint and the British Art Medal Society. Searle did a considerable amount of designing for the cinema, in 1965, he completed the opening and closing credits for the comedy film Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines as well as the 1969 film Monte Carlo or Bust!.
In 1975, the full-length cartoon Dick Deadeye, or Duty Done was released. It is based on the character and songs from H. M. S. Pinafore. In 2010, he gave about 2,200 of his works as permanent loans to Wilhelm Busch Museum, now renamed Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Zeichenkunst; the summer palace of George I of Hanover, this museum holds Searle's archives. Searle received much recognition for his work in America, including the National Cartoonists Society's Advertising and Illustration Award in 1959 and 1965, the Reuben Award in 1960, their Illustration Award in 1980 and their Advertising Award in 1986 and 1987. Searle was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2004. In 2007, he was decorated with one of France's highest awards, the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, in 2009, he received the German Lower Saxony Order of Merit, his work has had a great deal of influence on American cartoonists, including Pat Oliphant, Matt Groening, Hilary Knight, t
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume III: Century
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume III: Century is the third volume of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin O'Neill. Co-published by Top Shelf Productions and Knockabout Comics in the US and UK Century was published in three distinct 72-page squarebound comics; the third volume of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a 216-page epic spanning a hundred years and entitled'Century'. Divided into three 72-page chapters, each a self-contained narrative to avoid frustrating cliff-hanger delays between episodes, it takes place in three distinct eras, building to an apocalyptic conclusion occurring in the present, twenty-first, century; the characters and themes thread through all three episodes, in which the characters of Mina Harker, Allan Quatermain and Orlando feature prominently, alongside W. Somerset Maugham's Aleister Crowley-analogue Oliver Haddo and Iain Sinclair's London-bound time traveller Andrew Norton, from Slow Chocolate Autopsy.
Moore has stated that the move from DC Comics/WildStorm/America's Best Comics has been liberating, that the work on Century is "as if we feel freed from the conventions of boys' adventure comics," allowing for a work, "a lot more atmospheric," building to "a tremendously bloody climax." The story begins in twelve years after the first and second volumes. On Lincoln Island, the dying Captain Nemo asks his estranged teenage daughter, Janni Dakkar, to become the new captain of the Nautilus after his death, but she refuses and leaves his side, she stows away on a passing ship, which sails to London, taking the name "Jenny Diver" she gets a job at a wharf-side hotel. Jack MacHeath – portrayed as a combination of The Threepenny Opera protagonist MacHeath and real-life serial killer Jack the Ripper – arrives in London on the same ship and murders a prostitute. Allan Quatermain and Mina Murray continue to work for the British Government as part of the League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, along with new members Orlando, Thomas Carnacki and A.
J. Raffles. Carnacki has frequent visions of an upcoming disaster where many people will die, a cult plotting the creation of a "Moonchild" destined to initiate Armageddon, he recognises one of the men in his visions as paranormal detective Simon Iff, the League go to a gentlemen's club Carnacki and Iff attend to learn more about him. One of the club's members, reveals Iff was an associate of Oliver Haddo, an occultist who died in 1908 but whose cult remains active. Mina and Allan discuss the situation with Mycroft Holmes, the head of British Intelligence, who advises them to investigate the Haddo cult's headquarters near King's Cross railway station and suggests MacHeath will be responsible for the deaths Carnacki foresaw. At Kings Cross and Raffles meet time traveller Andrew Norton, but he offers little help and speaks entirely in riddles referencing events in the far future, such as the July 7 Bombings and the 2003 Iraq War; as he disappears to another time, Norton promises Mina they will meet again in 1969.
Meanwhile, Orlando and Carnacki break into the Haddo cult's headquarters, but are caught by the leader Karswell Trelawney. When they confront the cult about their plans, Trelawney claims what Carnacki has been seeing is either inaccurate or a future event yet to happen, but Carnacki inadvertently gives them a crucial piece of information by mentioning the name of a woman who has yet to join the cult. Elsewhere, Janni is mistreated by the staff and guests of the hotel, but when Ishmael appears with news of Nemo's death, she still refuses to join the Nautilus crew and demands he leave; that evening, Janni is raped by a group of drunk men, is aided to her room by Suky Tawdry. Distraught and eager for revenge, she decides to fulfil Nemo's dying wishes and fires a flare to summon the Nautilus, docked nearby; the next day, MacHeath is brought to the gallows to be hanged without trial, as Mycroft is worried a trial might reveal the involvement of the 14th Earl of Gurney in the original Ripper murders and cause a scandal.
As MacHeath sings his final plea from the gallows, the Nautilus emerges from the Thames and destroys every building on the waterfront. The crew descend to loot and murder while Janni – accepting the role of captain – orders them to kill the men who raped her. Mycroft receives news of the Nautilus attacking the London docks, as well as a letter from the Earl of Gurney confessing to all the Ripper crimes, so he orders for MacHeath to be freed without charge and sends the League to the docks; when they arrive, Orlando fends off the pirates with Excalibur, amidst the chaos Mina runs into Janni, who recognises her from her previous visit to Lincoln Island in 1898. As the Nautilus departs, Janni invites Mina to join the crew should she decide to forsake government work. Mina berates the League for their reckless actions, as they leave the ruined docks, MacHeath and Suky sing an altered version of What Keeps Mankind Alive? Mocking the League for their failures. In 1969, around eleven years after the events of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: The Black Dossier, members of Oliver Haddo's cult murder Basil Thomas, a member of the rock band "Purple Orchestra".
Mina and Allan no longer work for the British Government and have spent the years since the events of The Black Dossier away from Britain, but the sorcerer Prospero summons them back to investigate Basil's murder. The Nautilus drops the League off at the White Cliffs of Dover, a
Sir Michael Philip Jagger is an English singer, songwriter and film producer who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll", his distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, was portrayed as a countercultural figure. Jagger grew up in Dartford, Kent, he studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to a mixed reception, he began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009.
Relationships with the Stones' members Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects. In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones; as member of the Stones, as solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music. Jagger has been married once, has had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women, he has five grandchildren, became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million. Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Kent, his father, Basil Fanshawe "Joe" Jagger, grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers. His mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party.
Jagger's younger brother, Chris, is a musician. The two have performed together. Although brought up to follow his father's career path, Jagger "was always a singer" as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. "I always sang as a child. I was one of those kids; some kids sing in choirs. I was in the church choir and I loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies."In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, Dartford. In 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre, named after its most famous alumnus, installed within the school's site. Jagger and Richards lost contact with each other when they went to different schools, but after a chance encounter on platform two at Dartford railway station in July 1960, resumed their friendship and discovered their shared love of rhythm and blues, which for Jagger had begun with Little Richard.
Jagger left school in 1961 after passing three A-levels. With Richards, he moved into a flat in Edith Grove, London, with guitarist Brian Jones. While Richards and Jones planned to start their own rhythm and blues group, Blues Incorporated, Jagger continued to study business on a government grant as an undergraduate student at the London School of Economics, had considered becoming either a journalist or a politician, comparing the latter to a pop star. Brian Jones, using the name Elmo Lewis, began working at the Ealing Club — where a "loosely knit version" of Blues Incorporated began with Richards. Jagger began to jam with the group becoming featured singer. Soon, Richards and Jagger began to practise on their own, laying the foundation for what would become The Rolling Stones. In their earliest days, the Rolling Stones played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korner's gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station. At the time, the group had little equipment and needed to borrow Korner's gear to play.
The group's first appearance, under the name the Rollin' Stones, was at the Marquee Club, a jazz club, in London on 12 July 1962. They would change their name to "the Rolling Stones" as it seemed more formal. Victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in his memoir Life that "The drummer that night was Mick Avory−not Tony Chapman, as history has mysteriously handed it down..." By autumn 1963, Jagger had left the London School of Economics in favour of his promising musical career with the Rolling Stones. The group continued to play songs by American rhythm and blues artists such as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, but with the strong encouragement of manager Andrew Loog Oldham and Richards soon began to write their own songs; this core songwriting partnership took some time to develop. For the Rolling Stones, the duo would write "The Last Time", the group's third No. 1 single in the UK (their first two UK No. 1
Preparatory school (United Kingdom)
A preparatory school in the United Kingdom is a fee-charging independent primary school that caters for children up to the age of 11, the first year of secondary school. The term "preparatory school" is used as it prepares the children for the Common Entrance Examination to secure a place at a private independent secondary school, including the English public schools, they are now used by parents in the hope of getting their child into a state selective grammar school. Most prep schools are inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate, overseen by Ofsted on behalf of the Department for Education. Boys' prep schools are for 8- to 13-year-olds, who are prepared for the Common Entrance Examination, the key to entry into many secondary independent schools. Before the age of seven or eight, the term "pre-prep school" is used. Girls' private schools in England tend to follow the age ranges of state schools more than those of boys. Girls' preparatory schools admit girls from the age of four or five, who will continue to another independent school at 11, or at 13 if the school is co-educational.
However, as more girls now go on to single-sex boys' schools that have become co-educational, the separation is less clear. There are 130,000 pupils in over 500 prep schools of all sizes. Prep schools may be co-educational, they may be boarding schools, weekly boarding, flexi-boarding, or a combination. They fall into the following general categories: Wholly independent prep schools, both charitable and proprietary Junior schools linked to senior schools Choir schools, which educate child choristers of cathedrals, University colleges, some other large religious institutions. Pre-prep schools are associated with prep schools, take children from reception. Earlier provision is characterised as nursery or kindergarten. Prep schools were developed in England and Wales in the early 19th century as boarding schools to prepare boys for leading public schools, such as Eton, Charterhouse and Winchester; the numbers attending such schools increased due to large numbers of parents being overseas in the service of the British Empire.
They are now found in all parts of the United Kingdom, elsewhere. Incorporated Association of Preparatory Schools Independent Schools Council THE MAKING OF THEM - The British Attitude to Children and the Boarding School System
Private Eye is a British fortnightly satirical and current affairs news magazine, founded in 1961. It is published in London and has been edited by Ian Hislop since 1986; the publication is recognised for its prominent criticism and lampooning of public figures. It is known for its in-depth investigative journalism into under-reported scandals and cover-ups. Private Eye is Britain's best-selling current affairs magazine, such is its long-term popularity and impact that many of its recurring in-jokes have entered popular culture; the magazine bucks the trend of declining circulation for print media, having recorded its highest circulation in the second half of 2016. The forerunner of Private Eye was a school magazine published at Shrewsbury School in the mid-1950s and edited by Richard Ingrams, Willie Rushton, Christopher Booker and Paul Foot. After National Service and Foot went as undergraduates to Oxford University, where they met their future collaborators Peter Usborne, Andrew Osmond, John Wells and Danae Brooks, among others.
The magazine proper began when Usborne learned of a new printing process, photo-litho offset, which meant that anybody with a typewriter and Letraset could produce a magazine. The publication was funded by Osmond and launched in 1961, it was named when Osmond looked for ideas in the well-known recruiting poster of Lord Kitchener and, in particular, the pointing finger. After the name Finger was rejected, Osmond suggested Private Eye, in the sense of someone who "fingers" a suspect; the magazine was edited by Booker and designed by Rushton, who drew cartoons for it. Its subsequent editor, pursuing a career as an actor, shared the editorship with Booker, from around issue number 10, took over from issue 40. At first, Private Eye was a vehicle for juvenile jokes: an extension of the original school magazine, an alternative to Punch. However, according to Booker, it got "caught up in the rage for satire". After the magazine's initial success, more funding was provided by Nicholas Luard and Peter Cook, who ran The Establishment – a satirical nightclub – and Private Eye became a professional publication.
Others essential to the development of the magazine were Auberon Waugh, Claud Cockburn, Barry Fantoni, Gerald Scarfe, Tony Rushton, Patrick Marnham and Candida Betjeman. Christopher Logue was another long-time contributor, providing the column "True Stories", featuring cuttings from the national press; the gossip columnist Nigel Dempster wrote extensively for the magazine before he fell out with Ian Hislop and other writers, while Foot wrote on politics, local government and corruption. Ingrams continued as editor until 1986. Ingrams remains chairman of the holding company. Private Eye reports on the misdeeds of powerful and important individuals and has received numerous libel writs throughout its history; these include three issued by James Goldsmith and several by Robert Maxwell, one of which resulted in the award of costs and reported damages of £225,000, attacks on the magazine by Maxwell through a book, Malice in Wonderland, a one-off magazine, Not Private Eye. Its defenders point out that it carries news that the mainstream press will not print for fear of legal reprisals or because the material is of minority interest.
As well as covering a wide range of current affairs, Private Eye is known for highlighting the errors and hypocritical behaviour of newspapers in the "Street of Shame" column, named after Fleet Street, the former home of many papers. It reports on parliamentary and national political issues, with regional and local politics covered in equal depth under the "Rotten Boroughs" column. Extensive investigative journalism is published under the "In the Back" section tackling cover-ups and unreported scandals. A financial column called "In the City", written by Michael Gillard under the pseudonym "Slicker", has generated a wide business readership as a number of significant financial scandals and unethical business practices and personalities have been exposed there; some contributors to Private Eye are media figures or specialists in their field who write anonymously under humorous pseudonyms, such as "Dr B Ching" who writes the "Signal Failures" column about the railways, in reference to the Beeching cuts.
Stories sometimes originate from writers for more mainstream publications who cannot get their stories published by their main employers. Private Eye has traditionally lagged behind other magazines in adopting new typesetting and printing technologies. At the start it was laid out with scissors and paste and typed on three IBM Electric typewriters – italics and elite – lending an amateurish look to the pages. For some years after layout tools became available the magazine retained this technique to maintain its look, although the three older typewriters were replaced with an IBM composer. Today the magazine is still predominantly in black and white and there is more text and less white space than is typical for a modern magazine. Much of the text is printed in the standard Times New Roman font; the former "Colour Section" was printed in black and white like the rest of the magazine: only the content was colourful. While the magazine in general reports corruption, self-interest and incompetence in a broad range of industries and lines of work, certain people and entities have received a greater amount of attention and coverage in its pages.
As the most visible public figures, prime ministers and senior politicians make the most n