A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Milford is a village in Milford Township, Iroquois County, United States. The population was 1,306 at the 2010 census; the village's name comes from its location, where the Old Hubbard Trail forded Sugar Creek and where a gristmill stood in 1836. Milford is located in southeastern Iroquois County along Illinois Route 1, which leads north 12 miles to Watseka, the county seat, south the same distance to Hoopeston in Vermilion County; the Indiana border is 9 miles east of Milford via county roads. According to the 2010 census, Milford has a total area of all land. Sugar Creek flows westward along the southern edge of the village, before turning north to flow to the Iroquois River near Watseka, it is part of the Kankakee River watershed. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,369 people, 616 households, 391 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,166.8 people per square mile. There were 666 housing units at an average density of 1,054.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.20% White, 0.44% from other races, 0.37% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.90% of the population. There were 616 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.81. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 22.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,109, the median income for a family was $40,750. Males had a median income of $29,583 versus $19,453 for females; the per capita income for the village was $19,078. About 4.1% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.6% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.
Milford High School, which brings in students from nearby communities of Stockland and Sheldon, fields varsity level teams in. Teams play under the nickname "Bearcats" and "Lady Cats". Football cooperative agreements: In the spring of 2009 it was announced that Cissna Park and Milford would form a high school football cooperative to become more competitive; the football program had co-oped with Sheldon and Donovan. Gymnasium: The school was one of few nationally to feature a carpeted gym floor used for varsity level basketball and volleyball; the carpet was removed in the summer of 1997 and replaced by a plastic surface manufactured by Sport Court. Night Football: The Bearcat football team took part in the first night football game in America; the contest took place on September 21, 1928 in Westville IL. Westville won the game 26-6; this is recognized by the Illinois High School Association as the first "modern" football game played under lights. Joseph R. Callahan, Illinois state representative and businessman.
S. House of Representatives from Illinois' 18th district through the 76th to 78th US congress
Loda is a village in Loda Township, Iroquois County, United States. As of the 2010 census its population was 407. A post office called Loda has been in operation since 1880; the village derives its name from "Cath-Loda", a poem by Ossian. Loda is located in southwestern Iroquois County at 40°30′59″N 88°4′26″W. U. S. Route 45 passes through the center of the village, leading north 6 miles to Buckley and south 4 miles to Paxton. Interstate 57 passes with no direct access. According to the 2010 census, the village has a total area of 1.46 square miles, of which 1.45 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Bayles Lake is a freshwater reservoir located just west of Loda; the lake is an impoundment of Spring Creek, a north-flowing tributary of the Iroquois River, part of the Kankakee River watershed. As of the census of 2000, there were 419 people, 166 households, 111 families residing in the village; the population density was 289.4 people per square mile. There were 183 housing units at an average density of 126.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 94.03% White, 2.63% African American, 2.15% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.49% of the population. There were 166 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.20. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,625, the median income for a family was $42,708.
Males had a median income of $32,750 versus $19,250 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,877. About 8.5% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. Village of Loda official website
Wellington is a village in Lovejoy Township, Iroquois County, United States. The population was 242 at the 2010 census. Wellington is located in southeastern Iroquois County at 40°32′29″N 87°40′51″W. Illinois Route 1 passes less than a mile west of the village, leading north 18 miles to Watseka, the county seat, south 5 miles to Hoopeston. According to the 2010 census, Wellington has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 264 people, 111 households, 82 families residing in the village. The population density was 954.0 people per square mile. There were 118 housing units at an average density of 426.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.62% White and 0.38% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.89% of the population. There were 111 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.72. In the village, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 32.6% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $32,083, the median income for a family was $35,000. Males had a median income of $30,250 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,324. About 2.5% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over
Danforth is a village in Danforth Township, Iroquois County, United States. The population was 604 at the 2010 census. Danforth was laid out in 1872; the village was named for George M. Danforth. Danforth is located in northwestern Iroquois County at 40°49′15″N 87°58′45″W. U. S. Route 45 passes through the center of the village, leading north 4 miles to Ashkum and south the same distance to Gilman. According to the 2010 census, Danforth has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 587 people, 202 households, 131 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,230.8 people per square mile. There were 217 housing units at an average density of 455.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.47% White, 0.17% Asian, 0.34% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 0.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population. There were 202 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families.
33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.01. In the village, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 32.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $35,341, the median income for a family was $48,125. Males had a median income of $31,786 versus $23,036 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,754. About 1.5% of families and 1.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol