France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
In cutlery or kitchenware, a fork is a utensil, now made of metal, whose long handle terminates in a head that branches into several narrow and slightly curved tines with which one can spear foods either to hold them to cut with a knife or to lift them to the mouth. Bone forks have been found in archaeological sites of the Bronze Age Qijia culture, the Shang dynasty, as well as Chinese dynasties. A stone carving from an Eastern Han tomb depicts three hanging two-pronged forks in a dining scene. Similar forks have been depicted on top of a stove in a scene at another Eastern Han tomb. In Ancient Egypt, large forks were used as cooking utensils. In the Roman Empire and silver forks were used, many surviving examples of which are displayed in museums around Europe. Use varied according to local customs, social class, the type of food, but in earlier periods forks were used as cooking and serving utensils. Although its origin may go back to Ancient Greece, the personal table fork was most invented in the Eastern Roman Empire, where they were in common use by the 4th century.
Records show that by the 9th century in some elite circles of Persia a similar utensil known as a barjyn was in limited use. By the 10th century, the table fork was in common use throughout the Middle East; the introduction of the fork to Western Europe, according to theologian and cardinal Peter Damian, was by Theophano Sklereina, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, who at an Imperial banquet in 972 nonchalantly produced one, astonishing her Western guests. By the 11th century, the table fork had become prevalent in the Italian peninsula before other European regions because of historical ties with Byzantium and, as pasta became a greater part of the Italian diet, continued to gain popularity, displacing the long wooden spike used since the forks three spikes proved better suited to gathering the noodles. By the 14th century the table fork had become commonplace in Italy, by 1600 was universal among the merchant and upper classes, it was proper for a guest to arrive with his own spoon enclosed in a box called a cadena.
Although in Portugal forks were first used around 1450 by Infanta Beatrice, Duchess of Viseu, King Manuel I of Portugal's mother, only by the 16th century, when they had become part of Italian etiquette, did forks enter into common use in Southern Europe, gaining some currency in Spain, spreading to France. The rest of Europe did not adopt the fork until the 18th century; the fork's adoption in northern Europe was slower. Its use was first described in English by Thomas Coryat in a volume of writings on his Italian travels, but for many years it was viewed as an unmanly Italian affectation; some writers of the Roman Catholic Church expressly disapproved of its use, St. Peter Damian seeing it as "excessive delicacy": It was not until the 18th century that the fork became used in Great Britain, although some sources say that forks were common in France and Sweden by the early 17th century; the fork did not become popular in North America until near the time of the American Revolution. The standard four-tine design became current in the early 19th century.
Asparagus fork Barbecue fork Beef fork: A fork used for picking up meat. This fork is shaped like a regular fork, but it is bigger and the tines are curved outward; the curves are used for piercing the thin sliced beef. Berry fork Carving fork: A two-pronged fork used to hold meat steady while it is being carved, they are sold with carving knives or slicers as part of a carving set. Cheese fork Chip fork: A two-pronged disposable fork made out of sterile wood designed for the eating of french fries and other takeaway foods. From 7.5 to 9 cm long. In Germany they are known as Pommesgabel and "currywurst fork". Cocktail fork: A small fork resembling a trident, used for spearing cocktail garnishes such as olives. Cold meat fork Crab fork: A short and narrow three-pronged or two-pronged fork designed to extract meat when consuming cooked crab. Dessert fork: Any of several different special types of forks designed to eat desserts, such as a pastry fork, they have only three tines and are smaller than standard dinner forks.
The leftmost tine may be widened so as to provide an edge with. Dinner fork Extension fork: A long-tined fork with a telescopic handle, allowing for its extension or contraction. Fish fork Fondue fork: A narrow fork having two tines, long shaft and an insulating handle of wood, for dipping bread into a pot containing sauce Fruit salad fork: A fork used, used to pick up pieces of fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other varies types of fruit. Granny fork Ice cream fork: A spoon with flat tines used for some desserts. See spork. Knork Meat fork Olive fork Oyster fork Pastry fork Pickle fork: A long handled fork used for extracting pickles from a jar, or an alternative name for a ball joint separator tool used to unseat a ball joint. Pie fork Relish fork Salad fork: Similar to a regular fork, but may be shorter, or have one of the outer tines shaped differently. A "salad fork" in the silverware service of some restaurants may be a second fork. Sardine fork Spaghetti fork: A novelty fork with a met
Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)
The Treaty of Frankfurt was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The treaty did the following: Established the frontier between the French Third Republic and the German Empire, which involved the ceding of 1,694 villages and cities under French control to Germany in:Alsace: the French departments of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin, except for the city of Belfort and its territory. Gave residents of the Alsace-Lorraine region until 1 October 1872 to decide between keeping their French nationality and emigrating, or remaining in the region and becoming German citizens. Set a framework for the withdrawal of German troops from certain areas. Regulated the payment of France's war indemnity of five billion francs. Recognized the acceptance of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor. Required military occupation in parts of France until the indemnity was paid; the treaty established the terms for the following: The use of navigable waterways in connection to Alsace-Lorraine Trade between the two countries The return of prisoners of war The German military spoke up for control of the Alsace region, up to the Vosges and the area between Thionville and Metz as a requirement for the protection of Germany.
Most the German military regarded control of the route between Thionville and Metz as the most important area of control if there were to be a future war with France. Without a westward shift in the boundary, the new empire's frontier with France would have been divided between the states of Baden and Bavaria whose governments were less than enthusiastic with the prospect of having a vengeful France on their doorstep, it would have necessitated the stationing of substantial imperial forces within these states' borders compromising their ability to exercise the considerable autonomy that the southern states were able to maintain in the unification treaty. A shift in the frontier alleviated these issues; the new political border followed the linguistic border. The fact that the majority of the population in the new Imperial Territory territory spoke Germanic dialects allowed Berlin to justify the annexation on nationalistic grounds. Natural resources in Alsace-Lorraine do not appear to have played a role in Germany's fight for the areas annexed.
Military annexation was the main stated goal along with unification of the German people. At the same time, France lost 1,694 villages and 1,597,000 inhabitants, it lost 20% of its mining and steel potential. The treaty of trade of 1862 with Prussia was not renewed but France granted Germany, for trade and navigation, a most-favoured nation clause. France would respect the clauses of the Treaty of Frankfurt in their entirety until 1914. France had to pay a full payment of 5,000,000,000 francs in gold, with one billion in 1871, before any German forces withdrawal; this treaty polarized French policy towards Germany for the next 40 years. The reconquest of Alsace-Lorraine, the "lost provinces," became an obsession characterized by a revanchism which would be one of the most powerful motives in France's involvement in World War I. In 1918, U. S. President Woodrow Wilson addressed the issue as Point 8 in his Fourteen Points speech, expressing the will of the United States to the restitution of the region to France.
Thus Alsace-Lorraine returned to the French Republic under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. The Germans accepted to surrender under the term of the American proposal. Hartshorne, Richard. "The Franco-German Boundary of 1871", World Politics, pp. 209-250. Eckhardt, C. C.. "The Alsace-Lorraine Question", The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 431-443
Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III known as Alfonso de Borgia, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458. He is the most recent pope to have taken the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election, he was responsible for the retrial of Joan of Arc that saw her vindicated. A member of the powerful Borgia family, Callixtus III was the uncle of Pope Alexander VI, whom he appointed to the College of Cardinals. Alfonso de Borgia was born in La Torreta in 1378. La Torreta was at the time in the Señorío de Torre de Canals. At the time he was born in the Kingdom of Valencia under the Crown of Aragon, he was the son of Domingo de Francina Llançol. He was the eldest child and his siblings were Isabel, Juana and Francisca, he was baptized at Saint Mary's Basilica in Xativa, where he is now honored with a statue in his memory. During the Great Western Schism he supported Antipope Benedict XIII and was the driving force behind Antipope Clement VIII's submission to Pope Martin V in 1429.
Borgia studied grammar and the arts in Valencia and went in 1392 to the University of Lleida where he obtained a doctorate in both canon law and civil law. His early career was spent as a professor of law at the University of Lleida and he served as a diplomat to the Kings of Aragon during the Council of Basel; when he was a priest he attended a sermon that Vincent Ferrer held around 1411. At the end of his message, the Dominican said to the future pope: "My son, you one day will be called to be the ornament of your house and of your country. You will be invested with the highest dignity. After my death, I shall be the object of your special honour. Endeavor to persevere in a life of virtue." As pope, Borgia canonized Ferrer on 3 June 1455. Borgia was chosen as a delegate of the Diocese of Lerida to the Council of Constance in 1416, but did not partake in the proceedings as King Alfonso V of Aragon was opposed to the council; because of this he went to Barcelona as a representative of his diocese in a synod.
Borgia cared for the reestablishment of the unity of the church and his influence with the Aragonese monarch was the factor that allowed for the conclusion of the accord between the king and the new pope. In 1418 he was named as the rector of San Nicolas of Valencia, he was the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Lerida from 1420 to 1423. In 1424 he dedicated his service to the Aragonese king. In 1424 he was named, it was at that time. Borgia was appointed Bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V on 20 August 1429 and was consecrated on 31 August 1429, he authorized Pedro Llorens to take possession of the see in his name. Borgia tutored Alfonso V's illegitimate son Ferrante. Pope Eugene IV elevated him to the cardinalate on 2 May 1444 after he managed to reconcile the pope and King Alfonso V of Aragon, he was elevated as the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati. He was a member of the Roman Curia, he participated in the papal conclave of 1447 that saw the election of Pope Nicholas V. He was known for an charitable life.
Borgia's coat of arms after he was consecrated featured a grazing ox. As pope it remained the same. Borgia was raised to the papal chair on 8 April 1455 at an advanced age as a "compromise candidate" in the papal conclave of 1455, he took the pontifical name of "Callixtus III". He was crowned as pope on 20 April 1455 by the Cardinal Protodeacon Prospero Colonna, he is viewed by historians as being an pious person and a firm believer in the authority of the Holy See. Not quite two years after the Fall of Constantinople, he was chiefly concerned with the organization of Christian Europe against an invasion by the Turks. An extensive building program under way in Rome was cancelled and the money funneled toward a crusade. Papal Nuncios were dispatched to all the countries of Europe to beseech the princes to join once more in an effort to check the danger of a Turkish invasion. Missionaries were sent to England, Germany, Hungary and Aragon to preach the Crusade, to engage the prayers of the faithful for the success of the enterprise.
It was by order of Callixtus III that the bells were rung at midday to remind the faithful that they should pray for the welfare of the crusaders. The princes of Europe were slow in responding to the call of the pope due to national rivalries. England and France's Hundred Years' War had just ended in 1453. Forces met the Turks and defeated them at Belgrade. Shortly after his victory, Hunyady himself died of a fever. On 29 June 1456, Callixtus III ordered the church bells to be rung at noon as a call to prayer for the welfare of those defending Belgrade. To commemorate this victory, Callixtus III ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be held annually on 6 August. In 1456 the pope issued the papal bull Inter Caetera to Portugal; this bull reaffirmed the earlier bulls Dum Diversas and Romanus Pontifex which recognized Portugal's rights to territories it had discovered along the West African coast as well as the enslavement of infidels and non-Christians captured there. This confirmation of Romanus Pontifex gave the Portuguese the military Order of Christ under Prince Henry the Navigator.
Inter Caetera of 1456 was in direct contradiction to the stance
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got, was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314. He is remembered for suppressing the order of the Knights Templar and allowing the execution of many of its members, as the Pope who moved the Papacy from Rome to Avignon, ushering in the period known as the Avignon Papacy. Born in Villandraut, Aquitaine, as the son of Bérard, Lord of Villandraut, Bertrand became canon and sacristan of the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux vicar-general to his brother Bérard de Got, the Archbishop of Lyon, who in 1294 was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, he was made Bishop of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, the cathedral church of which he was responsible for enlarging and embellishing, chaplain to Pope Boniface VIII, who made him Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1297. Following the death of Benedict XI in 1304, there was a year's interregnum occasioned by disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly balanced in the conclave, which had to be held at Perugia.
Bertrand was consecrated on 14 November. Bertrand was neither Italian nor a cardinal, his election might have been considered a gesture towards neutrality; the contemporary chronicler Giovanni Villani reports gossip that he had bound himself to King Philip IV of France by a formal agreement before his elevation, made at St. Jean d'Angély in Saintonge. Whether this was true or not, it is that the future pope had conditions laid down for him by the conclave of cardinals. At Bordeaux, Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy, but he selected Lyon for his coronation on 14 November 1305, celebrated with magnificence and attended by Philip IV. Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals. At Clement's coronation the Duke of Brittany, John II, was leading the Pope's horse through the crowd during the celebrations. So many spectators had piled atop the walls that one of the walls crumbled and collapsed on top of the Duke, who died four days later. Early in 1306, Clement V explained away those features of the Papal bull Clericis Laicos that might seem to apply to the king of France and withdrew Unam Sanctam, the bull of Boniface VIII that asserted papal supremacy over secular rulers and threatened Philip's political plans, a radical change in papal policy.
On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of the Knights Templar were arrested in France, an action motivated financially and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this move, but it has embellished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the day of Clement V's coronation, the king charged the Templars with usury, credit inflation, heresy, sodomy and abuses, the scruples of the Pope were heightened by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently. Meanwhile, Philip IV's lawyers pressed to reopen Guillaume de Nogaret's charges of heresy against the late Boniface VIII that had circulated in the pamphlet war around the bull Unam sanctam. Clement V had to yield to pressures for this extraordinary trial, begun on 2 February 1309 at Avignon, which dragged on for two years. In the document that called for witnesses, Clement V expressed both his personal conviction of the innocence of Boniface VIII and his resolution to satisfy the king.
In February 1311, Philip IV wrote to Clement V abandoning the process to the future Council of Vienne. For his part, Clement V absolved all the participants in the abduction of Boniface at Anagni. In pursuance of the king's wishes, Clement V in 1311 summoned the Council of Vienne, which refused to convict the Templars of heresy; the Pope abolished the order anyway, as the Templars seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived their usefulness as papal bankers and protectors of pilgrims in the East. Their French estates were granted to the Knights Hospitallers, but Philip IV held them until his death and expropriated the Templars' bank outright. False charges of heresy and sodomy set aside, the guilt or innocence of the Templars is one of the more difficult historical problems because of the atmosphere of hysteria that had built up in the preceding generation because the subject has been embraced by conspiracy theorists and quasi-historians. Clement sent John of Montecorvino to Beijing to preach in China.
Clement engaged intermittently in communications with the Mongol Empire towards the possibility of creating a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. In April 1305, the Mongol Ilkhan ruler Oljeitu sent an embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to Clement, Philip IV of France, Edward I of England. In 1307, another Mongol embassy led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena reached European monarchs. However, no coordinated military action was forthcoming and hopes of alliance petered out within a few years. In 1308, Clement ordered the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the Holy Land in the spring of 1309; this resulted in the unwanted Crusade of the Poor appearing before Avignon in July 1309. Clement granted the poor crusaders an indulgence, but refused to let them participate in the professional expedition led by the Hospitallers; that expedition set off in early 1310, but instead of sailing for the Holy Land, the Hospitallers conquered the city of Rhodes from the Byzantines. On 4 April 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne.
Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II of England i
Sélestat is a commune in the north-east region of France. An administrative division of the Bas-Rhin department, the town lies on the Ill river, 17 kilometres from the Rhine and the German border. Sélestat is located between the largest communes of Alsace and Mulhouse. In 2013, Sélestat had a total population of 19,332, which makes it the eighth most populous town in Alsace. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance it was the third largest city in the region, after Strasbourg and Colmar, it is ranked the third commune in Alsace for cultural heritage. Sélestat was founded in the 8th century as a port on the Ill and it experienced a long period of prosperity thanks to the trade in wine and a thriving religious and cultural life, it declined after the Reformation and the French conquest in the 17th century. The town experienced a new demographic growth in the second half of the 20th century when it became a small industrial and cultural centre. Thanks to its rich heritage, which includes the renowned Humanist Library and an imposing pair of medieval churches, Sélestat is an important tourist destination in Alsace.
It benefits from its location on the Alsace wine road and its proximity to Haut-Kœnigsbourg castle. Aside from the medieval old town, the commune of Sélestat encompasses a nature reserve including one of the largest riparian forests of France; the present name of the town is a Frenchification of the original Germanic name. It appeared soon after the French conquest in the 17th century; the town is called Schlettstàdt in Schlettstadt in German. Sélestat was first mentioned in 727 as Sclastat, it was mentioned as Scalistati in 775, as Slectistat in 881, as Sclezistat in 884 and as Slezestat in 1095. The current German name, appeared in 1310, although various spellings can be noticed on posterior documents, such as Schlestat and Schlestat; the French administration used various forms from the 17th to the 19th century, such as Frenchified and Germanic. The town was known as Schlettstadt between 1871 and 1919, when Alsace was part of the German Empire. Since 1920, the town's French name is fixed as Sélestat.
The origin of the name "Schlettstadt" is unclear. It derives from Germanic words slade or sclade meaning "marshes", stat for "city". Sélestat would be a "city in the marshes", a reference to its position in the Grand Ried, a vast area subject to flooding that stretches over the centre of Alsace. Stat could mean "area" rather than "city". A popular myth explains that the town takes its name from a dragon called Schletto that founded the settlement after opening up the nearby Lièpvre valley in the Vosges mountains. Sélestat was first mentioned in 727 AD but the town has an earlier Celtic or Roman origin. Archaeological findings provide evidence of human settlement during the Mesolithic, the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. A large number of wood piles dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD were discovered around St. Quirin chapel, suggesting a Roman settlement. At that time Sélestat might have been a port on the river Ill; when Sélestat started to appear in written documents in the 8th century, it may have been a market town or a village populated by fishermen and farmers.
The area was part of the estate of Eberhard, a member of the Alsatian ducal family, who donated it to Murbach Abbey at the end of his life. In 775, Charlemagne spent Christmas in Sélestat, which indicates that the town must have had enough appropriate buildings and population to accommodate his court and troops. In the 1080s, Sélestat was the property of Hildegard von Eguisheim, mother of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, the first member of the House of Hohenstaufen. Hildegard transformed the place into a religious centre when she founded St. Faith's Church, which she gave to the Benedictines of Conques Abbey. Monks from Conques opened a priory next to the church in 1092; the House of Hohenstaufen became the leading dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, which came to the imperial throne in 1152. Being under their protection, the priory of Sélestat influenced local life. Though Sélestat constituted a distinct parish, its priest had only limited power and the Benedictine prior was the true head of the municipality.
At the end of the 12th century, the Hohenstaufen dynasty lost power and as a result the priory started to decline. The citizens used this opportunity to reduce the prior's dominance and secure the power of their parish, they started to build a new parish church in the 1220s. St. George's Church was designed in Gothic style and was larger than St. Faith's Church, another way to signify the end of Benedictine hegemony. Frederick II, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in the 13th century, realised that his dynasty was losing its power and granted freedoms to many cities in order to keep their allegiance; these cities became Free imperial cities and Sélestat became one of them in 1217. Under the new status Sélestat was able to collect taxes on its own, its serfs and settlers were freed. The German monarch Adolf of Nassau granted Sélestat a constitution in 1292, it was amended many times but it regulated local politics until 1789. Although the new status favoured trade and prosperity, free cities in Alsace were afraid that they would not be defended by imperial forces if a conflict was to occur.
So they decided to form an alliance called the Decapolis in 1354, which comprised ten cities:. The seat of the alliance was in Hague
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M