Arkansas Highway 5
Highway 5 is a designation for three state highways in Arkansas. The southern segment of 44.99 miles runs from Highway 7 in Hot Springs north to US Highway 70 in Little Rock. A northern segment of 146.63 miles begins at US Highway 67/US Highway 167 in Cabot and runs north to Missouri Route 5, including a lengthy overlap with Highway 25 between Heber Springs and Wolf Bayou. A portion of Highway 5 is designated as part of the Sylamore Scenic Byway; the Main Street Bridge in Little Rock carries a hidden Highway 5 designation. The bridge is 0.38 miles in span. Highway 5 runs northeast to Fountain Lake. In the city the highway has a junction with Highway 128 before entering Saline County and Hot Springs Village. Continuing east, Highway 5 serves as the southern terminus for Highway 9 at Crows. Northwest of Benton the highway has a junction with Highway 298 before entering the city and passing several residential subdivisions. Near Saline Memorial Hospital, Highway 5 has a junction with Interstate 30/US Highway 67/US Highway 70 and Highway 35.
Highway 5 continues onto the freeway. Highway 35 runs south toward downtown Benton and Sheridan and Monticello. I-30/US 67/US 70/AR 5 run northeast past the Congo Rd exit before Highway 5 exits onto the frontage road and onto Military Rd, ending the concurrency; the highway passes the Hester-Lenz House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, prior to the Bryant city limits. Upon entering Bryant, Highway 5 runs parallel to I-30/US 67/US 70 0.5 miles north of the limited-access highway. An intersection with Highway 183 near the historic Andrew Hunter House gives access to downtown Bryant as well as the freeway. Continuing east, Highway 5 intersects Highway 835 which leads to the Alexander branch of the Arkansas Department of Human Services's Youth Service Center, after which it enters Pulaski County. Highway 5 meets Otter Creek Rd and Highway 338, both collector roads for I-30/US 67/US 70 in southwest Little Rock. Entering a suburban area, Highway 5 crosses I-430, passes the historic Dr. Morgan Smith House, meets Highway 300 before terminating at US 70 near the University of Arkansas at Little Rock campus.
The Main Street Bridge in Little Rock carries a hidden AR 5 designation. The route is 0.38 miles in multi-lane divided. AR 5 begins at US 67/167 south of Cabot and runs north to cross AR 89 and AR 319; the route continues north to meet US 64 south of AR 310 near Romance. AR 5 and AR 310 form a concurrency. AR 5 continues north to Heber Springs, where it begins to concur with AR 16/AR 25. AR 5 leaves AR 25 near Wolf Bayou, when AR 5 begins to run with AR 87, named Mountain View Road; the two routes meet AR 14 in front of the Stone County Medical Center in south Mountain View. AR 5/AR 14/AR 87 run west to Sylamore Avenue, when they meet AR 9. AR 5/AR 9/AR 14 run north through town to Allison, when AR 5 continues northward alone. Passing through the Ozark National Forest, AR 5 emerges near Calico Rock; the route takes a turn northwest. Entering Mountain Home, AR 5 crosses US 62 southeast of town. AR 5 becomes 9th Street, meeting US 412/US 62 BUS/AR 101 in downtown Mountain Home; the route continues northwest to Midway.
AR 5 terminates at Route 5. Missouri Route 5 runs across Missouri and becomes Iowa Highway 5. Highway 5 was created in 1926. At time of creation, AR 5 did not extend south of Little Rock; the segment between Little Rock and Benton is the former alignment of US 67/US 70 in that area and was re-designated as Highway 5 upon completion of the freeway segment of US 67/US 70 in 1955. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 5 at Wikimedia Commons
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Hot Springs, Arkansas
Hot Springs is a city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Garland County. The city is located in the Ouachita Mountains among the U. S. Interior Highlands, is set among several natural hot springs for which the city is named; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 35,193. In 2017 the estimated population was 36,915; the center of Hot Springs is the oldest federal reserve in the United States, today preserved as Hot Springs National Park. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess medicinal properties, was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, 42nd President Bill Clinton. One of the largest Pentecostal denominations in the United States, the Assemblies of God, traces its beginnings to Hot Springs.
Today, much of Hot Springs's history is preserved by various government entities. Hot Springs National Park is maintained by the National Park Service, including Bathhouse Row, which preserves the eight historic bathhouse buildings and gardens along Central Avenue. Downtown Hot Springs is preserved as the Central Avenue Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the city contains dozens of historic hotels and motor courts, built during the Great Depression in the Art Deco style. Due to the popularity of the thermal waters, Hot Springs benefited from rapid growth during a period when many cities saw a sharp decline in building; as a result, Hot Springs's architecture is a key part of the city's blend of cultures, including a reputation as a tourist town and a Southern city. A destination for the arts, Hot Springs features the Hot Springs Music Festival, Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival, the Valley of the Vapors Independent Music Festival annually. Members of many Native American tribes had been gathering in the valley for untold numbers of years to enjoy the healing properties of the thermal springs.
In 1673, Father Marquette and Jolliet claimed it for France. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the land to Spain. In December 1804, Dr. George Hunter and William Dunbar made an expedition to the springs, finding a lone log cabin and a few rudimentary shelters used by people visiting the springs for their healing properties. In 1807, a man named Prudhomme became the first settler of modern Hot Springs, he was soon joined by John Perciful and Isaac Cates. On August 24, 1818, the Quapaw Indians ceded the land around the hot springs to the United States in a treaty. After Arkansas became its own territory in 1819, the Arkansas Territorial Legislature requested in 1820 that the springs and adjoining mountains be set aside as a federal reservation. Twelve years in 1832, the Hot Springs Reservation was created by the United States Congress, granting federal protection of the thermal waters; the reservation was renamed Hot Springs National Park in 1921. The outbreak of the American Civil War left Hot Springs with a declining bathing population.
After the Confederate forces suffered defeat in the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, the Union troops advanced toward the Confederate city of Little Rock. Confederate Governor Henry M. Rector moved his state records to Hot Springs. Union forces did not attack Little Rock, the government returned to the capital city on July 14, 1862. Many residents of Hot Springs fled to Texas or Louisiana and remained there until the end of the war. In September 1863, Union forces occupied Little Rock. During this period, Hot Springs became the prey of guerrilla bands loosely associated with either Union or Confederate forces, they pillaged and burned the near-deserted town, leaving only a few buildings standing at the end of the Civil War. After the Civil War, an extensive rebuilding of bathhouses and hotels took place at Hot Springs; the year-round population soared to 1,200 inhabitants by 1870. By 1873 six bathhouses and 24 hotels and boardinghouses stood near the springs. In 1874, Joseph Reynolds announced his decision to construct a narrow-gauge railroad from Malvern to Hot Springs.
Samuel W. Fordyce and two other entrepreneurs financed the construction of the first luxury hotel in the area, the first Arlington Hotel, which opened in 1875. During the Reconstruction Era, several conflicting land claims reached the U. S. Congress and resulted in an April 24, 1876, Supreme Court ruling that the land title of Hot Springs belonged to the federal government. Protests ensued. To deal with the situation, Congress formed the Hot Springs Commission to lay out streets in the town of Hot Springs, deal with land claims, define property lines, condemn buildings illegally on the permanent reservation and define a process for claimants to purchase land; the commission surveyed and set aside 264.93 acres encompassing the hot springs and Hot Springs Mountain to be a permanent government reservation. Another 1,200 acres became the Hot Springs townsite, with 700 acres awarded to claimants; the townsite consisted of 50 miles of streets and alleys. The remaining portion of the original four sections of government land consisted of hills and mountains which were unoccupied, Congress acted on the commission's recommendation in June 1880 by adding those lands to the permanent reservation.
Hot Springs has a rich baseball history. During the
Garland County, Arkansas
Garland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,024; the county seat is Hot Springs. Garland County comprises AR Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county includes Hot Springs National Park, the only national park in the state of Arkansas as well as the first property to be protected under federal legislation. This area was occupied by the historic Natchitoches people, who frequented the hot springs for their healing powers, their ancestors among regional indigenous peoples had been coming to this area for thousands of years. President Thomas Jefferson requested William Dunbar, a planter and amateur scientist of Natchez, to explore this area. Dunbar led small group of a dozen soldiers and friend George Hunter, a chemist, to the Ouachita Mountains to report on the Indian tribes and springs, they reached Hot Springs in December 1804, where they found a basic cabin used by visitors to the springs. The first European-American settler was Jean Pierre Emanuel Prudhomme, a descendant of French colonists.
An owner of a plantation at Red River, Prudhomme was suffering from illness and sought relief from the springs. In 1807 He built the first permanent European house by the springs. Isaac Cates and John Percival, two trappers from Alabama, joined him. Percival foresaw a great potential for the area and built log cabins in order to rent to visitors to the springs. In 1828, Ludovicus Belding came with wife and children to visit the hot springs. After a few months they built a small hotel for the visitors of the springs. In 1832 President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to protect the hot springs area for recreational use by American citizens as Hot Springs Reservation, the first time such action was taken; this was four years before Arkansas became a state, on June 15, 1836. A dispute among original settlers and their descendants over control of the property was settled by the US Supreme Court in 1877 in favor of the federal government. Hot Springs National Park is managed by the National Park Service.
Garland County is Arkansas' 68th county, formed on April 5, 1873, from portions of Hot Spring and Saline counties. It was named for eleventh governor of Arkansas, it is the only county in the United States with this name. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 735 square miles, of which 678 square miles is land and 57 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 270 Highway 5 Highway 7 Highway 88 Perry County Saline County Hot Spring County Montgomery County Yell County Hot Springs National Park Ouachita National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 88,068 people, 37,813 households, 25,259 families residing in the county; the population density was 130 people per square mile. There were 44,953 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.85% White, 7.80% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races.
2.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 37,813 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.20% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 21.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,724, the median income for a family was $38,079. Males had a median income of $28,117 versus $20,421 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,631.
About 10.50% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. Hot Springs Fountain Lake Lonsdale Mountain Pine Hot Springs Village Lake Hamilton Piney Rockwell Royal Bear Jessieville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Garland County are listed below. List of lakes in Garland County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Garland County, Arkansas Garland County government's website Hot Springs, Arkansas Community Guides • What to do and where to find it in Hot Springs, Arkansas.
Garland County Sheriff's Department]
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government