Lightship Finngrundet (1903)
The Lightship Finngrundet is a lightvessel built in 1903 and now a museum ship moored in Stockholm, Sweden. She was the second Finngrundet lightvessel, built in Gävle, Sweden in 1903 and replacing one dating from 1859, she was stationed on the Finngrund banks in the Baltic Sea 40 nautical miles northeast of Gävle during the ice-free part of the year. She was extensively modified in a refit in 1927 at Öregrunds Ship och Varvs AB, the original paraffin light being replaced with an AGA beacon; the fog bell was augmented with an underwater fog signal. Further modifications in 1940 work included the addition of wireless communication along with equipment for her to function as a weather station, the electrification of her light, her final refit was in 1957 when the crew space were modified. The optics were built by G. W. Lyth of Stockholm, they had a range of around 11 nautical miles. Two flashes were produced every 20 seconds, she was replaced in 1969 by an unmanned caisson lighthouse and became a museum ship attached to the Vasa Museum.
Lightships Vasa museum Internet public library
Liu Bolin is an artist born in China's Shandong province. He earned his Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Shandong College of Arts in 1995 and his Master of Fine Arts from the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing in 2001, his work has been exhibited in museums around the world. Known as, Liu Bolin's most popular works are from his "Hiding in the City" series. Liu belongs to the generation that came of age in the early 1990s, when China emerged from the rubble of the Cultural Revolution and was beginning to enjoy rapid economic growth and relative political stability. Since his first solo shows in Beijing in 1998, Liu Bolin's work has received international recognition. Among other international venues, his distinctive photographs and sculptures have been shown at the major contemporary photography festival Les Rencontres d'Arles and he had solo shows at Dashanzi Art Zone in Beijing, Galerie Bertin-Toublanc in Paris, Klein Sun Gallery in New York, Galerie Paris-Beijing in Paris and Brussels, Boxart Gallery in Verona, Forma Foundation for Photography in Milan, H. C.
Andersen Museum in Rome. To celebrate US President Obama's visit to China, he made an effigy of Obama in his honor, he now works in Beijing, China. Liu Bolin is represented by Klein Sun Gallery in New York, NY, Boxart Gallery in Verona and Galerie Paris-Beijing in Paris and Brussels. In June 2011, Liu Bolin created his Hiding in New York series, in which he incorporated iconic New York sites into his work. In January 2013, Bolin created the artwork for New Jersey hard rock band Bon Jovi's 2013 album What About Now. Bolin was moved to create his "Hiding in the City" series after the Chinese Beijing artist village Suo Jia Cun in November 2005. At the time of this destruction, Liu Bolin had been working in Suo Jia Cun, named Asia's largest congregation of artists. Prompted by his emotional response to the demolition of this site, Liu decided to use his art as a means of silent protest, calling attention to the lack of protection Chinese artists had received from their own government. Through the use of his own body in his practice of painting himself into various settings in Beijing, Liu created a space for the Chinese artist, preserving their social status and highlighting their troubled relationship with their physical surroundings.
In his work, Liu has always given special attention to the various social problems that accompany China's rapid economic development, making social politics the crux of his pictorial commentaries. In "Hiding in the City", Liu made one of his particular focuses slogans as an educational tool used within Communist societies, pointing out that many people become used to the slogans over time and cease to pay conscious attention to these messages' effects on the public's thinking. By painting his body into some such slogans, Liu forces the viewer to acknowledge the messages and, in the process, to reconsider the circumstances of one's own life; the "Hiding in the City" series has inspired similar subsequent series by Liu Bolin. In particular, "Shadow" draws on the same concept of the helplessness of the individual. Rather than painting himself into the background of various man-made structures, as he did in "Hiding in the City", here Liu lay on surfaces during periods of rain, keeping the space directly below his body dry.
The flat human figure created by his presence always disappeared when Liu moved away, demonstrating the extent to which humans are helpless before their environment. Liu Bolin followed up his Beijing series of "Hiding in the City" with two derivative series of performances captured in Venice, Rome, Pompeii and New York City. Following the method of painting himself into the cityscapes, Liu chose Italy for its significance within the Western art tradition and New York City for the potency of the underlying conflicts between humans and the objects they create; the first derivative series, on going since 2008, was titled "Hiding in Italy" and was collected into the solo exhibition "Liu Bolin. A Secret Tour", at H. C. Andersen Museum in Rome, curated by Raffaele Gavarro in 2012. In service to this project, Liu painted himself into such socially-loaded backgrounds as Wall Street and the Tiles for America 9/11 memorial. In February 2012, Klein Sun Gallery, which represents the artist together with Boxart Gallery, announced a collaborative project between Liu Bolin and designers Gaultier, Valentino and Missoni, featured in the March 2012 issue of Harper's Bazaar magazine.
Following the success of his series of works camouflaging prominent people into backgrounds, he collaborated with the French art star JR. He was featured as a prominent artist in a Newsweek profile titled Eli Klein on Riding the Wave of China's Contemporary Art Scene. On the South Pier, at the Port of Catania, is recovered aground the first boat that in 2013 carried migrants from Africa to the coasts of Catania. Among them, six children Egyptians, exhausted for the trip on that vessel, were tragically drowned trying to reach the seashore, a few meters far from the Lido Beach Green; the artist chose to merge his body with the wreck and the history of which he is a silent witness for his first shot of the MIGRANTS project, dated 2015, supported by Boxart gallery. The scenario of the tragedy evoked by the first work, the Lido Verde, provides the second background to
Dansmuseet is a museum for the performing and visual arts located in Stockholm, Sweden. Opened in 1953 in the basement of the Royal Swedish Opera, it displayed a large collection of dance-related art that belonged to Rolf de Maré, a leader of the Ballets suédois in Paris from 1920–25. In 1969, a library, named after the Swedish dancer, Carina Ari was endowed by Ari and attached to the museum with Bengt Hägar as its curator; the library contains the most comprehensive archive of literature on dance in Northern Europe. The museum is located at Drottninggatan 17; the library, receives no state funds, as it is endowed. The majority of its collection are materials from Western Europe which date between 1500 and 1850, a journal collection dating at the turn of the 20th century, a video library of thousands of films. There is a large collection of books on Russian dance; as of 2017, the director of the museum is Eva-Sofi Ernstell. Dansmuseet, Sweden
Lennart Nilsson was a Swedish photographer and scientist. He was noted for his photographs of human embryos and other medical subjects once considered unphotographable, more for his extreme macro photography, he was considered to be among Sweden’s first modern photojournalists. Lennart Nilsson was born in Sweden, his father and uncle were both photographers. His father gave him his first camera at age twelve; when he was around fifteen, he saw a documentary about Louis Pasteur that made him interested in microscopy. Within a few years, Nilsson was making microphotographs of insects. In his late teens and twenties, he began taking a series of environmental portraits with an Icoflex Zeiss camera, had the opportunity to photograph many famous Swedes, he began his professional career in the mid-1940s as a freelance photographer, working for the publisher Åhlen & Åkerlund of Stockholm. One of his earliest assignments was covering the liberation of Norway in 1945 during World War II; some of his early photo essays, notably A Midwife in Lapland, Polar Bear Hunting in Spitzbergen, Fishermen at the Congo River, brought him international attention after publication in Life, Picture Post, elsewhere.
In 1954, eighty-seven of his portraits of famous Swedes were published in the book Sweden in Profile. His 1955 book, featured a selection of his early work. In 1963 his photoessay about the Swedish Salvation Army appeared in several magazines and in his book Hallelujah. In the mid-1950s he began experimenting with new photographic techniques to make extreme close-up photographs; these advances, combined with thin endoscopes that became available in the mid-1960s, enabled him to make groundbreaking photographs of living human blood vessels and body cavities. He achieved international fame in 1965, when his photographs of the beginning of human life appeared on the cover and on sixteen pages of Life magazine, they were published in Stern, Paris Match, The Sunday Times, elsewhere. The photographs made up a part of the book; some of the photographs from it were included on both Voyager spacecraft. In an interview published by PBS, Nilsson explained how he obtained photographs of living fetuses during medical procedures including laparoscopy and amniocentesis and discussed how he was able to light the inside of the mother's womb.
Describing a shoot that took place during a surgical procedure in Göteborg, he stated, "The fetus was moving, not sucking its thumb, but it was moving and you could see everything—heartbeats and umbilical cord and so on. It was beautiful beautiful!" Nilsson acknowledged obtaining human embryos from women's clinics in Sweden. The University of Cambridge claims that "Nilsson photographed abortus material... working with dead embryos allowed Nilsson to experiment with lighting and positions, such as placing the thumb into the fetus’ mouth. But the origin of the pictures was mentioned by anti abortion activists, who in the 1970s appropriated these icons." However, Nilsson himself has offered additional explanations for the sources of his photographs in other interviews, stating that he at times used embryos, miscarried due to extra-uterine or ectopic pregnancies. In 1969 he began using a scanning electron microscope on a Life assignment to depict the body’s functions, he is credited with taking the first images of the human immunodeficiency virus, in 2003, he took the first image of the SARS virus.
Around 1970 he joined the staff of the Karolinska Institutet. Nilsson was involved in the creation of documentaries, including: The Saga of Life. Nilsson became a member of the Swedish Society of Medicine in 1969, received an honorary doctorate in medicine from Karolinska Institute in 1976, an Honorary Doctor of Philosophy from the Technische Universität Braunschweig in Germany in 2002, an Honorary Doctor of Philosophy from Linköping University in Sweden in 2003, he won the Swedish Academy Nordic Authors' Prize, the first Hasselblad Foundation International Award in Photography, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences' Big Gold Medal in 1989, in 2002 received the 12th presentation of the Swedish government's Illis Quorum. His documentaries won Emmy awards in 1983 and 1996, he was award the Royal Photographic Society's Progress medal in 1993'in recognition of any invention, publication or other contribution which has resulted in an important advance in the scientific or technological development of photography.'Nilsson’s work is on exhibit in many locations, including the British Museum in London, the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum, the Modern Museum in Stockholm.
Since 1998, the Lennart Nilsson Award has been presented annually during the Karolinska Institute's installation ceremony. It is given in recognition of extraordinary photography of science and is sponsored by the Lennart Nilsson Foundation. Books 1959 Myror 1959 Liv i hav 1963 Halleluja, en bok om frälsningsarmén 1965, 1976, 1990, 2003 Ett barn blir till 1973 Se människan 1975 Så blev du till 1982 Vårt inre i närbild 1984 Nära naturen. En upptäcktsfärd i naturens mikrokosmos 1986 I mammas mage 1993 Vi ska få ett syskon (We are Getting a S
Sveriges Television AB, Sweden's Television, is the Swedish national public television broadcaster, funded by a public service tax on personal income set by the Riksdag. Prior to 2019, SVT was funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets; the Swedish public broadcasting system is modeled after the system used in the United Kingdom, Sveriges Television shares many traits with its British counterpart, the BBC. SVT is a public limited company that can be described as a quasi-autonomous non-government organisation. Together with the other two public broadcasters, Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Utbildningsradio, it is owned by an independent foundation, Förvaltningsstiftelsen för Sveriges Radio AB, Sveriges Television AB och Sveriges Utbildningsradio AB, The foundation's board consists of 13 politicians, representing the political parties in the Riksdag and appointed by the Government; the foundation in turn appoints the members of the SVT board. SVTs regulatory framework is governed by Swedish law.
SVT and Sveriges Radio were a joint company, but since 1979 they and Sveriges Utbildningsradio are sister companies sharing some joint services. SVT maintained a monopoly in domestic terrestrial broadcasting from the start in 1956 until the held TV4 started broadcasting terrestrially in 1992, it is barred from accepting advertisements except in the case of sponsors for sporting events. Until the launch of the Swedish language satellite television channel TV3 in 1987, Sveriges Television provided the only Swedish television available to the public. SVT is still the biggest TV network in Sweden, with an audience share of 36.4 percent. When radio broadcasting was organized in the 1920s, it was decided to adopt a model similar to the one of the British Broadcasting Company in the United Kingdom; the radio would be a monopoly funded by a license fee and organized as a limited company, AB Radiotjänst, owned by the radio industry and the press. The transmitters were owned by the state through Telegrafverket and the press held a monopoly on newscasts through Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå.
AB Radiotjänst was one of 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå lost its monopoly on newscasts de jure in 1947 and de facto in 1956, but otherwise the same model would be applied to television, it was decided to start test transmissions of television in June 1954. The first transmissions were made on 29 October 1954 from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In 1956, the Riksdag made the decision to permanent television broadcasting. Transmissions were started in Sweden by Radiotjänst on 4 September the same year using the new Nacka transmitter. A television license for those owning a television set was introduced in October. Television started broadcasting in 1957. At the same time, Radiotjänst was renamed its ownership changed; the state and the press would have equaled 40% shares, while the company would own 20%. In 1958, the first newscast, was broadcast. During the 1960s a second TV channel was discussed; the discussions resulted in the start of TV2 on 5 December 1969.
The first channel was named TV1 and the two channels were supposed to broadcast in "stimulating competition" within the same company. The first stage of the main headquarters building and TV studios for Sveriges Television, called TV-huset, was inaugurated on Oxenstiernsgatan in the Östermalm district in Stockholm on 30 October 1967; the completion of the second stage of TV-huset and its official opening was on 5 December 1969, the same day as the start of operations of TV2, making it one the largest television studios in Europe at that time. 1970 saw the start of the first regional programme, Sydnytt from Malmö. More regional news programmes launched in 1972 and the entire country was covered by regional news programmes by 1987 when ABC from Stockholm started; when TV2 started the news programmes were reorganized. Aktuellt was cut and replaced with TV-nytt, in charge of the main 19:30 bulletin on TV1 as well as news updates on both channels. In addition, the two channels would get one "commenting bulletin" each.
TV2 got TV1 got Nu. In 1972, the news was reorganized once again. Rapport was moved to the 7:30 slot on TV2, Aktuellt was revived and would broadcast at 6 and 9 on TV1; those timeslots would stay unchanged for the following decades. In 1966, the first colour broadcast was made, with regular colour broadcasts being introduced in 1970. Teletext started in 1978. At the end of the 1970s, SR was reorganized. From 1 July 1979, Sveriges Radio AB became the mother of four companies: Sveriges Riksradio for national radio, Sveriges Lokalradio AB for local radio, Sveriges Utbildningsradio for educational broadcasting and Sveriges Television for television. SVT would provide all television broadcasting, except for educational programming, the responsibility of Sveriges Utbildningsradio; the abbreviation SVT was chosen over the arguably more logical "STV" as that abbreviation was occupied by Scottish Television in the EBU. The Swedish EBU membership is jointly held by SVT, SR and UR; the two channels were reorganized in 1987.
TV1 was renamed Kanal 1 and contained all programmes produced in Stockholm, while TV2 consisted of the ten regional districts and the Rapport news desk. Broadcasts in Nicam Stereo were made permanent in 1988; this year saw the launch of a channel called SVT World in southern Finland, broadcasting content from SVT for Finland-Swedes. The channel, renamed SVT4, was rebr
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Joel-Peter Witkin is an American photographer who lives in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His work deals with themes such as death and various outsiders such as people with dwarfism and intersex persons, as well as physically deformed people. Witkin's complex tableaux recall religious episodes or classical paintings. Witkin was born to Roman Catholic mother, his twin brother, Jerome Witkin, son Kersen Witkin, are painters. Witkin's parents divorced when he was young because they were unable to overcome their religious differences, he attended grammar school at Saint Cecelia's in Brooklyn and went on to Grover Cleveland High School. In 1961 Witkin enlisted in the United States Army with the intention of capturing war photography during the Vietnam war. However, due to scheduling conflicts, Witkin never saw combat in Vietnam. Witkin spent his military time at Fort Hood and was in charge of Public Information and classified photos. In 1967, he became the official photographer for City Walls Inc, he attended Cooper Union in New York, where he studied sculpture, attaining a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1974.
Columbia University granted him a scholarship for graduate school, but his Master of Fine Arts degree is from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. Witkin claims that his vision and sensibility spring from an episode he witnessed as a young child, an automobile accident in front of his house in which a little girl was decapitated, it happened on a Sunday when my mother was escorting my twin brother and me down the steps of the tenement where we lived. We were going to church. While walking down the hallway to the entrance of the building, we heard an incredible crash mixed with screaming and cries for help; the accident involved three cars, all with families in them. Somehow, in the confusion, I was no longer holding my mother's hand. At the place where I stood at the curb, I could see something rolling from one of the overturned cars, it stopped at the curb. It was the head of a little girl. I bent down to touch the face, to speak to it -- but before I could touch it someone carried me away He says his family's difficulties influenced his work.
His favorite artist is Giotto. His photographic techniques draw on the work of E. J. Bellocq; those of Witkin's works which use corpses have had to be created in Mexico in order to get around restrictive US laws. Because of the transgressive nature of the contents of his images, his works have been labelled exploitative and have sometimes shocked public opinion, his techniques include scratching the negative, bleaching or toning the print, using a hands-in-the-chemicals printing technique. This experimentation began after seeing a 19th-century ambrotype of a woman and her ex-lover, scratched from the frame. Joel-Peter Witkin's photograph "Sanitarium" inspired the final presentation of Alexander McQueen's Spring/Summer 2001 collection based on avian imagery, the walls of another box within the faux psychiatric ward collapsed to reveal a startling tableau vivant: a reclining, masked nude breathing through a tube and surrounded by fluttering moths. In July 2011, filming began on Joel-Peter Witkin: An Objective Eye.
The film, directed by Thomas Marino, examines Witkin's photographs. Along with interviews with Joel-Peter Witkin, the film features interviews from gallery owners, prominent artists and scholars who share insight into the impact of Witkin's work and influence on modern culture. Filming took place in Albuquerque, Los Angeles, New York, Paris; the film was released on July 2013 for digital download and streaming/rental. The film will be part of the permanent collections at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris and the Biblioteca Nacional de Chile in Santiago, Chile."Joel-Peter Witkin: An Objective Eye" was first publicly shown in Santiago, Chile at the Biblioteca Nacional de Chile on July 31, 2013, as part of the opening of the exhibition, "Vanitas: Joel-Peter Witkin en Chile". Those in attendance of this premiere included Joel-Peter Witkin, his wife Barbara, gallery owner Baudoin Lebon. 1939: Born in Brooklyn September 13, 1939 to Max and Mary Witkin.. Barbara Anne Gilbert, 2005. 1959: Group show at the Museum of Modern Art, NYC 1973- 1974: Student poetry fellow at Columbia University 1974: Received his B.
F. A. at Cooper Union 1980: Exhibited in Projects Studio One, NYC 1981: Group show at San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 1982: Exhibited in Galerie Texbraun, Paris. Exhibited in Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris 1983: Exhibited in Kansas City Art Institute. Exhibited in Stedelijk Mus, Amsterdam. Exhibited in Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco. Exhibited in Pace Wildenstein MacGill Gallery, NYC 1984: Exhibited in Fraenkel Gallery. Exhibited in Pace Wildenstein MacGill Gallery, NYC 1985: Exhibited in San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Group show at the Whitney Biennial 1986: Received his M. F. A. at University of New Mexico. Exhibited in Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris. Exhibited in Brooklyn Museum. Group show at Paris 1987: Exhibited in Fraenkel Gallery. Exhibited in Pace Wildenstein MacGill Gallery, NYC. Exhibited in Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris. Exhibited in Fahey/Klein Gallery, L. A. 1988: Exhibited in Centro de Arte Reina Sofia Museum, Madrid. 1989: Exhibited in Pace Wildenstein MacGill Gallery, NYC. Exhibited in Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris.
Exhibited in Palais de Tokyo, Paris. Exhibited in Fahey/Klein Gallery, L. A. 1990: Exhibited in Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris 1991: Exhibited in Fraenkel Gallery. Exhibited in Pace Wildenstein MacGill Gallery, NYC. Exhibited in