Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km from Paris, it is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City"; the Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris and Marseille, ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley, it hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre, the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites have a significant presence in Toulouse; the University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city; the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania. It is now the capital of the second largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose, Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi, the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate, with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone; the Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.
Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, Muslims occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade won the Battle of Tours called the Battle of Poitiers; the Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops; the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded.
Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel. In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France; the county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. In 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started, they found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls; the fear of repression obliged the notabilities to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 4
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Groupe Lucien Barrière
Groupe Barrière operates casinos in France and elsewhere in Europe. The group operates in the French luxury hotel industry and in the catering and leisure industries. 1912-1951: re-inventing the Deauville and La Baule seaside resortsAs a young man from Ardèche who came up to Paris in the early 20th century, François André started a casino business by acquiring the Ostend casino in Belgium, while Eugène Cornuché, his partner, began building the Hôtel Normandy and having the Deauville casino rebuilt in 1912. In 1918, François André set up the Haussmann gaming circle in Paris and continued to grow his business by designing the La Baule resort based on the Deauville model and by purchasing the Hôtel Royal and casino in 1923, he invented the modern day resort concept by combining casinos, luxury hotels and sports facilities all on one site. In 1926, François André took on the construction of the Hôtel Hermitage at La Baule. 1927, he took over from Eugène Cornuché as managing director of SHCD. He had the Hôtel du Golf in Deauville built.
1951-1987 - Groupe Lucien Barrière’s founding and development throughout FranceIn 1951, Lucien Barrière, François André’s nephew, joined the group. In 1957 Lucien Barrière was appointed to the Board of several of the group’s entities and became his uncle’s sole legal heir in 1961, he undertook a project to modernise and develop the group by buying new establishments in Trouville, Dinard, St-Malo and Enghien-les-Bains. In 1980, SHCLB was founded to cover the La Baule casinos. In 1987, Lucien Barrière participated in the arrival of slot machines in France. 1990-2000:In the early 1990s, Accor became a major SHCLB shareholder. In 1990, Diane Barrière-Desseigne succeeded her father, Lucien Barrière, launched major renovation projects. On top of their prestige, the hotels are connected to the film industry and the Arts; the elite figures of the film industry visit the Normandy Barrière and the Royal Barrière during the American Film Festival in Deauville. In 1995, Diane Barrière-Desseigne suffered a serious plane accident and from 1997, her husband Dominique Desseigne co-managed the SHCD and SHCLB at her side.
In 1998, SHCD bought Fouquet's brand. Diane Barrière-Desseigne died in 2001. Dominique Desseigne took over group management and became chairman of SFCMC. Since 2001: Under the chairmanship of Dominique Desseigne, the SHCD and the SHCLB took on a new dimension with the first international developments. In 2003, SHCLB opened the Casino Barrière de Montreux in Switzerland, which became the leading casino in Switzerland in 2008 in terms of total gross gaming takings. During the same year, SHCD took over the Ryads Resort Development, owner of the land on which the Hôtel Naoura Barrière in Marrakech was built, supported by top ranking investors who purchased an equity stake in Ryads Resort Development. In 2004, the Desseigne-Barrière family and Colony Capital investment funds decided to team up as Société Hôtelière de la Chaîne Lucien Barrière, subsequently renamed Groupe Lucien Barrière, which combined the businesses of SHCD, SHCLB and Accor Casinos to create a prestigious casino and hotel group.
Since 2005, the expansion has continued with the opening of casinos in Toulouse, Leucate and Lille, the opening of the Naoura Barrière in Marrakech, Hôtel Fouquet’s Barrière in Paris and the Spark in Enghien-les-Bains. The Hôtel Barrière Lille will open during autumn 2010 and the hotel complex and balneo-therapy centre adjoining the Casino Barrière de Ribeauvillé is forecast to open late 2011. During the same period, the public service concessions of the Barrière Casinos in La Baule, Deauville, Saint-Malo, Nice and Saint Raphaël were renewed, which reveals the confidence these towns place in the group. On 15 April 2009, Colony Capital sold its Groupe Lucien Barrière shares to Accor, which now holds a 49% equity stake in the company. In 2010, Groupe Lucien Barrière and Française des Jeux designed an on-line gaming platform with 3D online gaming, called LB Poker company. Barrière includes 18 hotels, with a majority of hotels ranked as five star. Paris Hotel Barrière Le Fouquet's Paris***** Deauville Hotel Barrière Le Normandy ***** Hotel Barrière Le Royal Deauville***** Hôtel du Golf **** Cannes Hotel Barrière Le Majestic Cannes ***** Le Gray D'Albion Barrière ***** Courchevel Hotel Barrière Les Neiges Courchevel ***** Dinard Grand Hôtel Dinard***** Enghien-les-Bains Grand Hôtel Enghien **** Hôtel du Lac**** Le Touquet Le Westminster **** La Baule Castel Marie-Louise ***** Le Royal La Baule ***** L' Hermitage ***** Marrakech Hôtel & Ryads Le Naoura ***** Lille Resort Barrière Lille ***** Ribeauvillé Resort Barrière Ribeauvillé **** Saint Barthélemy Hôtel Barrière Le Carl Gustaf ***** The 37 casinos are located in resorts along the French coast and in major cities.
La Baule, Bénodet, Besançon, Blotzheim, Briançon, Carry-le-Rouet, Chamonix, Deauville, Enghien-les-Bains, Leucate, Menton, Nice Le Ruhl, Ouistreham, Perros-Guirec, Ribeauvillé, La Rochelle, Les Sables d'Olonne, Saint-Malo, Sainte-Maxime, Saint-Raphaël, Toulouse, Le Touquet and Trouville. Courrendlin and Montreux. Cairo. Groupe Lucien Barrière has 131 bars and restaurants throughout the group’s casinos and hotels, which range from snacks to 5-star cuisine, as well as Fouquet’s brasseries in Paris and Marrakech. Spark, sport et spa - Enghien-les-Bains Le Spa Diane Barrière de l’Hôtel Barrière Le Fouquet's – Paris Le Spa
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, 1.9 kilometres long and 70 metres wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés, luxury shops, for the annual Bastille Day military parade, as the finish of the Tour de France cycle race; the name is French for the Elysian Fields, the paradise for dead heroes in Greek mythology. Champs-Élysées is regarded to be one of the most recognisable avenues in the world; the avenue runs for 1.91 km through the 8th arrondissement in northwestern Paris, from the Place de la Concorde in the east, with the Obelisk of Luxor, to the Place Charles de Gaulle in the west, location of the Arc de Triomphe. The Champs-Élysées forms part of the Axe historique; the lower part of the Champs-Élysées, from the Place de la Concorde to the Rond-Point, runs through the Jardin des Champs-Élysées, a park which contains the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Théâtre Marigny, several restaurants and monuments.
The Élysée Palace, the official residence of the Presidents of France, borders the park, but is not on the Avenue itself. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe, built to honour the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte; until the reign of Louis XIV, the land where the Champs-Élysées runs today was occupied by fields and kitchen gardens. The Champs-Élysées and its gardens were laid out in 1667 by André Le Nôtre as an extension of the Tuileries Garden, the gardens of the Tuileries Palace, built in 1564, which Le Nôtre had rebuilt in his own formal style for Louis XIV in 1664. Le Nôtre planned a wide promenade between the palace and the modern Rond Point, lined with two rows of elm trees on either side, flowerbeds in the symmetrical style of the French formal garden; the new boulevard was called the "Grand Cours", or "Grand Promenade". It did not take the name of Champs-Élysées until 1709. In 1710 the avenue was extended beyond the Rond-Pont as far as the modern Place d'Étoile. In 1765 the garden was remade in the Le Nôtre style by Abel François Poisson, the marquis de Marigny, brother of the Madame de Pompadour and Director-General of the King's Buildings.
Marigny extended the avenue again in 1774 as far as the modern Porte Maillot. By the late 18th century, the Champs-Élysées had become a fashionable avenue; the gardens of the town houses of the nobility built along the Faubourg Saint-Honoré backed onto the formal gardens. The grandest of the private mansions near the Avenue was the Élysée Palace, a private residence of the nobility which during the Third French Republic became the official residence of the Presidents of France. Following the French Revolution, two equestrian statues, made in 1745 by Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou, were transferred from the former royal palace at Marly and placed at the beginning of the boulevard and park. After the downfall of Napoleon and the restoration of the French monarchy, the trees had to be replanted, because the occupation armies of the Russians and Prussians during the Hundred Days had camped in the park and used the trees for firewood; the avenue from the Rond-Point to the Étoile was built up during the Empire.
The Champs-Élysées itself became city property in 1828, footpaths and gas lighting were added. In 1834, under King Louis Philippe, the architect Mariano Ruiz de Chavez was commissioned to redesign the Place de la Concorde and the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, he kept the formal gardens and flowerbeds intact, but turned the garden into a sort of outdoor amusement park, with a summer garden café, the Alcazar d'eté, two restaurants, the Ledoyen and the restaurant de l'Horloge. He placed several ornamental fountains around the park, of which three are still in place; the major monument of the Boulevard, the Arc de Triomphe, had been commissioned by Napoleon after his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, but it was not finished when he fell from power in 1815. The monument remained unfinished until 1833-36. In 1855 Emperor Napoleon III selected the park at the beginning of the avenue as the site of the first great international exposition to be held in Paris, the Exposition Universelle; the park was the location of the Palace of Industry, a giant exhibit hall which covered thirty thousand square meters, where the Grand Palais is today.
In 1858, following the Exposition, the Emperor's prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, had the gardens transformed from a formal French garden into a picturesque English style garden, based on a small town called Southport, with groves of trees and winding paths. The rows of elm trees, which were in poor health, were replaced by rows of chestnut trees; the park served again as an exposition site during the Universal Exposition of 1900. It became the home of a new panorama theater, designed by Gabriel Davioud, the chief architect of Napoleon III, in 1858; the modern theater Marigny was built by Charles Garnier, architect of the Paris Opera, in 1883. Throughout its history, the avenue has been the site of military parades.