Tollcross is a major road junction to the south west of the city centre of Edinburgh, Scotland which gives its name to the surrounding area. The name is presumed to derive from a crossroads where toll payments were collected from travellers entering the city, the custom, introduced in 1680, was a tax on every pint of ale and beer brewed outside the town walls. Main Point may therefore have been the original tollcross, the name being transferred from the street known today as High Riggs to the junction some time after Lothian Road was laid in 1785. A milestone opposite Merchiston Castle in Colinton Road marked “1 mile from Tollcross” has clearly been measured from Main Point rather than the modern junction. Its existence was recalled until recently in the name of the Auld Toll public house on the side of the road before the pub was renamed in 2012. However, the earliest reference to Tollcross dates from 1439, the names tolcors, tolcroce appear on 16th century maps, taking the form towcorse as late as 1787.
The junction is formed by Earl Grey Street to the north, Lauriston Place to the east, Brougham Street to the south-east, Home Street to the south, and West Tollcross to the west. In the middle of the junction is a distinctive ironwork pillar clock which has one of the citys landmarks since 1901. Many Victorian and Edwardian photographs feature the clock at what was a tram hub. It was gifted to the city by Provost James Steel and Treasurer Robert Cranston, the skeleton face and pillar were made by Macfarlane Castings. Originally a weight-driven pendulum clock, it was altered to a mechanism in 1926. It and the clock at the citys West End were the largest street clocks in Britain to be driven by this type of mechanism and it was wound weekly by a clockwinder employed by Ritchies, using a crank handle inserted into the base. In 1969, it was converted to an electric mechanism located between the dials, junction improvements in 1974 led to the clocks removal, causing public consternation, as a result of which it was returned to a spot close to its original position.
The southern edge of the area merges with Bruntsfield while to the north and the rest of the Old Town lie to the East. Tollcross Primary School includes the citys Scottish Gaelic-Medium Unit, the area has many local provision shops including a butcher, bakeries, a supermarket, two mini-supermarkets, five foodstores, one specialising in Oriental foods, and a wine shop. There are around 10 cafés, including an internet café, four newsagents, the Kings Theatre and The Cameo cinema are located on Leven Street and Home Street respectively. There is a health centre, two dental clinics, two pharmacies, an opticians, a homeopathic medicines shop, an orthodontist and a chiropracter. Princes Exchange, a new office development and home to the Corporate arm of the Bank of Scotland
The Caledonian Railway was a major Scottish railway company. It was formed in the early 19th century with the objective of forming a link between English railways and Glasgow and it progressively extended its network soon reaching Edinburgh and Aberdeen, with a dense network of branch lines in the area surrounding Glasgow. It was absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway in 1923, many of its principal routes continue active at the present day, and the original main line between Carlisle and Glasgow is in use as part of the West Coast Main Line railway. In the mid-1830s railways in England evolved from local concerns to longer routes that connected cities, in Scotland it was clear that this was the way forward, and there was a desire to connect the central belt to the incipient English network. Although the company was supported by Scottish investors, more than half of its shares were held in England, the company established primacy in some areas, but remained less than successful in others, considerable sums were expended in the process, not always finding the approval of shareholders.
It extended from Aberdeen to Portpatrick, and from Oban to Carlisle, running passenger services. The industrial development led to the construction of other railways contiguous with the M&KR, in particular the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway and these two lines worked in harmony, merging to form the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway in 1841, and competing with the M&KR and its allies. All these lines used the track gauge of 4 ft 6in. During this period, the first long-distance railways were opened in England, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and it was clearly desirable to connect central Scotland into the emerging network. At first it was assumed that one route from Scotland to England would be feasible. Many competing schemes were put forward, not all of them well thought out, the share capital was to be £1,800,000. The Glasgow and Edinburgh lines combined at Carstairs, and the route ran through Annandale, however if they hoped to operate the only Anglo-Scottish route, they were disappointed.
The North British Railway opened between Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed on 22 June 1846, forming part of what has become the East Coast Main Line, the main line was opened from Carlisle to Beattock on 10 September 1847, and throughout between Glasgow and Carlisle on 15 February 1848. A continuous railway route between Glasgow and London existed for the first time, the Caledonian Railways Edinburgh line from Carstairs opened on 1 April 1848. The terminal at Edinburgh was Lothian Road, Glasgow was reached over the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway, and the Wishaw and Coltness Railway, which the Caledonian had leased from 1 January 1847 and 1 January 1846 respectively. The Glasgow station was the Townhead terminus of the Glasgow, during the process of seeking Parliamentary authorisation, the Caledonian observed that the Clydesdale Junction Railway was being promoted. The Caledonian acquired that line during its construction, and it opened in 1849 and it gave an alternative, and shorter access to another Glasgow passenger terminal, named South Side, and to the Clyde Quays at General Terminus.
The South Side station was already being used by the Glasgow and Neilston Direct Railway, one day, they hoped, they might extend that line into Ayrshire
The term burn is used in Scotland and England and in parts of Ulster and New Zealand. The cognate of burn in standard English is bourn, borne, born, a cognate in German is Born, meaning well, spring or source, which is retained in placenames like Paderborn in Germany. Both the English and German words derive from the Saxon brunna, scots Gaelic has the word bùrn, but which means fresh water, the actual Gaelic for a burn is allt Scottish Words and Place-Names, Place-Name Glossary
Broughton is an ancient feudal barony, today within the City of Edinburgh, Scotland that was once known for its witchcraft. The feudal barony of Broughton in the 16th and 17th centuries was in the hands of the Bellenden family, Sir John Bellenden of Broughton, Knt. Broughton passed to his son, Sir Lewis Bellenden, Lord Justice-Clerk and a Lord of Session, who is cited as one of the Ruthven Raiders and ultimately to William Bellenden, 1st Lord Bellenden of Broughton. Its modern borders are defined, approximately, as being Leith Walk in the south east, Broughton Street in the south west, Broughton Road in the north west and McDonald Road in the north east. Moving clockwise from south east, Broughton is bordered by Greenside and Calton, the New Town, Broughtons main thoroughfare is Broughton Street. The street has many independent speciality shops, Broughton is today at the centre of Edinburghs pink triangle, an area of the city with a number of gay bars and clubs. The Broughton Spurtle, Broughtons Independent Stirrer is a community newspaper for Broughton and it has been running since February 1994.
Broughton High School was formerly located in Broughton, but is now located further west in Comely Bank, the Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid undertook part of his formal education at Broughton High. Schools still located in Broughton include Drummond Community High School, Broughton Primary School, the Scottish folk band Silly Wizard were based for some time in a flat located at 69 Broughton Street. Phil Cunningham, member of Silly Wizard and younger brother of the founder, Johnny Cunningham. Gayfield Square Police station, which is featured in the Inspector Rebus stories written by Edinburgh-based writer Ian Rankin, is located on Gayfield Square in the south east of Broughton, Edinburghs first traffic lights were installed in Broughton Street in 1928. Gayfield House is a Category A listed building at 18 East London Street, in 1765 the Butlers sold it for £2,000 to Thomas, Lord Erskine and his wife Lady Charlotte Hope. In 1767, after Lord Erskines death it was sold to the Earl of Leven, an entry in the Scots Magazine in 1766 states, Marriage.
At Gayfield, near Edinburgh, the Earl of Hopetoun to Lady Betty Leven, a late 18th century print shows Gayfield House standing in attractive grounds, surrounded by fields and by orchards, bounded to the South East by Leith Walk. The fortunes of the house declined in the 19th century as Edinburgh expanded. Loss of garden ground and the ever-approaching tenements around made it attractive as a private house. In 1873, it was sold to William Williams as Edinburghs New Veterinary College and this closed in 1904 and it was bought by a merchant who stored manure in the downstairs rooms. After World War 1 it was used as a laundry which manufactured ammonia, in the 1970s it was used as a garage and for car repairs, a hole was opened in its facade and the basement was used as a garage
Broomhouse is a district of Edinburgh, Scotland. Although on the lands of Old Saughton, its name is adopted from an estate which was located to the north of the Edinburgh/Glasgow railway line, the earliest recorded versions of the name were variations on Brumhous. It mainly comprises a low-rise council housing built between 1947 and 1950. It borders on Parkhead and Saughton Mains, the Glasgow railway passes to the north but there is no station. The arterial route of Calder Road passes to the south, there are two schools, a community centre, two Church congregations and a counselling centre here. Medical and library facilities are in nearby Sighthill and Corstorphine, parallel to Broomhouse Drive was Scotlands first bus guideway opened in 2004 and was 1. 5km of two-lane dedicated guided busway, the longest section of continuous bus guideway in the UK. Subsequently, it has been converted as part of the Edinburgh Trams route with Saughton tram stop at the end of Broomhouse Drive. St. Davids website St.
Josephs R. C, Church website Sighthill and Parkhead Community Council
Gorgie is a densely populated area of Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located in the west of the city and borders Murrayfield, the name is thought to be Brythonic in origin. Early forms suggest it derives from gor gyn – upper wedge – which may refer to the shape of the land between the Water of Leith and the Craiglockhart hills. An alternative derivation is big field from Cumbric gor cyn, Gorgie is recorded in 12th century charters of Holyrood Abbey, when in 1236 it came into the possession of Sir William Livingston. In 1799, the Cox family who owned a mill bought most of the estate from the residual Livingston family. They developed a factory on the site, which was redeveloped under a new Post Office Telecommunications telephone exchange in 1969. From 1527, the landowners lived in Gorgie House, situated on Alexander Drive and its remnants were demolished in 1937, to allow construction of the Pooles Roxy cinema and some housing. Gorgie developed at a slower pace than nearby Dalry, allowing the operation of the 10 acres Gorgie pig farm until 1885.
By 1800, only the area between Robertson Avenue and Saughton Park had any housing, served by a school and a church mission, the distillery gained access to the Edinburgh Suburban and Southside Junction Railway, which began developing a railway station in Gorgie. McVitie & Price Ltd was established in 1830 on Rose Street in Edinburgh, the firm moved to various sites in the city, before completing the St. Andrews Biscuit Works factory on Robertson Avenue in 1888. Though the factory burned down in 1894, it was rebuilt the same year and it is one of the claimed sites of where the digestive biscuit was invented. The site was closed in 1969, when production ceased and operations were transferred to Levenshulme in Manchester, after closure, Ferranti occupied the buildings as an electronics factory until the 1980s. In 1906, pharmaceutical research company T&H Smith Ltd moved from Canongate to the district, now merged with two other Edinburgh-based medical research companies, they form leading global medicinal-opiate producer MacFarlan Smith.
The chemical plant of Coxs glue and gelatin works, and the Caledonian Brewery developed in the area, most of the large industrial works closed from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, bringing high unemployment to the area. The recent refurbishment of many of the buildings has brought a more cosmopolitan nature to the district. There is a school, Tynecastle High School. Gorgie City Farm was established by people in 1982 on the site of a derelict railway goods yard. Set up as a community project with the aim of improving education in agriculture, horticulture, in 2012 Gorgie was the centre of a Legionaires Disease outbreak believed to originate from factory cooling towers in the area
Arrol-Johnston was an early Scottish manufacturer of automobiles, which operated from 1896 to 1931 and produced the first automobile manufactured in Britain. The company developed the worlds first off-road vehicle for the Egyptian government, george Johnston was by training a locomotive engineer from Neilson and Company Limited of Springburn, Glasgow. Johnston was commissioned by Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1894 to build an experimental steam-powered tramcar to replace their fleet of horse-drawn trams, during a final test before a Corporation committee, it caught fire and work was abandoned. The first British-built motor car was conceived and by the end of 1895 was ready for financial backing. In the autumn of that year Johnston was joined by Norman Osborne Fulton and his first task was the development of electrical ignition in place of the incandescent platinum tubes of the Daimler engine. In 1895 Johnston formed a joint venture with Sir William Arrol, an engineer of the Forth Bridge to form the Mo-Car Syndicate Limited, which was to produce his car.
Sir William was Chairman and Johnston was Managing Director, and the Syndicate included a Mr. Archibald Coats, Sir Williams main interest in the business was as the financial backer. The first Arrol-Johnston car was a six-seater Dogcart, which went into production at a factory at Camlachie, the Dogcart was a wood-bodied vehicle powered by a 10 hp flat-twin horizontally opposed engine with four pistons mounted beneath the floor, which was started by pulling on a rope. The vehicle boasted chain final drive and its high-wheeled, solid-tyred and brake control levers were mounted close to the drivers right hand. The companys Camlachie premises were destroyed by fire in 1901, in 1902 William Beardmore took the largest single shareholding in the company, creating a captive customer for his iron and steel components. He became Chairman when A-J became a public company, A-J was restructured financially in 1903. New finance, mainly from Beardmore, became available, Beardmore wishing to help the firm stave off bankruptcy, george Johnston left as a result of a disagreement and founded the All British Car Company, a venture that was to be short-lived.
A-J became effectively a wholly owned subsidiary of William Beardmore and Company In 1905 the companys name was changed to the Arrol-Johnston Car Company Ltd. In the same year, the company introduced a 3023cc 12/15hp model of modern appearance. There was a version of the dogcart, this was an uncouth 16 hp with the centre cylinder being of greater bore than the outer two. A1905 Dogcart with solid disc wheels still survives in Khartoum. In 1906 came the 24/30 hp vertical four of 4654cc, followed in 1907 by the 38/45 hp of 8832 cc, the 12/15 hp twin survived in production until 1909. This was the year that T. C, pullinger joined Arrol-Johnston, he swept out the old range in favour of the new 15·9 hp of 2835cc
Dalry is an area of the Scottish capital city of Edinburgh. It is located close to the city centre, between Haymarket and Gorgie, the area is now primarily residential. It is centred around Dalry Road, which has shops, restaurants. By the early 21st century most of the industry of Dalry has disappeared, the name Dalry may derive from Dail Rig or Dail Ruigh, Scottish Gaelic for the Place of the Fields or Kings Field respectively. Field of the heather from Dail and Scottish Gaelic fhraoich, has suggested as a derivation. Dalry is centred on Dalry Road, which is the beginning of the A70 road, the area is often mentioned along with the neighbouring area of Gorgie to the southwest, and the joint name Gorgie-Dalry is commonly used by the City of Edinburgh Council. The border with Gorgie runs through the site of the North British Distillery in one area. The area of Fountainbridge, with the Union Canal marks the boundary of Dalry. Fountainbridge is accessed via the Telfer Subway, an underground passage which passes underneath the citys West Approach Road.
Dalry borders the Edinburgh areas of Ardmillan to the south, Roseburn to the north-west, Dalry has become an increasingly popular residential area in recent years, and has a range of shops and leisure facilities. Princes Street, in central Edinburgh, is ten to fifteen minutes walk from the area, many of Edinburghs major employers are within walking distance. The nearest railway station is Haymarket railway station, which is located adjacent to the northern boundary of Dalry. Dalry is first recorded around 1328, which together with Merchiston were owned by William Bisset, Dalry Mill was located on these lands and is stated to have existed in various forms from at least 1478 to sometime in the mid-18th century. The mill was engaged in paper production in 1590, the first paper mill recorded to exist in Scotland. The Edinburgh Paper mill produced white writing and printing papers as a result of the growth in the city centre printing and banking industries. With the exception of the mill the area was agricultural land.
The former mansion house, Dalry House, built about 1661 still exists, the house, once set in extensive grounds, is now surrounded by tenements and is located on Orwell Terrace. It was built probably for and owned and occupied by the Chiesley family, the house was reputedly haunted by a member of the family called John Chiesley
Robert William Thomson
Robert William Thomson, from Stonehaven, was the original inventor of the pneumatic tyre. Born in Stonehaven in the north east of Scotland, Robert was the eleventh of twelve children of a woollen mill owner. His family wished him to study for the ministry but Robert refused and he left school at the age of 14 and went to live with an uncle in Charleston, United States, where he was apprenticed to a merchant. Two years he returned home and taught chemistry, electricity. He served an apprenticeship in Aberdeen and Dundee before joining a civil engineering company in Glasgow. Thomson next worked as a engineer and supervised the blasting of chalk cliffs near Dover for the South Eastern Railway. Soon he set up his own consultancy business and proposed the line for the Eastern Counties Railway which was accepted by Parliament. Thomson was only 23 years old when he patented his pneumatic tyre and he was granted a patent in France in 1846 and in the US in 1847. His tyre consisted of a belt of India-rubber inflated with air so that the wheels presented a cushion of air to the ground.
This elastic belt of rubberised canvas was enclosed within an outer casing of leather which was bolted to the wheel. Thomsons Aerial Wheels were demonstrated in Londons Regents Park in March 1847 and were fitted to several horse-drawn carriages, greatly improving the comfort of travel, one set ran for 1200 miles without sign of deterioration. Thomson married Clara Hertz at Java, they had two sons & two daughters
The term tenement originally referred to tenancy and therefore to any rented accommodation. In Scotland, it continues to be the most common word for a multiple-occupancy building, late 19th-century social reformers in the U. S. were hostile to both tenements and apartment houses. The adapted buildings were known as rookeries, and were a particular concern as they were prone to collapse. Mulberry Bend and Five Points were the sites of notorious rookeries that the city worked for decades to clear, in both rookeries and purpose-built tenements, communal water taps and water closets were squeezed into what open space there was between buildings. In parts of the Lower East Side, buildings were older and had courtyards, generally occupied by shops, stables. Prior to the 1867 law, tenements often covered more than 90 percent of the lot, were five or six stories high, yards were a few feet wide and filled with privies where they had not been entirely eliminated. Early housing reformers urged the construction of tenements to replace cellars, and beginning in 1859 the number of people living in cellars began to decline.
This was amended by the Tenement House Act of 1879, known as the Old Law, which required lot coverage of no more than 65 percent. ”The New York City Board of Health, empowered to enforce the regulations, declined to do so. As a compromise, the Old Law tenement became the standard, this had a shape, with air and light shafts on either side in the center. Public concern about New York tenements was stirred by the publication in 1890 of Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives and it used both charts and photographs, the first such official use of photographs. Together with the publication in 1895 by the U. S and these rules are still the basis of New York City law on low-rise buildings, and made single-lot development uneconomical. The Lower East Side Tenement Museum, a brick former tenement building in Manhattan that is a National Historic Site, is a museum devoted to tenements in the Lower East Side. Tenements make up a percentage of the housing stock of Edinburgh. Edinburghs tenements are much older, dating from the 17th century onwards, and some were up to 15 storeys high when first built, which made them among the tallest houses in the world at that time.
Glasgow tenements were built no taller than the width of the street on which they were located, therefore. Virtually all Glasgow tenements were constructed using red or blonde sandstone, a large number of the tenements in Edinburgh and Glasgow were demolished in the 1960s and 1970s because of slum conditions and poor maintenance of the buildings. The Gorbals is a small area and at one time had an estimated 90,000 people living in its tenements, leading to very poor living conditions. However, the many remaining tenements in areas of both cities have experienced a resurgence in popularity due to their large rooms, high ceilings
Multiplex (movie theater)
A multiplex is a movie theater complex with multiple screens within a single complex. They are usually housed in a designed building. Sometimes, an existing venue undergoes a renovation where the existing auditoriums are split into smaller ones, the largest of these complexes can sit thousands of people and are sometimes referred to as a megaplex. Megaplex theaters always have stadium seating, and may have other amenities not found at smaller movie theaters. Multiplex theatres often feature regular seating, in about 1915 two adjacent theatres in Moncton, New Brunswick, under the same ownership were converted to share a single entrance on Main Street. There were separate ticket booths once patrons entered the door and different programs were shown, the arrangement was so unusual that it was featured by Robert Ripley in his Believe It or Not. In 1937 James Edwards twinned his Alhambra Theater in the Los Angeles area by converting an adjacent storefront into a second annex screen, while both screens would show the same feature movie, one would offer a double bill.
It did not convert to showing different movies on both screens until some time after Taylor, the main screen remained the Patricia Theatre and the Patricia Annex became known as the Little Patricia. In December 1947 Nat Taylor, the operator of the Elgin Theatre in Ottawa, opened a smaller second theater next door to his first theater. It was not until 1957, that Taylor decided to run different movies in each theater, Taylor opened dual-screen theaters in 1962 in Place Ville Marie in Montreal, and at Yorkdale Plaza in Toronto, Ontario, in 1964. The programming was coordinated, so one of them showed documentary. While the other was showing feature films and they were in use at least until the 1990s. AMC followed up on the Parkway Twin with a theater in 1966. Durwoods insight was that one box office and one stand could easily serve two attached auditoriums. In 1965 Martins Westgate Cinemas became one of the first indoor two-screen theaters in Atlanta, located in East Point, Georgia, it was converted into a three-screen venue after a fire partially destroyed one of the theaters.
The Disney family film Those Calloways had its premier at the Westgate. Opening in April 1979, the 18-screen Cineplex, co-founded by Nat Taylor in Torontos Eaton Centre and it was expanded to 21 screens by at least 1981. In November 1988, Kinepolis Brussels opened with 25 screens, and is credited as being the first megaplex
The name War Office is given to the former home of the department, the War Office building located at the junction of Horse Guards Avenue and Whitehall in central London. During August 2013 it was announced that the former War Office building would be sold on the open market. The War Office developed from the Council of War, an ad hoc grouping of the King and his military commanders which managed the Kingdom of Englands frequent wars. It was equivalent to the Admiralty, responsible for the Royal Navy, and the Air Ministry, the department had several London homes until it settled at Horse Guards in Whitehall during 1722, where it was to remain until 1858. The first War Office Secretary at War is usually said to have been William Blathwayt and it was, however, a fairly minor government job which dealt with the minutiae of administration rather than grand strategy. Issues of strategic policy during wartime were managed by the Northern and Southern Departments, from 1704 to 1855, the job of Secretary was possessed by a minister of the second rank, although he was occasionally part of the Cabinet.
Many of his responsibilities were transferred to the Secretary of State for War after the creation of more senior post during 1794. The job of Secretary at War was merged with that of the Secretary of State for War during 1855, during 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished as a result of its perceived poor performance during the Crimean War. This powerful independent body, dating from the 15th century, had directed by the Master-General of the Ordnance. The disastrous campaigns of the Crimean War resulted in the consolidation of all duties during 1855 as subordinate to the Secretary of State for War. He was not, solely responsible for the Army and this was reduced in theory by the reforms introduced by Edward Cardwell during 1870, which subordinated the Commander-in-Chief to the Secretary for War. His resistance to reform caused military efficiency to lag well behind that of Britains rivals, the management of the War Office was hampered by persistent disputes between the civilian and military parts of the organisation.
The government of H. H. Asquith attempted to resolve this during the First World War by appointing Lord Kitchener as Secretary for War, making him the first, this was thought unsatisfactory, during his tenure, the Imperial General Staff was virtually dismantled. Its role was replaced effectively by the Committee of Imperial Defence, the War Office decreased greatly in importance after the First World War, a fact illustrated by the drastic reductions of its staff numbers during the inter-war period. On 1 April 1920, it employed 7,434 civilian staff and its responsibilities and funding were reduced. During 1936, the government of Stanley Baldwin appointed a Minister for Co-ordination of Defence, when Winston Churchill became Prime Minister during 1940, he bypassed the War Office altogether and appointed himself Minister of Defence. Clement Attlee continued this arrangement when he came to power during 1945, during 1964, the present form of the Ministry of Defence was established, unifying the War Office and Air Ministry.
The records of the War Office are kept by The National Archives with the code WO and it contains about 1,000 rooms across seven floors, linked by 2½ miles of corridors