Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museums main building is located a distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world, from Greenland to South America, the museum sponsors SILA - The Greenland Research Centre at the National Museum of Denmark to further archaeological and anthropological research in Greenland. Danish coins from Viking times to the present and coins from ancient Rome and Greece, as well as examples of the coinage, the National Museum keeps Denmark’s largest and most varied collection of objects from the ancient cultures of Greece and Italy, the Near East and Egypt. For example, it holds a collection of objects that were retrieved during the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957, the Danish pre-history section was re-opened in May 2008 after years of renovating. In 2013, an exhibition on the Vikings was opened by Queen Margrethe.
It has toured to other museums, including the British Museum in London, larsen Per Kristian Madsen Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark is the title of the museums yearbook which has been published since 1928 and contains articles and other contributions. ISSN 0084-9308 Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1807 -2007
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal deparates it from Enghave Brygge to the south, the area was formerly known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003, a masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006. The development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings and it consists of a mixture of housing, offices and a hotel. The Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009 and it was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter, Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.
376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island and it was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh, the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the A, B, C, E and H trains, nearby bus lines include 1A which travls along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv. The super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes, on the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagens Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively. The new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast, the structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling
Amaliegade is a street in central Copenhagen, which makes up the longer of the two axes on which the Rococo district Frederiksstaden is centred. The street is dominated by a number of elegant mansions, most of which are from the half of the 18th century. At Amalienborg Palace, Amaliegade is spanned by a colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, it was built in 1794–95 to connect Moltkes Palace, the residence of the king, to Schacks Palace where the Crown prince resided. Collins Gouse was built in 1751–1752 for boot maker Peder Svendsen, the House breaks with scematic guidelines stipulated by Eigtved. It is receded from the street, jonas Collin, a prominent citizen of his day, lived in the house from 1739–1761 and during those years Hans Christian Andersen was a frequent visitor to the house. They were designed by Nicolai Eigtved as two houses of which one has been given an extra floor. The Yellow Palace, or Bergums Palace, was built 1759–1764 by the architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin for the timber merchant and it is considered the first example of Neoclassical architecture in Copenhagen.
Today it houses the Lord Chamberlain’s Office, king Frederick VI purchased the palace in 1810 to use it as a guest residence for visiting relatives of the royal family. Prince Valdemar lived in the Yellow Palace until his death in 1939 as its last royal resident, No.21 is the Italien ambassadors residence in Copenhagen. Amaliegade and 23B are two houses but the latter is entered through the gateway of the former. Both 23, 23b and the house at No.25 are today used by the Danish Social Appeals Board No.23 was designed by Nicolai Eigtved. 23b was built as an infill on the empty lot between Eigtveds Rococo house at No.23 and de Thurahs Baroque house at No.25 between 1785 and 1787 and it was designed by Joseph Guione in Neoclassical style. Built 1755–1757, Lauritz de Thurah built this house for his own use after returning to Copenhagen to direct the redevelopment of the Frederiksstaden district. During the same years de Thurah built Gammel Holtegård north of Copenhagen as a house with a fine Baroque garden.
Thus he never moved into No.25 Amaliegade, instead it was rented out upon completion, built 1896 to the design of architect Ole Boye. Notanle for its painted animal frieze depicting dragonflies and frogs, in its centre stand two tigers head-to-head next to rows of penguins. No.33 is the Danish Shipowners Association, built by carpenter and builder Andreas Hallander in 1788. It has seven bays separated by Ionic pilasters and another typical Neoclassical decoration is a running dog, the relief in the triangular pediment is an early work by Bertel Thorvaldsen depicting a female figure with a monocular next to a putto decorated with a garland
Sally Mann is an American photographer, best known for her large black-and-white photographs—at first of her young children, later of landscapes suggesting decay and death. Born in Lexington, Mann was the third of three children and the only daughter and her father, Robert S. Munger, was a general practitioner, and her mother, Elizabeth Evans Munger, ran the bookstore at Washington and Lee University in Lexington. Mann was raised by an atheist and compassionate father who allowed Mann to be benignly neglected, Mann was introduced to photography by her father, Robert Munger. Munger was a physician who photographed Mann nude as a little girl, Mann began to photograph when she was sixteen. Most of her photographs and writings are tied to Lexington, Mann graduated from The Putney School in 1969, and attended Bennington College and Friends World College. She earned a B. A. summa cum laude, from Hollins College in 1974 and she took up photography at Putney, she claims, her motive was to be alone in the darkroom with her boyfriend.
She made her debut at Putney, with an image of a nude classmate. Her father encouraged her interest in photography, his 5x7 camera became the basis of her use of large format cameras today and she has never read about photography. After graduation, Mann worked as a photographer at Washington and Lee University. C and those surrealistic images were subsequently included as part of her first book, Second Sight, published in 1984. While Mann explored a variety of genres as she was maturing in the 1970s, she found her trade with her second publication, At Twelve. In 1995, she was featured in an issue of Aperture, on Location with, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Graciela Iturbide, Barbara Kruger, Sally Mann, Andres Serrano, Clarissa Sligh which was illustrated with photographs. Her second collection, At Twelve, Portraits of Young Women, published in 1988, stimulated minor controversy. The images “captured the confusing emotions and developing identities of adolescent girls expressive printing style lent a dramatic and brooding mood to all of her images.
”In the preface to the book, Ann Beattie says “when a girl is twelve years old, she often wants – or says she wants – less involvement with adults. A time in which the girls yearn for freedom and adults feel their own grip on things becoming a little tenuous, as they realize that they have to let their children go. ”Beattie says that Mann’s photographs don’t “glamorize the world, but they don’t make it into something more unpleasant than it is, either. ”The girls photographed in this series are shown “vulnerable in their youthfulness” but Mann instead focuses on the strength that the girls possess. In one image from the book, Mann says that the girl was extremely reluctant to stand closer to her mother’s boyfriend. Mann said that she thought it was strange because “it was their peculiar familiarity that had provoked this photograph in the first place. ”Mann didn’t want to out the girl’s elbow. According to Mann, the girl’s mother shot her boyfriend in the face with a.22 several months later.
In court the mother “testified that while she worked nights at a truck stop he was ‘at home partying and harassing my daughter. ’” Mann said “the child put it to me somewhat more directly. ”Mann says that she now looks at this photograph with “a jaggy chill of realization. ”Mann is perhaps best known for Immediate Family, her third collection, first exhibited in 1990 by Edwynn Houk Gallery in Chicago
Vesterbros Torv is a public square located at the corner of Vesterbrogade and Gasværksvej in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is dominated by Elijahs Church, the square was established in 1850. Its triangular shape of the space was determined by a series of walks which used to be located at the site. The two buildings which flank Elijahs Church date from the establishment of the square, the church was completed as an infill in 1907. It is designed by Martin Nyrop, the theatre was inaugurated in 1908 and is built to a design which mixes Art Nouveaux with other styles. The Hercules Fountain dates from 1915 and was a gift from the society Hovedstadens forskønnelse and it was designed by the sculptor Rasmus Harboe who had previously created the reliefs on the facade of Elijahs Church. 55A commemorates the World War II resistance fighter Erik Koch Michelsen and he was shot at the site on 3 March 1945. In 1901 city architect Ludvig Fenger fitted the square with underground lavatories, similar facilities were constructed at the City Hall Square and Nyhavn
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands