The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange. It is the second-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the New York Stock Exchange located in the same city; the exchange platform is owned by Nasdaq, Inc. which owns the Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic stock market network and several U. S. stock and options exchanges. "Nasdaq" was an acronym for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. It was founded in 1971 by the National Association of Securities Dealers, which divested itself of Nasdaq in a series of sales in 2000 and 2001; the Nasdaq Stock Market is owned and operated by Nasdaq, Inc. the stock of, listed on its own securities exchange on July 2, 2002, under the ticker symbol NDAQ. The Nasdaq Stock Market began trading on February 8, 1971, it was the world's first electronic stock market. At first, it was a "quotation system" and did not provide a way to perform electronic trades; the Nasdaq Stock Market helped lower the spread but was unpopular among brokerages which made much of their money on the spread.
The NASDAQ Stock Market assumed the majority of major trades, executed by the over-the-counter system of trading, but there are still many securities traded in this fashion. As late as 1987, the Nasdaq exchange was still referred to as "OTC" in media reports and in the monthly Stock Guides issued by Standard & Poor's Corporation. Over the years, the Nasdaq Stock Market became more of a stock market by adding trade and volume reporting and automated trading systems, it was the first stock market in the United States to trade online, highlighting Nasdaq-traded companies and closing with the declaration that the Nasdaq Stock Market is "the stock market for the next hundred years". The Nasdaq Stock Market attracted new growth companies, including Microsoft, Cisco and Dell, it helped modernize the IPO, its main index is the NASDAQ Composite, published since its inception. However, its exchange-traded fund tracks the large-cap NASDAQ-100 index, introduced in 1985 alongside the NASDAQ Financial-100 Index, which tracks the largest 100 companies in terms of market capitalization.
In 1992, the Nasdaq Stock Market joined with the London Stock Exchange to form the first intercontinental linkage of securities markets. The National Association of Securities Dealers spun off the Nasdaq Stock Market in 2000 to form a publicly traded company. On March 10, 2000, the NASDAQ Composite peaked at 5,132.52, but fell to 3,227 by April 17, in the following 30 months fell 78% from its peak. In 2006, the status of the Nasdaq Stock Market was changed from a stock market to a licensed national securities exchange. In 2010, Nasdaq merged with OMX, a leading exchange operator in the Nordic countries, expanded its global footprint, changed its name to the NASDAQ OMX Group. To qualify for listing on the exchange, a company must be registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, must have at least three market makers and must meet minimum requirements for assets, public shares, shareholders. In February 2000, in the wake of an announced merger of NYSE Euronext with Deutsche Börse, speculation developed that NASDAQ OMX and Intercontinental Exchange could mount a counter-bid of their own for NYSE.
NASDAQ OMX could be looking to acquire the American exchange's cash equities business, ICE the derivatives business. At the time, "NYSE Euronext's market value was $9.75 billion. Nasdaq was valued at $5.78 billion, while ICE was valued at $9.45 billion." Late in the month, Nasdaq was reported to be considering asking either ICE or the Chicago Mercantile Exchange to join in what would have to be, if it proceeded, an $11–12 billion counterbid. In 2005, NASDAQ acquirred Instinet for $1.9 billion retaining the INET ECN and subsequently sellin the agency brokerage business to Silver Lake Partners and Instinet management. The European Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System was founded as a European equivalent to the Nasdaq Stock Market, it became NASDAQ Europe. Operations were shut however, as a result of the burst of the dot-com bubble. In 2007, NASDAQ Europe was revived as Equiduct, is operating under Börse Berlin. On June 18, 2012, Nasdaq OMX became a founding member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges Initiative on the eve of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.
In November 2016, Nasdaq chief operating officer Adena Friedman was promoted to the role of CEO, becoming the first woman to run a major exchange in the U. S. In 2016, Nasdaq earned $272 million in listings-related revenues. In October 2018, the SEC ruled that the NYSE and Nasdaq did not justify the continued price increases when selling market data. Nasdaq quotes are available at three levels: Level 1 shows the highest bid and lowest ask—inside quote. Level 2 shows all public quotes of market makers together with information of market dealers wishing to buy or sell stock and executed orders. Level 3 allows them to enter their quotes and execute orders; the Nasdaq Stock Market sessions eastern time are: 4:00 am to 9:30 am premarket session 9:30 am to 4:00 pm normal trading session 4:00 pm to 8:00 pm postmarket sessionThe Nasdaq Stock Market averages about 253 trading days per year. The Nasdaq Stock Market has three different market tiers: Capital Market is an equity market for companies that have relatively
Santa Clara, California
Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California. The city's population was 116,468 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the ninth-most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Located 45 miles southeast of San Francisco, the city was founded in 1777 with the establishment of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, the eighth of 21 California missions; the city was incorporated in 1852. The mission, the city, the county are all named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara is located in the center of Silicon Valley and is home to the headquarters of several high-tech companies such as Intel, it is home to Santa Clara University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of California, built around Mission Santa Clara de Asís. Levi's Stadium, the home of the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers, is located in the city. Santa Clara is bordered by San Jose and Cupertino; the first European to visit the valley was José Francisco Ortega in 1769. He found the area inhabited by Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Costanos, "coast people" known as the Ohlone.
The Spanish began to colonize California with 21 missions and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis was founded in 1777. In 1846, the American flag was raised over Monterey and symbolized the transfer of the sovereignty of the California Republic over to the United States. In 1851, Santa Clara College was established on the grounds of the original Mission. In 1852, Santa Clara was incorporated as a town. For the next century the economy centered on agriculture since orchards and vegetables were thriving in the fertile soil. By the beginning of the 20th century, the population had reached 5,000 and stayed about the same for many years. In 1905, the first public high-altitude flights by humans were made over Santa Clara in gliders designed by John J. Montgomery; the semiconductor industry, which sprouted around 1960, changed the city and surrounding Valley of Heart's Delight. Santa Clara's first medical hospital was built in 1963; this structure, on Kiely Boulevard, was replaced in 2007 with the new Kaiser Permanente medical center located on Lawrence Expressway at Homestead Road.
Santa Clara was home to a major mental health facility, Agnews State Hospital. According to the National Park Service, more than 100 persons were killed at this site in the 1906 earthquake; the site is the former home to Sun Microsystems and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Downtown Santa Clara: the 1963 City Council voted to knock down the 8 block grid of downtown area next to Santa Clara University bordered by Lafayette, Benton and Homestead to receive federal funding from Urban Renewal in USA. In 2018 there is a parking lot and Franklin Mall on Washington St with the one state historical building is, Santa Clara Post Office, apartment building, county courthouse, strip mall. Santa Clara is drained by three seasonal creeks, all of which empty into the southern portion of San Francisco Bay. There are some significant biological resources within the city including habitat for the burrowing owl, a species of special concern in California due to reduction in habitat from urban development during the latter 20th century.
This owl uses burrows created by ground squirrels and prefers level grasslands and disturbed areas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 18.4 square miles, all of it land. Despite being located only 45 miles from San Francisco, Santa Clara's climate is rather distinct—particularly during the summer, when it is warm and sunny, as opposed to the foggy and cool conditions one finds in San Francisco; the average daily temperatures in July range from 82 °F to 53 °F. Winters are mild, with the mean daily temperatures in January ranging from 58 °F to 38 °F. Most of the annual rainfall comes in the winter months; the 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara had a population of 116,468. The population density was 6,327.3 people per square mile. The ethnic makeup of Santa Clara was 52,359 White, 3,154 African American, 579 Native American, 43,889 Asian, 651 Pacific Islander, 9,624 from other races, 6,212 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22,589 persons.
The Census reported that 113,272 people lived in households, 2,860 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 336 were institutionalized. There were 43,021 households, out of which 14,477 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,817 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,081 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,038 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,146 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 312 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,906 households were made up of individuals and 2,945 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63. There were 27,936 families; the age distribution of the population was as follows: 24,774 people were under the age of 18, 12,511 people aged 18 to 24, 41,876 people aged 25 to 44, 25,628 people aged 45 to 64, 11,679 people who w
Nortel Networks Corporation commonly known as Northern Electric and Northern Telecom, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Canada. It was founded in Quebec, in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company; until an antitrust settlement in 1949, Northern Electric was owned principally by Bell Canada and the Western Electric Company of the Bell System, producing large volumes of telecommunication equipment based on licensed Western Electric designs. At its height, Nortel accounted for more than a third of the total valuation of all the companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, employing 94,500 people worldwide. In 2009, Nortel filed for bankruptcy protection in Canada and the United States, triggering a 79% decline of its corporate stock; the bankruptcy case was the largest in Canadian history, left pensioners and former employees with enormous losses. By 2016 Nortel had sold billions of dollars' worth of assets.
Courts in the U. S. and Canada approved a negotiated settlement of bankruptcy proceedings in 2017. Alexander Graham Bell conceived the technical aspects of the telephone and invented it in July 1874, while residing with his parents at their farm in Tutela Heights, on the outskirts of Brantford, Ontario, he refined its design at Brantford after producing his first working prototype in Boston. Canada's first telephone factory, created by James Cowherd of Brantford, was a three-story brick building that soon started manufacturing telephones for the Bell System, leading to the city's style as The Telephone City. After Cowherd's death in 1881 which resulted in the closure of his Brantford factory, a mechanical production department was created within the Bell Telephone Company of Canada and production of Canadian telephone equipment was transferred to Montreal in 1882, to compensate the restrictions on importing telephone equipment from the United States. In addition to telephones, four years the department started manufacturing switchboards, at first the 50-line Standard Magneto Switchboard.
The small manufacturing department expanded yearly with the growth and popularity of the telephone to 50 employees in 1888. By 1890 it had been transformed into its own branch of operations with 200 employees, a new factory was under construction; as the manufacturing branch expanded, its production ability increased beyond the demand for telephones, it faced closure for several months a year without manufacturing other products. The Bell Telephone Company of Canada's charter prohibited the company to build other products. In 1895, the Bell Telephone of Canada spun off its manufacturing arm to build telephones for sale to other companies, as well as other products, such as fire alarm boxes, police street call boxes, fire department call equipment; this company was incorporated as the Northern Manufacturing Company Limited. Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company Limited was incorporated on December 7, 1895, by the following corporate members: Charles Fleetford Sise Sr. President of Bell Canada – Provisional Director.
McFarlane, all of the city and district of Montreal, Quebec. The initial stock capital was $50,000 at $100 per share, with 93 percent held by the Bell Telephone Company of Canada and the remainder held by the seven corporate members above; the first general stockholders meeting was held on March 24, 1896. In December 1899, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada bought a cabling company for $500,000. Northern Electric and Manufacturing further expanded its product line in 1900, manufacturing the first Canadian wind-up gramophones that played flat discs. In 1911 the Wire and Cable company changed its name to the Imperial Cable Company; the construction of a new manufacturing plant started in 1913 at Shearer Street in Montreal, Canada, as preparations began for the two manufacturing companies' integration. In January 1914, the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company and the Imperial Wire and Cable Company merged into the Northern Electric Company known as Northern Electric, the new company opened the doors on a new manufacturing plant in January 1915.
This facility at Shearer Street was the primary manufacturing centre until the mid-1950s. Edward Fleetford Sise was the president and his brother Paul Fleetford Sise was the vice-president and general manager. During the First World War Northern Electric manufactured the Portable Commutator, a one-wire telegraphic switchboard for military operations in the field. In 1922, Northern started to produce, for $5, the "Peanut" vacuum tube, which required only a single dry-cell battery; the use of alternating current was still under development during this time. The "Northern Electric Peanut tube was the smallest tube made, drew only one-tenth of an ampere and was the most remarkable radio frequency amplifier made." During the 1920s Northern Electric made kettles, cigar lighters, electric stoves, washing machines. In January 1923, Northern Electric started to operate an AM radio station with call letters CHYC, in the Shearer Street plant, much of the programming was religious services for the Northern Electric employees and families in the community.
In July 1923, CHYC-AM was the first radio station to provide entertainment to the riders of the transcontinental train, in a parl
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks; when a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. Using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey; the most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone.
Though routers are dedicated hardware devices, software-based routers exist. When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers can exchange information about destination addresses using a routing protocol; each router builds up a routing table listing the preferred routes between any two systems on the interconnected networks. A router has two types of network element components organized onto separate planes: Control plane: A router maintains a routing table that lists which route should be used to forward a data packet, through which physical interface connection, it does this using internal preconfigured directives, called static routes, or by learning routes dynamically using a routing protocol. Static and dynamic routes are stored in the routing table; the control-plane logic strips non-essential directives from the table and builds a forwarding information base to be used by the forwarding plane. Forwarding plane: The router forwards data packets between incoming and outgoing interface connections.
It forwards them to the correct network type using information that the packet header contains matched to entries in the FIB supplied by the control plane. A router may have interfaces for different types of physical layer connections, such as copper cables, fiber optic, or wireless transmission, it can support different network layer transmission standards. Each network interface is used to enable data packets to be forwarded from one transmission system to another. Routers may be used to connect two or more logical groups of computer devices known as subnets, each with a different network prefix. Routers may provide connectivity within enterprises, between enterprises and the Internet, or between internet service providers' networks; the largest routers may be used in large enterprise networks. Smaller routers provide connectivity for typical home and office networks. All sizes of routers may be found inside enterprises; the most powerful routers are found in ISPs, academic and research facilities.
Large businesses may need more powerful routers to cope with ever-increasing demands of intranet data traffic. A hierarchical internetworking model for interconnecting routers in large networks is in common use. Access routers, including small office/home office models, are located at home and customer sites such as branch offices that do not need hierarchical routing of their own, they are optimized for low cost. Some SOHO routers are capable of running alternative free Linux-based firmware like Tomato, OpenWrt or DD-WRT. Distribution routers aggregate traffic from multiple access routers. Distribution routers are responsible for enforcing quality of service across a wide area network, so they may have considerable memory installed, multiple WAN interface connections, substantial onboard data processing routines, they may provide connectivity to groups of file servers or other external networks. In enterprises, a core router may provide a collapsed backbone interconnecting the distribution tier routers from multiple buildings of a campus, or large enterprise locations.
They lack some of the features of edge routers. External networks must be considered as part of the overall security strategy of the local network. A router may include a firewall, VPN handling, other security functions, or these may be handled by separate devices. Routers commonly perform network address translation which restricts connections initiated from external connections but is not recognised as a security feature by all experts.. Some experts argue that open source routers are more secure and reliable than closed source routers because open source routers allow mistakes to be found and corrected. Routers are often distinguished on the basis of the network in which they operate. A router in a local area network of a single organisation is called an interior router. A router, operated in the Internet backbone is described as exterior router. While a router that connects a LAN with the Internet or a wide area network is called a border router, or gateway router. Routers intended for ISP and major enterprise connectivity exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol.
RFC 4098 standard defines the types of BGP routers according to their functions: Edge router: Also called a provider edge router, is placed at the edge of an ISP network. The router uses External BGP to EBGP
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
10 Gigabit Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet is a group of computer networking technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 gigabits per second. It was first defined by the IEEE 802.3ae-2002 standard. Unlike previous Ethernet standards, 10 Gigabit Ethernet defines only full-duplex point-to-point links which are connected by network switches; the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard encompasses a number of different physical layer standards. A networking device, such as a switch or a network interface controller may have different PHY types through pluggable PHY modules, such as those based on SFP+. Like previous versions of Ethernet, 10GbE can use either fiber cabling. Maximum distance over copper cable is 100 meters but because of its bandwidth requirements, higher-grade cables are required; the adoption of 10 Gigabit Ethernet has been more gradual than previous revisions of Ethernet: in 2007, one million 10GbE ports were shipped, in 2009 two million ports were shipped, in 2010 over three million ports were shipped, with an estimated nine million ports in 2011.
As of 2012, although the price per gigabit of bandwidth for 10 Gigabit Ethernet was about one-third compared to Gigabit Ethernet, the price per port of 10 Gigabit Ethernet still hindered more widespread adoption. Over the years the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.3 working group has published several standards relating to 10GbE. To implement different 10GbE physical layer standards, many interfaces consist of a standard socket into which different PHY modules may be plugged. Physical layer modules are not specified in an official standards body but by multi-source agreements that can be negotiated more quickly. Relevant MSAs for 10GbE include XENPAK, XFP and SFP+; when choosing a PHY module, a designer considers cost, media type, power consumption, size. A single point-to-point link can have different MSA pluggable formats on either end as long as the 10GbE optical or copper port type supported by the pluggable is identical. XENPAK had the largest form factor. X2 and XPAK were competing standards with smaller form factors.
X2 and XPAK have not been as successful in the market as XENPAK. XFP came after X2 and XPAK and it is smaller; the newest module standard is the enhanced small form-factor pluggable transceiver called SFP+. Based on the small form-factor pluggable transceiver and developed by the ANSI T11 fibre channel group, it is smaller still and lower power than XFP. SFP+ has become the most popular socket on 10GE systems. SFP+ modules do only optical to electrical conversion, no clock and data recovery, putting a higher burden on the host's channel equalization. SFP+ modules share a common physical form factor with legacy SFP modules, allowing higher port density than XFP and the re-use of existing designs for 24 or 48 ports in a 19-inch rack width blade. Optical modules are connected to a host by either a XFI or SerDes Framer Interface interface. XENPAK, X2, XPAK modules use XAUI to connect to their hosts. XAUI uses a four-lane data channel and is specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 47. XFP modules use a XFI SFP + modules use an SFI interface.
XFI and SFI use a single lane data channel and the 64b/66b encoding specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 49. SFP+ modules can further be grouped into two types of host interfaces: linear or limiting. Limiting modules are preferred for long-reach applications using 10GBASE-LRM modules. There are two basic types of optical fiber used for 10 Gigabit Ethernet: multi-mode. In SMF light follows a single path through the fiber while in MMF it takes multiple paths resulting in differential mode delay. SMF is used for long distance communication and MMF is used for distances of less than 300 m. SMF has a narrower core which requires a more precise termination and connection method. MMF has a wider core; the advantage of MMF is that it can be driven by a low cost Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for short distances, multi-mode connectors are cheaper and easier to terminate reliably in the field. The advantage of SMF is. In the 802.3 standard, reference is made to FDDI-grade MMF fiber. This has a minimum modal bandwidth of 160 MHz · km at 850 nm.
It was installed in the early 1990s for FDDI and 100BASE-FX networks. The 802.3 standard references ISO/IEC 11801 which specifies optical MMF fiber types OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4. OM1 has a 62.5 µm core. At 850 nm the minimum modal bandwidth of OM1 is 200 MHz·km, of OM2 500 MHz·km, of OM3 2000 MHz·km and of OM4 4700 MHz·km. FDDI-grade cable is now obsolete and new structured cabling installations use either OM3 or OM4 cabling. OM3 cable can carry 10 Gigabit Ethernet 300 meters using low cost 10GBASE-SR optics. OM4 can manage 400 meters. To distinguish SMF from MMF cables, SMF cables are yellow, while MMF cables are orange or aqua. However, in fiber optics there is no uniform color for any specific optical speed or technology with the exception being angular physical connector, it being an agreed color of green. There are active optical cables; these have the optical electronics connected eliminating the connectors between the cable and the optical module. They plug into standard SFP+ sockets, they are lower cost than other optical solutions because the manufacturer can match the electronics t
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley. Cisco develops and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products. Through its numerous acquired subsidiaries, such as OpenDNS, WebEx, Jabber and Jasper, Cisco specializes into specific tech markets, such as Internet of Things, domain security and energy management. Cisco stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8, 2009, is included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ-100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Leonard Bosack and Sandy Lerner, two Stanford University computer scientists, they pioneered the concept of a local area network being used to connect geographically disparate computers over a multiprotocol router system. By the time the company went public in 1990, Cisco had a market capitalization of $224 million.
By the end of the dot-com bubble in the year 2000, Cisco had a more than $500 billion market capitalization. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Sandy Lerner, a director of computer facilities for the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Lerner partnered with her husband, Leonard Bosack, in charge of the Stanford University computer science department's computers. Cisco's initial product has roots in Stanford University's campus technology. In the early 1980's students and staff at Stanford; the Blue Box used software, written at Stanford by research engineer William Yeager. In 1985, Bosack and Stanford employee Kirk Lougheed began a project to formally network Stanford's campus, they adapted Yeager's software into what became the foundation for Cisco IOS, despite Yeager's claims that he had been denied permission to sell the Blue Box commercially. On July 11, 1986, Bosack and Lougheed were forced to resign from Stanford and the university contemplated filing criminal complaints against Cisco and its founders for the theft of its software, hardware designs, other intellectual properties.
In 1987, Stanford licensed two computer boards to Cisco. In addition to Bosack, Lougheed, Greg Satz, Richard Troiano, completed the early Cisco team; the company's first CEO was Bill Graves, who held the position from 1987 to 1988. In 1988, John Morgridge was appointed CEO; the name "Cisco" was derived from the city name San Francisco, why the company's engineers insisted on using the lower case "cisco" in its early years. The logo is intended to depict the two towers of the Golden Gate Bridge. On February 16, 1990, Cisco Systems went public with a market capitalization of $224 million, was listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. On August 28, 1990, Lerner was fired. Upon hearing the news, her husband Bosack resigned in protest; the couple walked away from Cisco with $170 million, 70% of, committed to their own charity. Although Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell dedicated network nodes, it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting multiple network protocols.
Classical, CPU-based architecture of early Cisco devices coupled with flexibility of operating system IOS allowed for keeping up with evolving technology needs by means of frequent software upgrades. Some popular models of that time managed to stay in production for a decade unchanged; the company was quick to capture the emerging service provider environment, entering the SP market with product lines such as Cisco 7000 and Cisco 8500. Between 1992 and 1994, Cisco acquired several companies in Ethernet switching, such as Kalpana, Grand Junction and most notably, Mario Mazzola's Crescendo Communications, which together formed the Catalyst business unit. At the time, the company envisioned layer 3 routing and layer 2 switching as complementary functions of different intelligence and architecture—the former was slow and complex, the latter was fast but simple; this philosophy dominated the company's product lines throughout the 1990s. In 1995, John Morgridge was succeeded by John Chambers; the Internet Protocol became adopted in the mid-to-late 1990s.
Cisco introduced products ranging from modem access shelves to core GSR routers, making them a major player in the market. In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com bubble, Cisco became the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization of more than $500 billion; as of July 2014, with a market cap of about US$129 billion, it was still one of the most valuable companies. The perceived complexity of programming routing functions in silicon led to the formation of several startups determined to find new ways to process IP and MPLS packets in hardware and blur boundaries between routing and switching. One of them, Juniper Networks, shipped their first product in 1999 and by 2000 chipped away about 30% from Cisco SP Market share. In response, Cisco developed homegrown ASICs and fast processing cards for GSR routers and Catalyst 6500 switches. In 2004, Cisco started migration to new high-end hardware CRS-1 and software architecture IOS-XR; as part of a rebranding campaign in 2006, Cisco Systems adopted the shortened name "Cisco" and created "The Human Network" advertising campaign.
These efforts were meant to make Cisco a "household" brand—a strategy designed to support the low-end Linksys products and future consumer products. On the more traditional business side, Cisco cont