Fountain Inn Principal's House and Teacherage
Fountain Inn Principal's House and Teacherage is a historic home and teacherage located at Fountain Inn, Greenville County, South Carolina. It was built in 1935 as a home for teachers, is the only remaining building associated with the Fountain Inn Negro School complex; the complex once included a grade school built in 1928, a high school built in 1930, a library, the Clayton "Peg Leg" Bates Gymnasium, built in 1942. The school and its appurtenant buildings served the educational needs of the Fountain Inn's African American community until the students of this community were enrolled in Fountain Inn High School in the 1960s, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011
Laurens, South Carolina
Laurens is a city in Laurens County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 9,139 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Laurens County. Located in the Upstate region of South Carolina, the city of Laurens is named after John Laurens of Revolutionary War fame, it is part of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town of Laurens was established by an act of the General Assembly on March 15, 1785 as a location for commercial activities, it was one of the six counties created from the Old Ninety-Six District of South Carolina. Laurens was named Laurensville. On December 15, 1845, a charter was issued with the name of Laurensville; the first appearance of the town named. The town of Laurens was chartered in 1900 and in 1916; the town was named in the honor of the South Carolina statesman. The first inhabitants of Laurens were the Cherokee Indians, they used the land as their fighting ground. There has been evidence of broken potsherds, a mound found linked to Cherokee culture on land now called Laurens.
There were many treaties made with the Cherokee Indians over the land known as Laurens County dating back to 1721. Before the America Revolution thousands of immigrants from Scotland and Ireland, settled in Laurens County. Laurens developed into a major intersection of commerce in the colonial America. In the Battle of Musgrove Mill, Laurens witnessed intense fighting. In 1790, after the Revolutionary War, Laurens was elected as the county seat. Like other southern towns, cotton was the major crop being produced; the high amount of cotton production led to an economic boom and a substantial increase in the African American population. The economic boom attracted wealthy businessmen to Laurens. Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States, worked as a tailor in downtown Laurens from 1824 until 1826. Before the beginning of the Civil War, Laurens provided a great deal of political leaders to the state government; the state’s decision to secede from the Union was influenced by many of those political leaders.
The fighting of the Civil War never neared Laurens. But Laurens was affected by the influx of refugees that fled Charleston to avoid the progressing Union Army and Navy. Several of the refugees settled in Laurens after the Civil War. In the years after the Civil War, the economy of Laurens evolved to include industry; the recovery of Laurens' economy was dependent upon the creation of the textiles and manufacturing industry after the civil war. In 1895, Lauren Cotton Mill was founded, Watts Mill was started in 1902. Laurens Glass Company was established 1910, one of the largest glass plants in the southeast for over eighty years; the Laurens Railroad Company was chartered in 1847. The Columbia-Newberry-Laurens Railroad and the Charleston-Western Carolina Railroad are the two major intersections provided by the railroad. Laurens and Laurens County is part of the Old 96 District, which includes Abbeville County, Greenwood County, McCormick County, Edgefield County; the textile and glass industries were at one point a major source of employment.
Although many of the textile plants and the glass production facilities have closed over the last 30 years, a variety of industries exist within the county, including corporations like CeramTec, International Paper, Milliken & Co. and others. Walmart operates a distribution center outside of the city near Interstate 385, which serves as a major employer; the area has seen several recent economic retail developments, is seeing new capital investment in heavy industry, including a major new transmission production facility for German ZF Group. The unemployment rate, as of February 2012, sat at 9.6%. Laurens was the town chosen for a makeover in the second season of Town Haul. Laurens is home to Gary Davis and Pink Anderson, acoustic blues musicians who were born in the city, as well as Redtop Davis, lightweight boxer of the 1940s and 1950s. J. T. Taylor, the lead singer of the funk/R&B band Kool & The Gang, grew up in Laurens; the Courthouse Square consists of four acres, purchased in 1792 for two guineas, around $21,000.
The Laurens County Courthouse is placed in the center of the square. The current courthouse is the third courthouse; the first courthouse was constructed of wood. It was used as a church and courthouse; the second courthouse was made of brick. Dr. John Wells Simpson built the third courthouse in 1838; the courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Laurens' church district has two historic churches. Bethel AME Church is one of the historic churches in the district. Columbus White, a former slave and builder, designed the church in 1910, but the first church structure was built in 1868. In 1877, Saint Paul First Baptist, which neighbors Bethel AME Church, was established. Columbus White built Saint Paul First Baptist in 1912; the church is styled in Gothic Revival. The church served as the county’s first African American public school until 1937; the Church of the Epiphany is Lauren’s oldest church building still operating. The church was constructed in 1846; the First United Methodist Church represents Romanesque Revival architecture.
The church was built in 1897. In 1834, the First Baptist Church was built; the name of the original church was Laurensville Baptist Church. In 1850, the first sanctuary was built. In 1893, the second church was constructed; the present sanctuary was built in 1958. The First Presbyterian Church was organized on April 1, 1832, but the present church structure was built in 1891; the first preacher of the church was Samuel B. Lewers, he served
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Mauldin, South Carolina
Mauldin is a city in Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 15,224 at the 2000 census, 22,889 in 2010, an estimated 25,135 in 2015, it is a principal city of the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area. Mauldin is located south of the center of Greenville County, between the city of Greenville to the northwest and Simpsonville to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.0 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.46%, are water. U. S. Route 276 passes through the center of Mauldin, leading northwest 8 miles to the center of Greenville and southeast 5 miles to Simpsonville. Interstate 385 runs through the eastern side of Mauldin, leading north to Interstate 85 on the east side of Greenville. I-385 connects with Interstate 185 on the southern edge of Mauldin, I-185 continues west and northwest 13 miles to join I-85 on the southwest side of Greenville. From its interchange with I-185, I-385 leads southeast 30 miles to Interstate 26 near Clinton.
Benjamin Griffith was awarded the first land grant in what is now called Mauldin in 1784. The name of Mauldin was given to the town accidentally in 1820 thanks to South Carolina's lieutenant governor, W. L. Mauldin; the train station was called "Mauldin" because the lieutenant governor had assisted in getting the Greenville Laurens Railroad Company to come through the village. Over time, the entire area took the name of Mauldin. During the Civil War, many of Mauldin's citizens left to fight, the city dried up, it never recovered until after World War II when the community was incorporated as a town. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,224 people, 6,131 households, 4,242 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,767.1 people per square mile. There were 6,500 housing units at an average density of 754.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.25% White, 20.82% African American, 0.30% Native American, 2.24% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.73% of the population. There were 6,131 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present and 30.8% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $51,657, the median income for a family was $61,817. Males had a median income of $41,047 versus $29,985 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,750. About 3.2% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
The supermarket chain BI-LO once had its headquarters in Mauldin. Greenville County School District operates public schools; the only high school is Mauldin High School. Kevin Garnett, professional basketball player Orlando Jones, actor Al Yeargin, professional baseball player City of Mauldin official website Mauldin High School Mauldin Police Department
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U. S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 134,309 as of 2016. The city serves as the county seat of Richland County, a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County, it is the center of the Columbia metropolitan statistical area, which had a population of 767,598 as of the 2010 United States Census, growing to 817,488 by July 1, 2016, according to 2015 U. S. Census estimates; the name Columbia is a poetic term used for the United States, originating from the name of Christopher Columbus. The city is located 13 miles northwest of the geographic center of South Carolina, is the primary city of the Midlands region of the state, it lies at the confluence of the Saluda River and the Broad River, which merge at Columbia to form the Congaree River. Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina, the state's flagship university and the largest in the state, is the site of Fort Jackson, the largest United States Army installation for Basic Combat Training.
Columbia is located 20 miles west of the site of McEntire Joint National Guard Base, operated by the U. S. Air Force and is used as a training base for the 169th Fighter Wing of The South Carolina Air National Guard. Columbia is the location of the South Carolina State House, the center of government for the state. In 1860, the city was the location of the South Carolina Secession Convention, which marked the departure of the first state from the Union in the events leading up to the Civil War. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Columbia were a people called the Congaree. In May 1540, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto traversed what is now Columbia while moving northward; the expedition produced the earliest written historical records of the area, part of the regional Cofitachequi chiefdom. From the creation of Columbia by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786, the site of Columbia was important to the overall development of the state; the Congarees, a frontier fort on the west bank of the Congaree River, was the head of navigation in the Santee River system.
A ferry was established by the colonial government in 1754 to connect the fort with the growing settlements on the higher ground on the east bank. Like many other significant early settlements in colonial America, Columbia is on the fall line from the Piedmont region; the fall line is the spot where a river becomes unnavigable when sailing upstream and where water flowing downstream can power a mill. State Senator John Lewis Gervais of the town of Ninety Six introduced a bill, approved by the legislature on March 22, 1786, to create a new state capital. There was considerable argument over the name for the new city. According to published accounts, Senator Gervais said he hoped that "in this town we should find refuge under the wings of COLUMBIA", for, the name which he wished it to be called. One legislator insisted on the name "Washington", but "Columbia" won by a vote of 11–7 in the state senate; the site was chosen as the new state capital in 1786, due to its central location in the state.
The State Legislature first met there in 1790. After remaining under the direct government of the legislature for the first two decades of its existence, Columbia was incorporated as a village in 1805 and as a city in 1854. Columbia received a large stimulus to development when it was connected in a direct water route to Charleston by the Santee Canal; this canal connected the Cooper rivers in a 22-mile-long section. It was first chartered in 1786 and completed in 1800, making it one of the earliest canals in the United States. With increased railroad traffic, it ceased operation around 1850; the commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a 2-mile square along the river. The blocks were sold to speculators and prospective residents. Buyers had to build a house at least 30 feet long and 18 feet wide within three years or face an annual 5% penalty; the perimeter streets and two through streets were 150 feet wide. The remaining squares were divided by thoroughfares 100 feet wide; the commissioners comprised the local government until 1797 when a Commission of Streets and Markets was created by the General Assembly.
Three main issues occupied most of their time: public drunkenness and poor sanitation. As one of the first planned cities in the United States, Columbia began to grow rapidly, its population was nearing 1,000 shortly after the start of the 19th century. In 1801, South Carolina College was founded in Columbia; the original building survives. The city was chosen as the site of the institution in part to unite the citizens of the Upcountry and the Lowcountry and to discourage the youth from migrating to England for their higher education. At the time, South Carolina sent more young men to England; the leaders of South Carolina wished to monitor the development of the school. Columbia received its first charter as a town in 1805. An intendant and six wardens would govern the town. John Taylor, the first elected intendant served in both houses of the General Assembly, both houses of Congress, as governor. By 1816, there were a population of more than one thousand. Columbia became chartered with an elected mayor and six aldermen.
Two years Columbia had a police force consisting of a full-time chief and nine patrolmen. The city continued to grow at a rapid
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S